Click on author name to view affiliation information



A Colorado State University research team devised a dart delivery technique to administer an immunocontraceptive vaccine to wild horses. (Courtesy of Dan L. Baker, PhD)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


Colorado State University recently released a study touting the use of the GonaCon-Equine immunocontraceptive vaccine as a longer-lasting solution to decreasing fertility in wild horses.

The CSU research team first vaccinated mares at the Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota in 2009 and saw a modest decline in foaling. Researchers decided to re-administer the vaccine to the same mares in 2013.

“No one had tried revaccinating with GonaCon-Equine and it's proving to be much more successful than we expected. … It has been about 90 percent effective for going on four years now,” said Dan L. Baker, PhD, co-principal investigator on the project and an affiliate faculty member in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the CSU College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences.

The vaccine produces antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which prevents the mares from ovulating and from displaying sexual behavior, said Terry M. Nett, PhD, co-principal investigator on the project and a professor in the CVMBS' Department of Biomedical Sciences.

This new vaccine could aid in better controlling the population of wild horses. The number of wild horses and burros that can live in balance with the ecology of public lands is 27,000 but there are currently 82,000 wild horses and burros living on public lands, according to the Bureau of Land Management.


The Merck Veterinary Manual has added a series of video interviews with its editorial board members to its collection of digital resources. Board members discuss their personal experiences in veterinary medicine, provide career advice, and explore current issues in animal health.

The interviews feature Drs. Peter D. Constable, dean of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine; Peter R. Davies, a professor of swine health at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine; and Katherine E. Quesenberry, head of avian and exotic pet medicine at the Animal Medical Center in New York City.

The interviews are available at www.merckvetmanual.com by clicking on “Editorial Board” under the “About” tab.


Veterinarians across many practice types and demographic categories experience widespread ethical conflict and moral distress, according to a study published Oct. 15 in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

A survey of nearly 900 current and former practicing veterinarians in the U.S. and Canada found a majority felt conflicted over appropriate patient care. Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported being asked to provide care they considered futile, and more than 70 percent reported having no training in conflict resolution or self-care.

“Our findings show that many veterinarians are distressed and anxious about their work and are troubled by many of the requests that are made of them,” the study authors wrote. “Many feel like they are just ‘going through the motions’ and although many are troubled, very few receive any professional help. The majority of respondents who do take action to cope with their distress talk with colleagues or others, presumably informally, instead of seeking professional help.”

The authors concluded that ethical conflict and resulting moral distress may be an important source of stress and poor well-being among veterinarians that is neither widely recognized nor well-defined. They encouraged the adoption of tools used to decrease moral distress in human health care workers.

The study is available at https://jav.ma/DisStudy.

Please send comments and story ideas to JAVMANews@avma.org.

Lowering hurdles of licenses

Government, veterinary coalitions try to ease licensing barriers across states

By Greg Cima

Government and veterinary leaders are trying to make it easier for professionals to keep working when they change states.

Veterinary associations, governors, legislators, and federal trade regulators are running a mix of projects to reduce the work people need to do to meet state job licensing requirements. At the same time, legislators in a dozen states have proposed revising or reviewing professional licensing rules, raising concerns in veterinary organizations that veterinary technicians could become targets.

Federal Trade Commission officials published a policy paper this fall that encourages state authorities to improve license portability for a wide spectrum of professions. Licensing of many professions protects the public, but state-by-state job licensing requirements burden people who want to sell services or live in another state, the document states.


James Penrod, executive director of the American Association of Veterinary State Boards, said association staff are trying to simplify the process of licensing veterinarians and veterinary technicians already recognized in other states.

For 20 years, the association has given licensing boards background information on veterinarians and veterinary technicians through its Veterinary Information Verifying Agency database, which contains scores from licensing examinations and other credentials. AAVSB staff now are building on that database with the Veterinary Application for Uniform Licensure Transfer program.

The VAULT is intended as a single source for license application information, including primary source documents and discipline history. Penrod provided information that indicates VAULT reduces efforts needed to gather and coordinate information for license review, and the AAVSB guarantees that documents sent to boards are authentic.

Veterinary boards from eleven states are using VAULT, and representatives from 14 more have expressed interest, Penrod said.


The National Conference of State Legislatures, Council of State Governments, and National Governors Association also are examining state licensing rules in a three-year project backed by $7.5 million from the Department of Labor. The organizations together represent state legislators, governors, judges, and employees.

In the project, elected officials and staff representatives from 11 states are studying how state rules vary for 34 jobs, including veterinary technicians. All of the jobs are growing professions that require less than four-year degrees and are regulated in at least 30 states.

An NCSL report from January notes that people without four-year degrees have higher unemployment rates. The most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics data indicate that, as of August 2018, unemployment rates for people 25 and older ranged from 3.5 percent among people with associate degrees to 5.7 percent among people with less than a high school diploma.

Suzanne Hultin, director of the Employment, Labor & Retirement Program for the National Conference of State Legislatures, said the project of examining state licensing rules helps policymakers research effects of license requirements on people such as military veterans and their spouses, immigrants who have work authorization, and people with criminal histories. The project is helping policymakers connect with experts and learn from one another, she said.

But people have mistaken the focus on the 34 professions for a “hit list” for deregulation, Hultin said.

“You could argue that, if it's licensed in 30 or more states, chances are there's a reason for that,” Hultin said. “It's more the occupations that are licensed in one or two states that people tend to question a little bit more.”

The National Conference of State Legislatures plans to publish a final report on the project by December 2019.

A 2017 NCSL report states that about 25 percent of people employed in the U.S. have job licenses, up from about 5 percent in the 1950s, and state rules frustrate people who want to work and increase costs. The authors noted a few actions by state leaders.

In 2016, Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey signed a law that eliminated licenses for a variety of jobs including citrus fruit packer and yoga instructor, the report states. The same year, the Georgia and Illinois governments directed state agencies to let people with criminal records work in licensed jobs when their convictions are unrelated to the work.

Penrod of the AAVSB said that, in 2018, legislators in at least 15 states introduced legislation that would revise professional licensing rules. His organization has tried to help member boards teach legislators why licensing requirements are important in the veterinary profession.

Penrod said legislatures seldom remove license requirements, and he thinks it's unlikely to happen to veterinary technicians in those states where licenses are required. But he has heard rhetoric from elected officials who want to reduce licensing requirements.

Some jobs targeted in the past decade by governors and legislators include talent agent, hair braider, potato shipper, motor vehicle salesperson, ballroom dance instructor, and animal masseuse, according to bill text, announcements, and a 2012 report from the Institute of Justice.


In a Sept. 24 report from the FTC Economic Liberty Task Force, the authors urge policymakers to reduce or eliminate licensing mandates that erect barriers and increase prices without improving quality or protecting public health and safety.

“There is little justification for the burdensome, costly, and redundant licensing processes that many states impose on qualified, licensed, out-of-state applicants,” the report states. “Such requirements likely inhibit multistate practice and delay or even prevent licensees from working in their occupations upon relocation to a new state.”

The Department of Health and Human Services is giving professional licensing boards money to develop licensing compacts in the health professions, the report states. For example, 24 states and one U.S. territory are participating in the Interstate Medical Licensure Compact, which expedites physician licensing.

Earlier this year, the AVMA, AAVSB, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, and National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America signed a joint statement that the licensing of veterinarians and veterinary technicians protects the health, safety, and well-being of people and animals and ensures those working in veterinary medicine are competent, up to date on training, and working in clinics that meet standards.

“Public protection through licensure is equally essential for fields where public health may be impacted,” the organizations said. “Veterinary professionals play a key role in disease prevention, identification and treatment of zoonotic diseases, ensuring the safety of food and feed, dog bite injury prevention, animal control, and ensuring the functional health of working animals, such as service dogs.”

The statement also argues that, rather than licensing preventing competition and imposing unnecessary costs, some research indicates licensing increases the supply of qualified workers and access to professions.

AVMA Deputy CEO Adrian Hochstadt said the organizations wrote the statement when the AAVSB raised concerns that licensing was under attack. Lawmakers have proposed not only removing licensing for some professions but also imposing review cycles for all occupational licenses.

Leaders of the groups see veterinary technician licensing as more vulnerable than veterinarian licensing, he said.

FTC information notes efforts since 2011 to review job licensing in several states, such as a 2011–12 review in Michigan of which occupations should remain licensed and proposals since 2016 in Delaware and Wisconsin to review which job licenses are in the public interest.

In July 2017, House and Senate Republicans introduced bills to give licensing boards immunity from antitrust laws if they develop systems to review their regulations and, when considering adding license requirements, study less-restrictive alternatives. Neither bill has received any votes.

Hochstadt said the AVMA is learning from and supporting partners in veterinary medicine. The AVMA is preparing in case legislators challenge license requirements next year.

The joint statement notes that NAVTA leaders have been working to standardize veterinary technician credentials. Mary Berg, immediate past president for NAVTA, said license portability is among the concerns her organization is trying to address through the Veterinary Nurse Initiative, which involves standardizing professional credentials and adoption of the title of veterinary nurse.

Berg said she and other NAVTA leaders had heard concerns that states could consider removing veterinary technician licensing requirements, and she sees reason for concern.

Veterinary technicians need to be licensed or registered in 37 states, according to lists from NAVTA and the NCSL, but there are about a dozen where credentialing isn't mandatory.

The AAVSB has distributed a document that describes the health care procedures performed by veterinary technicians with little to no supervision and the ways technicians reduce potential harms to patients, clinics, veterinary professions, and the public.

Penrod said legislators could help protect the public by introducing bills where veterinary technicians are not licensed. But he said his organization and its members are educators, and it is up to other parts of the veterinary profession to advocate.


By Greg Cima

A veterinarian in Texas is challenging, for the second time, state rules against giving medical advice without first performing an in-person examination.

Dr. Ronald S. Hines gave pet owners medical advice by phone, video call, and email until 2012. The Texas Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners told him that was illegal because the state requires a physical examination of patients, and he sued in 2013.

Appellate court justices ruled against Dr. Hines in 2015, finding that the board has authority to regulate his advice to pet owners as professional conduct, and the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear his case. In October 2018, he filed a second complaint, arguing that a June 2018 Supreme Court ruling in a separate case will change the outcome for him.

In National Institute of Family and Life Advocates v. Becerra, a five-justice majority ruled in favor of anti-abortion organizations that challenged a California law that required disclosures to women who came to their pregnancy services clinics. The majority ruled that the law was unduly burdensome in requiring that clinic staff tell women about free or low-cost state services, including abortions, and notify women if the clinics lack licensing to provide medical services.

Andrew Ward, one of Dr. Hines' attorneys through the Institute for Justice, said appellate courts ruled before that professional speech was subject to different rules than most other speech, but he said the Supreme Court ruling indicates speech by professionals retains constitutional protections. He argues that Texas lacks sufficient reason to prohibit Dr. Hines' speech related to medical advice.

Citing current technology, research, and state and federal regulations, the AVMA advises that veterinary telemedicine—medicine conducted at a distance—should follow an in-person examination to establish a veterinarian-client-patient relationship, with the exception of emergencies.

Michelle Griffin, general counsel for the TBVME, said she and others with the board could not comment on the pending litigation.

In his complaint filed in the Southern District of Texas, Dr. Hines says he wrote about 400 articles about pet health and care and published them on his website, www.2ndchance.info. Pet owners sought his help, and he asked for medical records or referred people to veterinarians when records were unavailable.

The complaint also describes consultations for people who wanted second opinions, were unable to find local veterinarians, or needed help finding inexpensive care.

Dr. Hines said he expects no personal benefits from the lawsuit. He is 75 years old, with limited mobility from a spinal injury endured 40 years ago, he said.

But younger veterinarians could offer excellent remote services, he said.

Mind the pay gaps

By Kaitlyn Mattson


Clinton L. Neill, PhD, presents data on wage gaps in veterinary medicine at the 2018 AVMA Economic Summit in Rosemont, Illinois. (Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Wage gaps among various groups of veterinarians are best thought of as a Rubik's Cube, according to Clinton L. Neill, PhD—there are a lot of factors and moving parts involved in identifying and solving the gaps.

The gender pay gap has received the most attention because women comprise a majority of the profession. But other gaps exist. For example, male or female, veterinarians who are parents make less money than veterinarians who are not. And, although minority groups likely also experience pay gaps, data are lacking.

Speaking at the 2018 AVMA Economic Summit, Oct. 22–23 in Rosemont, Illinois, Dr. Neill said it appears the gender wage gap is relatively small among new veterinarians. For 2018, men who had accepted full-time employment (excluding those in internships and residencies) had a mean starting salary of $85,000, compared with $82,000 for women. That gap in nominal starting salaries by gender has closed in recent years, from 9 percent in 2012 to 3 percent in 2018.

However, the gender pay gap grows over time and is most prominent among veterinarians with incomes over $100,000 across all practice types. There is a 2 to 20 percent disparity, depending on experience level, between men and woman in the upper income brackets. One contributing factor may be that 46.5 percent of those in the upper income range are practice owners, and 59 percent of practice owners are male in this income range.

“We see that females do make less than their male counterparts,” Dr. Neill said. “What is even more interesting is that … those that do have children, whether male or female, see lower incomes on the average.“

Dr. Neill, an assistant professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics at the Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, is currently identifying factors related to earning potential for the AVMA.

There may still be unconscious biases within the hiring process, Dr. Neill said. During his research, he brought together six veterinarians and one practice manager for a focus group in the Atlanta area. A key takeaway from that meeting was that veterinarians with young children are likely to receive lower incomes.

“What they're expecting from new hires is for them to be working full time and for that to continue in the long run,” Dr. Neill said. “They don't want somebody that is not going to be there. … Across male and female, these hiring managers brought up that (they) don't want a young vet that has young children, because (they know) their children come first. They perceive that as taking time away from the practice.”

Efforts to close the gender pay gap among veterinarians have included presentations by the AVMA, including talks for Student AVMA members on negotiating salaries.

“As part of our student outreach efforts, the AVMA Student Initiatives Team has been offering one-hour lunch talk presentations on negotiations for over a year to our SAVMA chapters,” said Dr. Caroline Cantner, assistant director for student initiatives in the AVMA Division of Membership and Field Services. “Student AVMA chapters have the opportunity to select this presentation topic for their annual AVMA on-campus meeting, and the presentations have been well-received by Student AVMA members. … We look forward to continuing to provide education around this important topic to veterinary students.”

Other organizations have been involved in efforts to close the gender pay gap, such as the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative, which has given presentations to inform women about how to look for alternative career opportunities, better network with colleagues, and gain leadership skills.


The gap in mean starting salaries between male and female veterinarians has started to close in the past six years.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Source: AVMA Veterinary Economics Division

“Increasing women in leadership roles in our profession will provide valuable role models for women and encourage discussion regarding the wage gap and steps that can be taken to address it,” said Dr. Bridget Heilsberg, president of the WVLDI. “It will only be corrected with consistent messaging over time—and empowering women to ask for higher salaries commensurate with skill and experience, regardless of gender.”

The gender wage gap is not specific to veterinary medicine. Women across the U.S. earned about 82 percent of what men earned in 2017, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of median hourly earnings for part- and full-time workers over the age of 16.

However, while women may be paid less than their male counterparts, minorities across all industries are paid even less on average. In the U.S., black men made $710 and black women made $657 in median weekly earnings in 2017, while white men made $971 and white women made $795, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

In veterinary medicine, some experts report not having enough responses within data sets to make conclusions about pay gaps for minority groups within the profession because of the small number of ethnic minorities working in the veterinary industry. According to the 2017 BLS report “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity,” about 92 percent of the veterinarians in the U.S. are white.

“Small size does not mean you can't get rich data,” said Dr. Michael Bailey, a member of the AVMA Board of Directors and a veterinary radiologist, who is black. “The information is not there because of a lack of academic rigor.”

Dr. Bailey noted that it is possible to measure small groups and said not measuring them is “intellectual dishonesty.”

Veterinary medicine is one of the whitest professions in the nation even as the overall U.S. and global population continues to become more diverse, which raises concerns for Dr. Bailey and should raise concerns for the profession, he said.

“I am representing my profession, but I want my profession to represent me,” Dr. Bailey said.

There have been some efforts to create diversity within the profession. The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges created its DiVersity Matters initiative more than a decade ago, seeking to increase diversity at U.S. veterinary colleges. More recently, Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine, a historically black university, received a $7.1 million federal grant in 2015 to supports its efforts to recruit and train a varied population of veterinary students.


Attendees at the 2018 AVMA Veterinary Economic Summit listened to presentations on the markets for veterinary education, veterinarians, and veterinary services. (Photos by Sarah Beugen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Market for veterinarians still going strong

Story and photo by R. Scott Nolen


There are currently more employment opportunities than job applicants, says Charlotte Hansen with the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, according to data from the AVMA Veterinary Career Center.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

The market for veterinarians remains robust for a third straight year, according to Charlotte Hansen, a statistical analyst with the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division.

All indicators for the veterinary labor market are favorable, said Hansen, who presented on the second day of the 2018 AVMA Economic Summit, held Oct. 22–23 in Rosemont, Illinois. “We see increases in (veterinary) salaries, veterinary unemployment is below the national level, … and we have more jobs than there are applicants applying for those positions,” she explained.

“We have negative underemployment, where there are more veterinarians wanting to work fewer hours for less compensation than there are veterinarians wanting to work more hours for more compensation,” said Hansen, adding that well-being in the profession is generally good.

Prior to Hansen's presentation, Frederic Ouedraogo, PhD, highlighted the growing demand for specialty and emergency and critical care veterinary services. Demand for production animal and wildlife veterinary services is beginning to decline, however. Dr. Ouedraogo, an assistant director in the AVMA's economic division, described the market for veterinary services as consolidating and trending toward larger practices.

Excess capacity remains a substantial challenge for veterinary practices, he said. Excess capacity describes a practice that, for a number of reasons, including failure to fully use examination rooms or veterinary technicians, is producing less than it potentially could. Just over half of all private veterinary practices are characterized by excess capacity, explained Dr. Ouedraogo.


In recent years, the supply of jobs has begun to outnumber applicants available for veterinary employment opportunities for the first time since before the Great Recession. New graduate starting salaries have hit an all-time-high real income level, and a record number of new graduates are finding full-time employment prior to graduation.

In 2017, there was a drop in the number of job applicants applying through the VCC website. This is because AVMA Veterinary Career Center jobs were no longer being posted on another search engine, which would direct the applicant to the VCC website, but the overall story remains that there are more employment opportunities than job applicants.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Source: AVMA VCC

In her presentation, Hansen talked about the net present value of a veterinary degree compared with a bachelor's degree, with net present value representing the present value of the costs and benefits associated with earning a degree. Overall, both men and women earn more with a veterinary degree than those who only obtain a bachelor's degree.

“Female veterinarians, on average, earn $600,000 in today's dollars over their lifetime more than they would have had they stopped at a bachelor's degree, while men with a DVM, on average, earn around $200,000 more than if they had just taken a bachelor's degree,” Hansen said.

Starting salaries for male and female veterinarians continue to climb, said Hansen (see page 1500).

While the national unemployment rate in October was 3.7 percent, only 1.6 percent of surveyed veterinarians reported they were actively seeking work, according to Hansen. In addition, Hansen said more than 6,200 full-time-equivalent veterinarians are needed to satisfy the work hour preferences reported by practitioners.

According to data from the AVMA Veterinary Career Center, the number of job openings for the past year has outpaced the number of applicants. “This is good for veterinarians seeking jobs, but less so for owners of veterinary businesses and consumers of veterinary services,” said Hansen.

The final market indicator the AVMA looked at was well-being. As Hansen explained, the AVMA used the Professional Quality of Life Tool to measure well-being among some 4,000 veterinarians in the following areas: compassion satisfaction—that is, the pleasure derived from work—burnout, and secondary managed stress, which includes fear and work-related trauma.

“Overall, veterinarians are in the average range across all professions for well-being,” she noted.

Salaries, debt for new graduates continue to increase

By Malinda Larkin


Matthew Salois, PhD, director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, emphasized that educational debt is not an issue for the veterinary profession alone, but a bigger and more complicated societal issue. (Photos by Sara Beugen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

The latest figures on salaries and debt for the Class of 2018 show increases in both categories.

In 2014 dollars, the real mean debt of all 2018 graduates from U.S. veterinary colleges, including those without debt, was $143,111, an increase from $133,086 in 2017 and $138,151 in 2016.

Among 2018 graduates with debt, about 35 percent had borrowed $10,000 to $40,000 more than the total cost of education plus interest. Twenty-one percent had borrowed $50,000 to $90,000 above that level, and strikingly 44 percent had borrowed $100,000 or more over the cost of attendance plus interest.

The information was presented by Charlotte Hansen, statistical analyst in the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, during a talk on the “Supply of Educational Services” at the 2018 AVMA Economic Summit, held Oct. 22–23 in Rosemont, Illinois.


Salaries among graduates also continue to increase. In 2014 dollars, real mean starting salary for 2018 U.S. graduates finding full-time employment prior to graduation (weighted to account for changes in gender, practice type, and region) was $76,633, up from $73,626 in 2017 and $72,187 in 2016. Household incomes have risen, so there's more spending on veterinary services, which has resulted in the increase in starting salaries, Hansen said.

The overall debt-to-income ratio among 2018 graduates was 2.26:1, up from 1.85:1 last year. Hansen added that the inclusion in the data set of the two new veterinary colleges at Midwestern University and Lincoln Memorial University (see pages 1508 and 1510) contributed the most to the sharp increase.

Notably, the DIR for graduates of the Caribbean veterinary colleges at Ross University and St. George's University, which have high populations of students from the U.S., differed from the DIR for their colleagues who attended U.S. institutions. However, there was only a 35 to 40 percent response rate from the Caribbean institutions, compared with a 90 percent response rate for the U.S. colleges.

Though the starting salaries hardly differed between U.S. and Caribbean veterinary graduates in 2018, the mean debt for Caribbean veterinary graduates was nearly double that of U.S. graduates—$260,388 in 2018 and $253,734 in 2017. That meant the DIR of new veterinary graduates from Ross and St. George's was 3.37:1 this year. Notably, more than 50 percent of these graduates had a DIR of 4:1 or more. Also, the AVMA mean debt figures include all graduates, even those with zero debt. The mean debt levels of only those graduates with any amount of debt would be much higher.

Much of the information came from the AVMA Senior Survey, conducted each spring among the graduating students of U.S. veterinary colleges accredited by the AVMA Council on Education. The document takes an in-depth look at new-veterinarian incomes, educational debt load, and debt-to-income ratio, among other things.

The 2018 Veterinary Economic Reports are available at https://jav.ma/2018econreports.


The mean income shown is among those respondents with full-time income—excluding those in internships and residencies. The mean debt shown is among all respondents, including those with zero debt.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Source: AVMA Senior Surveys, 2001–18


The VIN Foundation's student debt expert, Dr. Tony Bartels, spoke at the summit about what students and veterinarians can do to better manage their loan debt. He says a majority of borrowers now have a debt-to-income ratio much greater than 1:1, which does not lend itself to traditional repayment methods that involve borrowers trying to pay back the money as fast as they can. Instead, he recommends veterinarians consider income-driven repayment programs, which set a monthly student loan payment at an amount that is intended to be affordable on the basis of income and family size.

For example, with the Pay As You Earn program, borrowers pay 10 percent of their discretionary income each month. After making 240 monthly payments on qualifying direct loans, any remaining balance is forgiven. Because the forgiven amount is treated as taxable income, Dr. Bartels said, “You just have to plan for the tax at the end, and you can even do that as you're paying off the loan. Put money into an account where you can earn a return on your forgiveness savings.”

The VIN Foundation Student Debt Center has a Student Loan Repayment Simulator that helps students and recent graduates figure out the best way to pay off their loans. It is available at www.vinfoundation.com/studentdebtcenter.

“If you pick the right repayment plan sooner than later, this can save you tens of thousands of dollars in the course of repaying,” Dr. Bartels said.

He also made the following recommendations for veterinary students to consider:

  • • Don't pay interest while in school.

  • • Reduce award amounts or return any money borrowed that was not used, which can also decrease the interest and fees associated with borrowing.

  • • No more than 10 to 15 percent of your income should go toward repaying student loans.

  • • If doing an internship or residency, don't defer loans, but start an income-driven repayment program to avoid further capitalization of interest.

  • • Avoid using retirement savings to pay off student loans.

Matthew Salois, PhD, director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, emphasized that educational debt is not an issue for the veterinary profession alone, but a bigger and more complicated societal issue. For context, he said veterinary educational debt accounts for $400 to $500 million compared with the overall $1.5 trillion in educational loan debt in 2018, according to the Federal Reserve. Educational debt is now the second-highest category of consumer debt—behind only mortgage debt—and higher than debt from both credit cards and car loans.

“We often talk about debt in the confines of the veterinary profession, but there is not something inherently wrong with veterinary education; it extends nationally across all disciplines,” he said. “There are things we can do as a veterinary profession to address this, but because it's part of a complicated issue, we have to look beyond the profession in order for it to be addressed.”


Attendees at the 2018 AVMA Economic Summit, held Oct. 22–23 in Rosemont, Illinois, listened to more than 20 presentations.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


By Kaitlyn Mattson


Dr. Thomas K. Graves, dean of Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine, instructs students during a laboratory class. (Photos courtesy of Midwestern University)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

A gathering of students and staff at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine in Glendale, Arizona, erupted with cheers as the news was announced that the veterinary college had become the 29th U.S. institution to receive full accreditation from the AVMA Council on Education.

“It is an incredibly good feeling. It's a very difficult thing to accomplish, and it should be difficult, as far as I am concerned,” said Dr. Thomas K. Graves, dean of the veterinary college. “It was a true team effort here, and that makes it really rewarding.”

The decision came down during the COE's Sept. 23–25 meeting at AVMA headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois.

Midwestern University, a private, nonprofit institution specializing in health care education, announced in March 2012 that it would create Arizona's only veterinary school at its 144-acre central Arizona campus. In 2013, the program received a letter of reasonable assurance of accreditation after a COE site team conducted a consultative site visit in January of that year.

Reasonable assurance is not a pre-accreditation action by the AVMA COE. Rather, for a new institution seeking initial accreditation, such a letter indicates there is reasonable assurance of future accreditation if the program is established according to plans presented to the COE and if the institution is able to demonstrate a realistic plan to comply with the standards of accreditation.

Then, from April 22-May 3 this year, the council sent a site team to do a comprehensive site visit, which informed the COE's decision at its most recent meeting. The council makes accreditation decisions based on its 11 standards, which include such categories as finances, physical facilities, clinical resources, and curriculum.

The status of full accreditation is granted for a period of up to seven years when a veterinary college has no deficiencies in the standards. Veterinary colleges submit annual reports to the COE to demonstrate their continued compliance.

Midwestern has spent about five years working towards this status, but the veterinary college isn't done yet, Dr. Graves said.

“We've identified challenges, things that we need to celebrate, and things that we need to do better,” he said. “This is just a jumping-off point for us to continue to grow in terms of the quality of our program.”

Full accreditation means that members of Midwestern's 2018 graduating class, its first, will retroactively be identified as having received their diplomas from a COE-accredited school.

Midwestern has seen an increase in the number of applicants over the past five years from about 500 to 1,200 annually. Dr. Graves anticipates that number will continue to grow.

“There is a level of comfort, I think, that students have knowing that a program is fully accredited. It will take a while for the applicant pool to realize that, but I think it will increase the number of applicants that we have,” Dr. Graves said.

The inaugural Class of 2018 comprised 90 veterinary students after matriculating 102. Over a quarter of the graduating class will be taking positions in rural areas across the nation, and 23 percent of the graduates will be remaining in Arizona to practice, according to a university press release.

Total four-year tuition for the class was $270,014—the highest among all U.S. veterinary colleges, according to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Cost Comparison Tool.

Midwestern's veterinary college expects its Class of 2023 to number about 110 to 120 students.


Members of the inaugural graduating class from Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine line up to show their appreciation for veterinary faculty, including Dr. Carla Gartrell, associate dean for academic affairs and an associate professor (pictured).

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


By Kaitlyn Mattson and Malinda Larkin


Dr. Jason Johnson, vice president and dean of the LMU College of Veterinary Medicine, standing center on the left side of the beam, and Dr. Pete DeBusk, LMU chairman of the board (on the right side of the beam), gather with members of the university's board of trustees during a beam signing ceremony in December 2017 for the veterinary college's newest building. (Courtesy of LMU)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine in Harrogate, Tennessee, will continue its provisional accreditation status. The veterinary college was working toward potentially receiving full accreditation from the AVMA Council on Education as early as this fall. The decision is based on a comprehensive site visit from March 25–29 and came during the COE's Sept. 23–25 meeting at AVMA headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois.

The council did not release any further information, and the veterinary college declined to comment at this time on the COE decision.

Lincoln Memorial is a nonprofit, private, liberal arts institution that sits on a 1,000-acre wooded campus where Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia meet at the Cumberland Gap. The veterinary college is located on LMU's main campus with additional academic facilities in nearby Lee County, Virginia. The program has developed a hybrid distributive model for clinical education in which students may choose from 150 affiliates in their fourth year while also receiving hands-on experience at its DeBusk Veterinary Teaching Center from the first semester onward.

The veterinary college is in the process of completing a dedicated building for the program. It is three stories high, covers over 85,000 square feet of space, and is due to be finished in January. The facility will include two large lecture halls that can be combined to accommodate over 500 people, 24 communications laboratories, simulation laboratories, basic and clinical sciences classrooms, numerous study rooms, student break areas, student and academic services offices, clinical relations offices, and the deans' suite, according to a university press release. The building will also provide research space, including a home for the Center for Animal and Human Health in Appalachia.

LMU conducted a feasibility study in 2010 and asked for a consultative site visit from the COE in 2011; the visit to its veterinary college was conducted Oct. 23–27 that year. Lincoln Memorial filed a letter of application with the COE in 2012 seeking a letter of reasonable assurance of accreditation, and a site team traveled to Harrogate for a comprehensive site visit from Jan. 26–30, 2013. The veterinary college received a letter of reasonable assurance in July 2013, and the first class matriculated in the fall of 2014.

Appalachian students made up a quarter of the veterinary college's inaugural class, and four years later, 27 percent of the Class of 2018 is living and working in Appalachia, according to a university press release. Overall, the graduates reside in 24 states, and 34 percent of the graduates are working in large animal or mixed animal practices.

When a student graduates from a veterinary college that is operating under any classification of COE accreditation, the student is considered a graduate of an accredited school for purposes of licensing examinations or other certification that requires graduation from a COE-accredited institution as a prerequisite, according to the council's FAQ.

Different classifications of accreditation, however, do exist and reflect the institution's compliance with the standards of accreditation.

Provisional accreditation means LMU must file reports at six-month intervals to demonstrate its progress. Provisional accreditation may remain in effect for no more than five years, which will be fall 2019 for Lincoln Memorial. If the program has the status for a longer period or does not provide evidence that its program will comply, it will be placed on terminal accreditation. More information on the COE's accreditation classifications is available at https://jav.ma/COEclassifications.

Lincoln Memorial is one of 30 COE-accredited veterinary colleges in the U.S. and 19 in Canada and other countries.


Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine will continue its provisional accreditation status after a decision by the AVMA Council on Education this fall. (Photo by Malinda Larkin)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Other COE actions from its fall meeting are as follows:

  • • University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine received continued probationary accreditation with minor deficiencies. Probationary accreditation is granted to a veterinary college that has one or more major deficiencies that have more than a minimal impact on student learning and safety. The COE reviewed the veterinary school's progress and found that it was lacking in Standard 3 (Physical Facilities and Equipment). The deficiency must be corrected within one year. The veterinary school must also submit reports to the COE every six months.

  • • Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences continued its probationary accreditation with major deficiencies. The center received this status from the COE because of several minor and major deficiencies in the required standards including Standard 2 (Finances), Standard 6 (Students), Standard 8 (Faculty), Standard 3 (Physical Facilities and Equipment), Standard 9 (Curriculum), and Standard 11 (Outcomes Assessment).

  • • National Autonomous University of Mexico School of Veterinary Medicine will continue its probationary accreditation because of a major deficiency in Standard 3 (Physical Facilities and Equipment). The COE determined its status during a site visit in spring 2018. The veterinary college has two years to correct the problem.

  • • Ross University College of Veterinary Medicine will continue its probationary accreditation with a major deficiency in Standard 11 (Outcomes Assessment). The veterinary college received this evaluation on the basis of a site visit in spring 2018. Ross University would not comment on the COE decision.


The U.S. Department of Education's National Advisory Committee for Institutional Quality and Integrity has begun its periodic review of the AVMA Council on Education, the official accrediting agency for veterinary colleges.

NACIQI's main job is to vote to recommend to the education secretary whether the accrediting agencies it reviews, such as the COE, deserve the department's recognition. The Department of Education then determines whether to recognize those agencies as qualified to evaluate the education and training provided by higher education programs and to provide accreditation or pre-accreditation when appropriate.

Recognition must be renewed every five years.

At the start of the 2012 renewal process, department staff identified issues that needed to be addressed by the COE. The council retained its recognition as an accreditor while addressing those issues, which included concerns about alleged conflicts of interest, education standards, communication, and acceptance of the council among educators and veterinarians.

The COE went before NACIQI again in 2014, and, on the basis of a USDE staff report, the advisory committee told the council it must continue working on these issues.

In response to input from the public and members of the veterinary community, the COE has made substantial changes in its policies and procedures in recent years. These include changes to how COE members are appointed and supported by the AVMA and the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, as well as how site visits are conducted. Changes in accreditation standards, such as those pertaining to diversity, student wellness, and financial and debt management, have also been made by the COE in recent years. Plus, the council held a number of listening sessions at veterinary conferences.

In 2016, NACIQI recommended that the COE retain federal recognition at least through December 2017, which the USDE secretary approved. The five-year recognition renewal cycle restarted in 2018. The comment period ended Sept. 30.

A public hearing during which interested individuals will have an opportunity to provide oral comments will be held on Feb. 5, 2019, in the Washington, D.C., area. Additional information about registering for that event is available in the Sept. 4 Federal Register at https://jav.ma/NACIQIcomments.


By Kaitlyn Mattson


Pet-Friendly City of the Future installation at the Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington, D.C. (Courtesy of Mars Petcare)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

The Pet Leadership Council, in partnership with Mars Petcare and the Human Animal Bond Research Institute, is leading a pilot program to make workspaces and housing more pet-friendly in Austin, Texas, and Columbus, Ohio.

“We think these are two things a city can do that would be significant for the health of the community, good for pets, good for pet owners, and ultimately good for veterinarians,” said Mark Cushing, CEO and founder of the Animal Policy Group and leader of the pilot program.

The efforts are mostly volunteer-run and use the playbook of Mars Petcare's Better Cities for Pets program. The guide has been in the works since 2012 and was published earlier this year. Available at https://jav.ma/playbook, it covers 12 specific traits of pet-friendly cities and how to achieve them.

“Both (Austin and Columbus) view themselves as pet-friendly … but developers and apartment owners haven't necessarily caught up with the preferences of folks in their cities,” Cushing said. “We are putting together a list of targets (developers and companies) in both cities, and will create a lot of one-on-one engagement using Mars Petcare's Better Cities for Pets tools. … It's an effort to get the conversations going and have people talk, address concerns, and see if we can't get developers and companies in each city to say they will try it. It's an intentional effort, but low-key.”

According to research conducted by the Animal Policy Group in 25 markets, Austin and Columbus have low percentages of pet-friendly housing available, 28 percent and 38 percent respectively.

At year-end 2016, 57 percent of all U.S. households owned a pet, according to the 2017–18 edition of the AVMA Pet Ownership and Demographics Sourcebook.

“(And yet) there are so many barriers for people with pets,” said Angel May, corporate citizenship lead at Mars Petcare.

Even though research has shown that pets make people happier and healthier, May said, there are still issues with where pets are allowed, so the goal of the Better Cities for Pets model and playbook was to understand the issues and create a foundation to drive change.

For example, many apartments across the U.S. have breed and size restrictions for pets in rental agreements. The Better Cities for Pets guide outlines this specific issue and then offers possible strategies such as evaluating each pet individually rather than having such restrictions.

“Judge (the animal) for its energy, not how it looks,” May said. “We don't want people to be judged by how they look. It is the same for dogs. They are individual. They do have breed characteristics, but not every dog is the same.”

May said the pilot program in Austin and Columbus will allow the partner organizations to test the solutions that the Better Cities for Pets program has developed, better understand what the two cities are currently doing, and advocate for more pet-friendly solutions.


Hospital-acquired infections are an ongoing battle for health care facilities in both human and veterinary medicine. The American Animal Hospital Association has released the first AAHA Infection Control, Prevention, and Biosecurity Guidelines to provide ways for veterinary professionals to tackle this problem and prevent the spread of disease in veterinary practices.

According to the abstract: “A veterinary team's best work can be undone by a breach in infection control, prevention, and biosecurity (ICPB). Such a breach, in the practice or home-care setting, can lead to medical, social, and financial impacts on patients, clients, and staff, as well as damage the reputation of the hospital. To mitigate these negative outcomes, the AAHA ICPB Guidelines Task Force believes that hospital teams should improve upon their current efforts by limiting pathogen exposure from entering or being transmitted throughout the hospital population and using surveillance methods to detect any new entry of a pathogen into the practice.”

The guidelines offer standard operating procedures to guide the veterinary team in creating a clean and safe environment. Among the procedures are cleaning and disinfection, hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, identifying high-risk patients, and managing contagious patients in isolation.

The guidelines also include a staff training video to help team members achieve a safe environment, personalized checklists of tasks to improve compliance, evaluation tools to ensure success, staff and client educational materials, and a process for designating team members to become infection control practitioners.

Dr. Jason W. Stull, an assistant professor at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, chaired the task force that prepared the guidelines. In a Nov. 7 AAHA announcement, he said: “We have approached this area from the perspective of the busy veterinary team member, often with little background in infection control, and distilled the key practices with greatest potential for success into a succinct ‘how-to manual.’ With these guidelines, every practice can have an infection control program of which they can be proud and that will protect patient, owner, and personnel health.”

The guidelines are available in the November/December issue of the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association or online at www.aaha.org/biosecurity.


Feeding a cat may seem like a straightforward activity, but according to feline veterinarians, it is an often-overlooked aspect of cat health.

On Oct. 30, the American Association of Feline Practitioners released the consensus statement “Feline Feeding Programs: Addressing Behavioral Needs to Improve Feline Health and Wellbeing” and an accompanying client brochure.

The consensus statement, published in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (J Feline Med Surg 2018;20:1049–1055), explores the medical, social, and emotional problems that can result from the manner in which most cats are currently fed. The statement identifies normal feeding behaviors in cats. It provides strategies to allow these normal feline feeding behaviors, ranging from hunting and foraging to eating frequent small meals in a solitary fashion, to occur in the home environment—even in a multiple-pet home. Allowing cats to exhibit these normal feeding behaviors regularly can help alleviate or prevent stress-related issues such as cystitis and obesity-related problems such as inactivity and overeating. Reducing stress with appropriate feeding programs can also help anxious cats that, in an attempt to avoid other pets in the household, may not access food frequently enough and lose weight.

“Currently, most pet cats are fed in one location ad libitum, or receive one or two large and usually quite palatable meals daily. In addition, many indoor cats have little environmental stimulation, and eating can become an activity in and of itself,” said Dr. Tammy Sadek, chair of the panel that developed the consensus statement, in an AAFP announcement. “This current type of feeding process does not address the behavioral needs of cats. Appropriate feeding programs need to be customized for each household, and should incorporate the needs of all cats for play, predation, and a location to eat and drink where they feel safe.”

The consensus statement and client brochure offer strategies for cat caregivers to understand feeding preferences and provide the proper environment for feeding that makes cats happier and helps avoid overfeeding or underfeeding. The statement also highlights the importance of feeding programs, which should be designed to consider whether cats are indoor-only or have outdoor access, live in multiple-pet households, or are aged or debilitated. Feeding programs can include offering frequent small meals using appropriate puzzle feeders, forage feeding by putting food in different locations, and multiple food and water stations—and may include automatic feeders in some instances. According to the AAFP, veterinary professionals and clients need to work together to develop and implement a safe, effective feeding program that optimizes each cat's physical and emotional health and well-being.

The AAFP encourages cat caregivers who are concerned with their cat's weight and health, who have multiple cats in the home, or who are concerned with overfeeding or underfeeding to seek guidance from their veterinarian. Additionally, appropriate nutrition and feeding programs should be discussed during the cat's routine check-up, according to the AAFP.



With a multimillion dollar grant from the U.S. Agency for International Development, Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine will oversee a project on developing aquaculture in impoverished countries. (Courtesy of Mississippi State University)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Mississippi State University will lead a new $15 million federal initiative to reduce poverty and improve living standards for impoverished populations dependent on aquaculture-led economies, the university announced in October.

U.S. Agency for International Development funding over the next five years will support the Feed the Future Innovation Lab on Fish, led through the university's Global Center for Aquatic Food Security run by Dr. Mark Lawrence.

“The overall goal of the FIL is conducting research that leads to real world impact. USAID expects much more than just published papers,” said Dr. Lawrence, associate dean and professor in MSU's College of Veterinary Medicine, in the press release. “True success will be measured by adoption of our findings and changes in practice, leading to an actual benefit to farmers, feed producers, and families.”

The laboratory is not a specific site, but rather, a mechanism through which academic, private, and public partners can identify solutions for global challenges.

It is one of 22 Feed the Future Innovation Labs. The others focus on different agricultural commodities or themes to improve human outcomes through research on agriculture, including the University of Florida's focus on livestock systems.

Fish are among the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. However, additional research is needed to understand how developing countries can maximize aquaculture and benefit their people. The new lab will work to fill in these gaps by studying ways of improving production, reducing and mitigating risk to fish production systems, and improving human outcomes, according to the release.

Project activities will initially focus on regions deemed priority areas for aquaculture and fisheries development by FIL and USAID: West Africa, East Africa, and Asia. Initial work will take place at the local level to develop best practices that can be scaled to national and regional levels.

The Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Fish uses a “Leader with Associates” model, through which MSU will facilitate associate awards to research and development partners. The university will identify and manage a portfolio of investments for research and development activities that address both promising innovations and emerging challenges in aquaculture and fisheries through an integrated approach of blending multiple disciplines.


By Greg Cima

Livestock animals that cross state lines should have electronic identification, according to federal agriculture leaders.

States, industry, and the Department of Agriculture also should share data that can be used to identify and isolate animals sickened and exposed to dangerous pathogens, according to goals described this fall. Greg Ibach, USDA undersecretary for marketing and regulatory programs, said in an announcement that meeting those goals would help keep animals healthy and valuable.

“We have a responsibility to these producers and American agriculture as a whole to make animal disease traceability what it should be—a modern system that tracks animals from birth to slaughter using affordable technology that allows USDA to quickly trace sick and exposed animals to stop disease spread,” he said.

The USDA officials who plan to implement that system have yet to describe in detail how animal identification and tracking systems will change and how soon that will happen. Agency spokeswoman Joelle Hayden said in early November that the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service was developing plans, but none were ready for sharing.

Dr. K. Fred Gingrich II, executive vice president of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, said association leaders have talked for years with cattle industry partners about livestock tracking systems, although he has not talked with USDA officials about the latest proposal.

“I can tell you that we believe having a robust traceability system in place is necessary to protect the health of the nation's cattle herd,” he said.

This is especially true during an outbreak of a foreign disease. He said the U.S. and India are the only major beef exporters who lack robust cattle tracking systems.

About 700,000 farms and other operations have cattle raised for beef, Dr. Gingrich said. Farmers and ranchers send cattle from across the country to the central U.S. for finishing in feed yards, and the commingling and transportation involved present risks if one of them develops a contagious disease.

But Dr. Gingrich said any animal tracking system raises concerns about cost and privacy, especially if people can access program data through Freedom of Information Act requests.

With some exceptions, companies shipping livestock across state lines or U.S. borders already need individual or group identification for the animals, depending on the species.

The identification can be ear tags for ruminants, group documents for pigs, group documents or leg bands for poultry, and descriptions or images for horses. Some states accept hot-iron brands for cattle.

Those requirements took effect in March 2013. USDA officials had pushed for more stringent tracking standards, with uniform electronic tracking, through a National Animal Identification System but abandoned much of the program in favor of state-based identification after livestock owners proved reluctant to participate.

Only one-third of livestock owners participated, despite $120 million spent by the USDA, a 2013 JAVMA News article states.

The goals described this year by Ibach include switching all animals to some type of electronic identification, although USDA will not mandate use of a specific tag technology, the announcement states. The department also would stop giving free metal ear tags, instead offering to share costs of electronic tags.

Although the announcement says the USDA wants to improve data sharing, the types of data are unidentified.


Agencies in the Department of Agriculture are consolidating and moving offices in reorganizations.

USDA administrators have been considering sites in 35 states as possible new homes for offices of the Economic Research Service and National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue said in an August announcement that he plans to select one or more sites for those offices by January 2019, and employees will leave the Washington, D.C., region by late 2019.

The move is intended to bring USDA offices closer to stakeholders, reduce employment costs and rent, and attract staff interested in agriculture, especially among people from land-grant universities.

Current employees would be given opportunities to move with their jobs.

Veterinary Services, part of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, also consolidated import-export centers from six to four as well as district offices from six to four, effective Oct. 15. But the agency is keeping the same number of employees.

In a letter to stakeholders, Dr. Jack A. Shere, chief veterinary officer and deputy administrator of Veterinary Services, noted that Veterinary Services reorganized five years ago. Employees and agency partners, in government and industry, since have suggested further changes, and APHIS was adjusting in response.

“We are simply consolidating expertise and shifting reporting structures so we can provide better customer service,” he said.

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service officials also announced in October plans to reorganize their agency with a “business center” model promoted by the agriculture secretary. But that change would have no effects on job positions, grade levels, salaries, or work locations. Some responsibilities may shift, but daily work will remain the same, the announcement states.


The Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture recently announced that it has awarded 14 grants through the Veterinary Services Grant Program to support rural veterinary services and relieve shortages of veterinarians in parts of the U.S.

Among the recipients, the American Association of Bovine Practitioners received its second grant to provide workshops on business management for recent veterinary graduates.

“Veterinarians are trained to be analytical problem solvers and as a profession are caregivers,” said Dr. David Welch, project manager for the workshops. “Unfortunately, all too often they do not apply that same analytical effort and care to evaluate the profitability and sustainability of their practices.”

The AABP designed the workshops to address this situation. The new round of workshops will have an increased emphasis on human resources management.

Overall, NIFA awarded $2.4 million in grants as follows:


  • • AABP, $238,270, “Manage your rural practice for success.”

  • • University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, $94,385, “UA Cooperative Extension Service food animal medicine workshop series: Utilizing extension to provide continuing education for the expansion of veterinary services in shortage situations.”

  • • University of Georgia, $243,500, “Veterinary microbiology residency program at the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory.”

  • • Iowa State University, $243,500, “Zoonotic disease prevention tools for rural veterinary practices.”

  • • Michigan State University, $245,500, “Improving food-animal veterinary service shortage situations in rural bovine practice through recruitment and continuing education of early-career veterinarians.”

  • • Pennsylvania State University, $243,500, “Poultry training for large and small animal veterinarians in Pennsylvania counties with a defined veterinarian shortage situation.”

  • • Texas A&M University, $243,500, “Texas Panhandle and plains rural veterinary practice revitalization.”


  • • Bear Lake Animal Hospital LLC, Montpelier, Idaho, $122,000, “Rural practice expansion and growth of veterinary services to the under-served agricultural entities of Idaho in the Bear Lake and Caribou counties.”

  • • Dutton Veterinary Services PLLC, Walton, New York, $122,000, “Dutton Veterinary Services NY-182.”

  • • Southwest Veterinary Services, Espanola, New Mexico, $104,845, “The goal is to provide veterinary care to under-served, low income community, with a large percentage of food animals that are not receiving veterinary care.”

  • • KN Veterinary Services PLLC, Clifton, Texas, $121,000, “Application to provide high quality in house, telehealth and mobile veterinary services to rural central Texas.”

  • • Mountain Legacy Veterinary Services LLC, Gunnison, Colorado, $122,000, “To demonstrate our commitment to the ranching community while providing excellent veterinary care and customer service with the common goal of ranch sustainability in a rural mountain town.”

  • • Stonehouse Veterinary Service LLC, Saint Clairsville, Ohio, $122,000, “OH182 enhancing the level of veterinary service in rural eastern Ohio.”

  • • Uinta Veterinary Hospital, Fort Bridger, Wyoming, $121,000, “Uinta Veterinary Hospital type II shortage area grant proposal, ID code: WY 184.”

Project details are available at https://jav.ma/VSGPeducation and https://jav.ma/VSGPpractice.

The heated topic of raw milk

Unpasteurized milk has a devoted following despite safety concerns, varying legality

By Katie Burns


Cows at All Grass Farms in Illinois (Photo by Katie Burns)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

What could be more wholesome than chocolate milk from an Amish farm?

In November 2015, the International Raw Milk Symposium in Anaheim, California, brought in unpasteurized chocolate milk from an Amish farm in Pennsylvania. The sale of raw milk is legal in California and Pennsylvania, but the interstate sale of raw milk is illegal. Authorities embargoed the chocolate milk and sent a sample to the Food and Drug Administration—turning up Listeria.

An investigation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state health departments found that Listeria isolates from the milk seized at the symposium were related to isolates obtained from two people in 2014. One person in California had been hospitalized and the other, a cancer patient in Florida, had died.

The investigation revealed some of the risks of raw milk and some of the complexities of buyers' clubs, which can be so secretive as to involve drop points and burner phones for temporary use. The AVMA supports laws requiring pasteurization of all milk, but unpasteurized milk has a devoted following despite the safety concerns and varying legality among states.

For fans, raw milk is bucolic and natural. At All Grass Farms outside Chicago, cows and calves munch on a pasture of grass, clover, and blue-flowered chicory. Customers come to the farm store to buy various products, including raw milk at $6 per half-gallon.

The farm owner is a convert himself to unpasteurized milk, which many people believe to taste better and provide health benefits; he argues that people should be able to weigh the risks and benefits for themselves. Two speakers at AVMA Convention 2018 this past July in Denver also took a look at the heated topic.


The AVMA Board of Directors approved the latest revisions to the AVMA policy “Raw Milk” in November 2016 on a recommendation from the AVMA Food Safety Advisory Committee. According to background materials, the purpose of the revisions was “to strengthen the language and more clearly convey the AVMA's thinking regarding sale, distribution, and labeling of raw milk and raw milk products.”

The policy reads as follows:

“The AVMA opposes the direct sale or distribution to the consumer of unpasteurized milk or other unpasteurized dairy products. In those states where the sale of such is allowed, those products should be labeled ‘Not Pasteurized and May Contain Organisms that cause Human Disease.’ Furthermore, the AVMA supports laws requiring pasteurization of all milk to be sold within a state and consumed as fluid milk or to be used in the manufacture of dairy products.

“Healthy mammals can shed organisms in their milk that are pathogenic to human beings and may cause diseases such as brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, coxiellosis, cryptosporidiosis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, and E coli O157:H7 infection. Secondly, pathogenic agents may be introduced during milk handling; therefore, only pasteurized milk and milk products should be sold.”


Cliff McConville, owner of All Grass Farms in Dundee, Illinois, worked in downtown Chicago for 20 years in the insurance business. He began farming on a small scale in 2011 when he started working from home. He kept chickens, pigs, and beef cattle on 8 1/2 acres. People who learned that he kept cattle asked if he sold raw milk.

He bought two Guernsey cows in 2012 to sell raw milk, and he had so much demand that he bought two more Guernsey cows a week later. He leased land in 2015 to establish All Grass Farms. The farm has about two dozen Guernsey cows at a time along with chickens, turkeys, pigs, and beef cattle as well as vegetable and herb gardens.

McConville thinks the growing demand for raw milk ties into the whole movement by consumers who want to know where and how food animals are raised, with concerns ranging from animal welfare to what the animals eat.

But state laws on raw milk are a patchwork. Some states prohibit the sale of raw milk. Other states allow retail sale, on-farm sales, herd shares, or sales of raw milk ostensibly as food for animals.

When McConville started out, the Illinois government was developing regulations for raw milk, and he got involved. As of 2016, permit holders in Illinois may sell raw milk on the farm where the cows are located. The farm must pass an initial inspection, and milk samples must pass initial and ongoing testing. McConville said the keys are to make sure the cows are clean and healthy and the milking equipment is clean.

McConville developed a taste for raw milk, and now he drinks it every day. He said the breed and diet of his cows affect the flavor of his milk, but he also believes pasteurization affects the flavor of milk. Among health benefits, advocates believe raw milk can improve digestion and strengthen the immune system.

“Clearly, it's a little bit riskier, just like if you're eating a raw vegetable versus a cooked vegetable or raw meat versus cooked meat,” McConville said. “It's a little riskier, but there's benefits to it.”

McConville pointed to a 2015 study and a 2011 study in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: “Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections” (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015;135:56–62) and “The protective effect of farm milk consumption on childhood asthma and atopy: the GABRIELA study” (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128:766–773). He also pointed to a 2007 study in Clinical and Experimental Allergy, “Inverse association of farm milk consumption with asthma and allergy in rural and suburban populations across Europe” (Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:661–70).

If farms can't provide raw milk legally, McConville continued, customers will buy it from somewhere illegally. In his mind, that's a bigger risk.


Buyers' clubs for raw milk may require members to sign a contract that can include agreeing not to talk to the government and not to share information outside the club—and agreeing that it is the member's responsibility if he or she develops an illness. Instead of raw milk-associated outbreaks occurring in single states, now they are more widely distributed, sometimes only detected by laboratory surveillance, said Dr. Megin Nichols, a CDC veterinarian, who presented “Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Interstate Shipment of Raw Milk” at AVMA Convention 2018.

More states have been allowing raw milk, too. The United States had 30 outbreaks linked to raw milk from 2007–09, increasing to 51 outbreaks from 2010–12. So why drink raw milk?

Advocates say raw milk is creamier, but creaminess relates to homogenization rather than pasteurization. Dr. Nichols said pasteurization does not substantially change lactose content. The 2011 study finding that consumption of raw milk was inversely associated with asthma and allergy was in rural areas, where the setting might have had an effect. The concentration of estrogenic hormones in milk has to do with the pregnancy status of the cow, not with pasteurization. The amount of vitamins and nutrients in pasteurized milk does not significantly differ from the amounts in raw milk.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Dr. Nichols said there is a misperception that the risk of infection and the outbreak rates for pasteurized and raw milk are similar or are lower for raw milk, but many more people drink pasteurized milk, so more outbreaks are associated with pasteurized milk. Current estimates are that 3.5 percent of the U.S. population drinks raw milk.

No scientific evidence supports the claim that the benefits of consuming raw milk outweigh the risks, Dr. Nichols said, noting, “We do need some additional studies, especially around biologic mechanisms that might reduce allergies.”

In the investigation that Dr. Nichols highlighted, the Listeria isolates from the ill people had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were highly related by whole genome sequencing to isolates from the sample of raw chocolate milk produced by the Amish farm in Pennsylvania. Dr. Nichols said the farm was part of a very complex online business, working with outside help, yet did not have a phone at all.

Officials eventually managed to talk with the farmer, explaining that there was an outbreak and could be ongoing contamination. The CDC issued an announcement about the outbreak in March 2016 and closed the investigation in December 2016 after no additional people were reported to be infected with the outbreak strain.


Cliff McConville owns All Grass Farms in Dundee, Illinois, selling raw milk and various other products. He believes unpasteurized milk tastes better than pasteurized milk and provides health benefits. (Photo by Katie Burns)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


Dr. Danelle Bickett-Weddle of the Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health says it is becoming more common for people to think that pasteurization destroys the health benefits of milk.

Pasteurization does destroy some enzymes in milk, but the enzymes in milk do not contribute to digestion in the human stomach, Dr. Bickett-Weddle said during her presentation, “Raw Milk: It Doesn't Do a Body Good …,” at AVMA Convention 2018. She showed a slide with a list of pathogens that can be found in raw milk, and she showed a blank slide as a list of the pathogens associated with pasteurized milk—noting that pasteurized milk can be contaminated after pasteurization. The CDC estimates that raw milk is 150 times as likely to cause illness as pasteurized milk.

Of the 81 raw milk-related outbreaks from 2007–12, 81 percent were from Campylobacter contamination. In 2017, two outbreaks were traced back to the Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51.

“We are a food-rich nation. We are allowed financially to make decisions that other countries would dream to do,” Dr. Bickett-Weddle said. “I try to have these conversations with people any chance I get about what the risks are. Some of them you'll never convince, even with the science.”


By R. Scott Nolen

In 1918, Daylight Saving Time was observed for the first time in the United States, Babe Ruth still played for the Boston Red Sox, and Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies, ending World War I.

Dr. Paul Wise was born that same year, on Sept. 5 to be exact. At age 100, he continues to practice veterinary medicine. On Fridays and Saturdays, Dr. Wise can be found at Evers Veterinary Clinic in Chico, California, running the low-cost vaccination clinic, a part-time position he's held since 1981.

Reached by phone at his home and asked to comment on his prodigious work ethic, Dr. Wise quipped, “Oh, for heaven's sakes. I guess all you have to do is live to a hundred and still be able to walk to be famous.”

After growing up on a small farm in Hotchkiss, Colorado, Dr. Wise moved to Santa Ana, California, to study engineering at the junior college. While working nights and weekends at the local veterinary hospital, he realized that the life of an engineer wasn't for him. “I decided I liked what (the hospital owner) was doing better than what I was planning to do,” he explained.

Dr. Wise enrolled in Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, graduating in 1950. With his veterinary degree in hand, Dr. Wise returned to the Santa Ana hospital, no longer a kennel worker but an associate. And there he remained for seven years before opening his own practice, Grand Avenue Pet Hospital, also in Santa Ana.

In 1972, Dr. Wise retired and sold his practice to two veterinarians “fresh out of the Army.”

It turns out that retirement, like a career in engineering, wasn't in the cards for Dr. Wise. “I retired for one full year, and my wife (Lorraine) said, ‘I know I married you for better or for worse, but not for lunch every day.’ I took that as a clue she wanted me out of the house part of the time,” he recalled.

Dr. Wise followed the advice of his wife, now deceased, and found ways to keep himself busy. Then, in 1981, Dr. Hank Evers hired the “retired” veterinarian, now in his early 60s, to run the vaccination clinic at Evers Veterinary Clinic. The late Dr. Evers opened the Chico small animal hospital with his wife, Marilyn, a licensed veterinary technician. The practice has passed to his daughter, Dr. Susan Evers.

“The agreement my father and I had was to always have a position for Dr. Wise as long as he wanted to work,” Dr. Susan Evers said. “Veterinary medicine is his passion, and working recharges him. His dedication, loyalty, and encouragement are priceless.

“Since my father's death, I value Dr. Wise's advice even more. He is a sincere, kind person and a mentor to many. He is an adopted member of my personal and veterinary family and loved by everyone he comes in contact with.”

For anyone considering becoming a veterinarian, Dr. Wise offers a bit of wisdom gained from a career of 68 years and counting: “If you're not interested in a life where no two days are alike, then you'd better not go into veterinary medicine.”


The following individuals are winners of the 2018 Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award and the Zoetis Award for Veterinary Research Excellence. The Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award is given to educators in recognition of their character and leadership qualities as well as their outstanding teaching abilities. The Zoetis Award for Veterinary Research Excellence recognizes researchers whose innovative studies have advanced the scientific standing of veterinary medicine.


Joe Rowe, PhD, Auburn University

Stephen McSorley, PhD,

University of California-Davis

Kristy Dowers, DVM,

Colorado State University

Patrick Carney, DVM, PhD,

Cornell University

Jose Ignacio Aguirre, DVM, PhD,

University of Florida

Jo R. Smith, VetMB, PhD,

University of Georgia

Stephanie Keating, DVM,

University of Illinois

Gayle B. Brown, DVM, PhD,

Iowa State University

Manuel F. Chamorro, DVM, PhD,

Kansas State University

Bess Pierce, DVM,

Lincoln Memorial University

Shannon Dehghanpir, DVM,

Louisiana State University

Stephan Carey, DVM, PhD,

Michigan State University

Clemence Z. Chako, BVSc, PhD,

Midwestern University

John P. Collister, DVM, PhD,

University of Minnesota

Alyssa Sullivant, DVM,

Mississippi State University

Alison LaCarrubba, DVM,

University of Missouri

Mathew Gerard, BVSc, PhD,

North Carolina State University

Ryan N. Jennings, DVM, PhD,

The Ohio State University

Laura A. Nafe, DVM,

Oklahoma State University

Fikru Nigussie, DVM, PhD,

Oregon State University

Klaus Hopster, DVM,

University of Pennsylvania

Larry G. Adams, DVM, PhD,

Purdue University

W. Brady Little, DVM, Ross University

Marta Lanza Perea, BVetMed,

St. George's University

Bente Flatland, DVM,

University of Tennessee

Kati Glass, DVM,

Texas A&M University

Trisha J. Oura, DVM,

Tufts University

Leanda Livesey, BVMS,

Tuskegee University

Sabrina L. Barry, DVM,

Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine

Jennifer Slovak, DVM,

Washington State University

Gagandeep Kaur, DVM, PhD,

Western University of Health Sciences

Stephen Johnson, PhD,

University of Wisconsin-Madison


Nicole Baumgarth, DVM, PhD,

University of California-Davis

Jeremiah Easley, DVM,

Colorado State University

Manuel Martin-Flores, MV,

Cornell University

Christopher J. Martyniuk, PhD,

University of Florida

Chad W. Schmiedt, DVM,

University of Georgia

William H. Witola, BVetMed, PhD,

University of Illinois

Karin Allenspach, PhD,

Iowa State University

Weiping Zhang, PhD,

Kansas State University

Paul L. Wood, PhD,

Lincoln Memorial University

Rebecca Christofferson, PhD,

Louisiana State University

James Luyendyk, PhD,

Michigan State University

Ashlesh K. Murthy, PhD,

Midwestern University

Bruce Walcheck, PhD,

University of Minnesota

Barbara Lee Faubert Kaplan, PhD,

Mississippi State University

Rajiv Mohan, PhD,

University of Missouri

Ke Cheng, PhD,

North Carolina State University

Andrew S. Bowman, DVM, PhD,

The Ohio State University

Clinton Jones, PhD, Oklahoma State University

Natalia Shulzhenko, PhD, Oregon State University

Nicola J. Mason, BVetMed, PhD, University of Pennsylvania

Jean Stiles, DVM, Purdue University

Patrick Kelly, BVSc, PhD, Ross University

Dave Marancik, DVM, PhD, St. George's University

M. Katherine Tolbert, DVM, PhD, University of Tennessee

Jay Ramadoss, PhD, Texas A&M University

Cheryl London, DVM, PhD, Tufts University

Deepa Bedi, PhD, Tuskegee University

John H. Rossmeisl Jr., DVM, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine

John Wyrick, PhD, Washington State University

Brian Oakley, PhD, Western University of Health Sciences

Marulasiddappa Suresh, DVM, PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison



Annual meeting, Sept. 20–23, Loveland


Veterinarian of the Year


Dr. Rebecca Ruch-Gallie

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. Rebecca Ruch-Gallie (Colorado State '99), Laporte. Dr. Ruch-Gallie is an associate professor of clinical sciences at the Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. She is also service chief of community practice at the university's James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Dr. Ruch-Gallie serves as Colorado's delegate to the AVMA House of Delegates.

Distinguished Service Award


Dr. John Rule

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. John Rule (Kansas State '70), Steamboat Springs. Dr. Rule owned Mount Werner Veterinary Hospital in Steamboat Springs until his recent retirement. He has served the CVMA in several capacities, including service as District 1 representative, chair of the Small Animal Commission, alternate delegate and delegate to the AVMA HOD, and member of the Executive Committee.

President's Award

Drs. Rebecca S. Dietz (Oklahoma ‘10), Littleton, and Sam Romano (Colorado State ‘83), Arvada


Dr. Rebecca S. Dietz

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


Dr. Sam Romano

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495



Dr. William French

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


Dr. Stacee Santi

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Drs. William French, Sedalia, president; Stacee Santi, Durango, president-elect; Jackie Christakos, Centennial, secretary-treasurer; Ashley Ackley, Denver, secretary-treasurer-elect; Sam Romano, Arvada, immediate past president; and AVMA delegate and alternate delegate—Drs. Rebecca Ruch-Gallie, Laporte, and Curtis Crawford, Monte Vista



24th International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium, Sept. 14–18, New Orleans


This year's symposium, conducted jointly by the Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care Society, American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, Academy of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Technicians, American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, Academy of Veterinary Technicians in Anesthesia and Analgesia, International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management, and Association of Veterinary Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, focused on trauma management in veterinary emergency and critical care. The symposium also served as the venue for the annual meeting of the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Foundation. Dr. Jan Kovacic, Appleton, Wisconsin, presented the Knowles Memorial Keynote Lecture, giving a historical perspective of veterinary emergency and critical care over the last 40 years.


Ira M. Zaslow VECCS Distinguished Service Award


Dr. Elisa Mazzaferro

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. Elisa Mazzaferro (Michigan State '97), Norwalk, Connecticut. Dr. Mazzaferro is an adjunct professor of emergency and critical care at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, also serving as staff criticalist at Cornell University Veterinary Specialists. She is a diplomate of the ACVECC.

Hill's Dr. Jack Mara ACVECC Achievement Award


Dr. Justine Lee

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. Justine Lee (Cornell '97), St. Paul, Minnesota, for her work related to toxicology. Dr. Lee is the founder and chief executive officer of VETgirl, a subscription-based podcast and webinar service offering Registry of Approved Continuing Education–approved continuing education. She is a diplomate of the ACVECC and American Board of Toxicology.

T. Douglas Byars Boehringer Ingelheim Equine Emergency & Critical Care Educator of the Year


Dr. K. Gary Magdesian

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. K. Gary Magdesian (California-Davis '93), Loomis, California. Dr. Magdesian is a professor of medicine and epidemiology at the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. He is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, and ACVECC.

Hill's Disaster Relief Award


Dr. Lorna Lanman

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. Lorna Lanman (Illinois '73), Sun City West, Arizona, was the inaugural recipient of this award. A small animal veterinarian, Dr. Lanman owns PetsVet Animal Hospital in Surprise, Arizona. In 1996, she committed to devoting her time and talents to disaster relief and became a member of the AVMA Veterinary Medical Assistance Team program, recently phased out. Dr. Lanman has provided her assistance and support following hurricanes, including Floyd, Katrina, Rita, and Sandy; wildfires in New Mexico and California; and outbreaks of foreign animal diseases in the United States and England.

Gary L. Stamp Award


Dr. Gary Stamp

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Dr. Gary L. Stamp (Illinois '70), San Antonio, was the inaugural recipient of this award named for him. He was honored for his years of commitment to advancing emergency medicine and critical care worldwide. He is a founding member and a past president of the VECCS and ACVECC, and he is a co-founder of the IVECCS. Dr. Stamp has served as executive director of the VECCS since 1999.

VECCS Practice Manager of the Year, sponsored by Nationwide Insurance

Marta Jackson, Vancouver, British Columbia. Jackson is general manager of Canada West Veterinary Specialists & Critical Care Hospital in Vancouver.

ACVECC Research Grant Award

($9,980): Dr. Melissa Claus, Murdoch University, for “The use of deferoxamine to reduce the inflammatory response in dogs with hemorrhagic shock treated with stored packed red blood cells.”


Dr. Melissa Claus

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

VECCF Research Grant Award

($8,298): Dr. Amelia Munsterman, University of Wisconsin-Madison, for “Non-invasive measurement of gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity with unipolar electrodes in horses.”


Dr. Amelia Munsterman

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Small Animal Resident Abstract Award, sponsored by Pathway Vet Alliance: A $500 stipend was awarded to Dr. Brittany Enders, North Carolina State University, for “Repeated infusions of lyophilized canine albumin safely and effectively increases serum albumin and colloid oncotic pressure in healthy dogs.”


Dr. Brittany Enders

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Large Animal Resident Abstract Award, sponsored by Mila International: A $500 stipend was awarded to Dr. Alicia Long, University of Pennsylvania, for “The prognostic value of clinical criteria to define systemic inflammatory response syndrome in neonatal foals.


Dr. Alicia Long

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

ACVAA Resident Abstract Award, sponsored by Smiths Medical and Surgivet: first place, small animal—Dr. Kathryn Zatroch, Cornell University, for “Evaluation of atipamezole as treatment for dexmedetomidine-induced cardiovascular depression in anesthetized cats;” first place, large animal—Dr. Kelley Varner, University of Pennsylvania, for “Efficacy of alveolar recruitment in anesthetized horses ventilated with Heliox or 30% oxygen/70% nitrogen.”


Dr. Kathryn Zatroch

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495


Dr. Kelley Varner

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Case Report Award

A stipend of $300 was awarded to Dr. Pia Martiny, Cornell University, for “Placement of a temporary cholecystostomy tube to relieve pancreatic EHBDO in a dog.”


Dr. Pia Martiny

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Technician Case Report Award, sponsored by Animal Blood Resources International: A stipend of $300 was awarded to Rachel Feuerstein, University of Tennessee, for “The troublesome tale of a shunted Schnauzer.”


Rachel Feuerstein

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

Poster Abstract Award, sponsored by Abaxis: A stipend of $500 was awarded to Dr. Hendrik Lehman, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany, for “Prospective comparative quality control study of a novel gravity-driven hollow-fiber whole blood separation system for the production of canine blood products.”


Dr. Hendrik Lehman

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495



It was announced that membership numbers are almost the same as the previous year and finances are strong. The impact factor of the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care has gone up. The society has now certified and re-certified 82 veterinary emergency and critical care facilities in total, with several beginning the re-certification phase. Online continuing education offerings to membership have risen and will continue to expand. Participation in social media has increased visibility and exposure for the society. The board of directors has agreed to form a task force with the ACVECC to address issues relating to the shortage of emergency room veterinarians and veterinary technicians. Dr. Scott Johnson, Austin, Texas, a past president of the society, was recognized for his service on the board of directors and for his contributions to the society.


Dr. Linda Martin, Pullman, Washington, president; Dr. Elisa Mazzaferro, Norwalk, Connecticut, president-elect; Dr. Chris Gray, East Lansing, Michigan, treasurer; Kenichiro Yagi, Ithaca, New York, recording secretary; Dr. Robert Messenger, Charlotte, North Carolina, immediate past president; Dr. Gary Stamp, San Antonio, executive director; and members-at-large—Drs. Julie Dechant, Davis, California, and Steven Epstein, Davis, California



The ACVECC conducted its certification examination and held its annual business meeting.

New diplomates

Fifty-seven individuals passed the certification examination. They are as follows:

Maya Aharon, Wilmington, Delaware

Tara Assenmacher, Okemos, Michigan

Kathryn Benavides, Rochester, New York

Allison Biddick, Edmond, Oklahoma

Patricia Biello, Guelph, Ontario

Ludivine Boiron, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, France

Samantha Campos, Gainesville, Florida

Adelina Chan, Maroubra, Australia

Annie Chih, Shoreline, Washington

Siew Kim Chong, Kew, England

Kimberly Claus, Flower Mound, Texas

Anne Cohen, Park Ridge, Illinois

Jennifer Daly, North Port, Florida

Francesca DiMauro, Ajax, Ontario

Emma Kate Evans, Charlottesville, Virginia

Kate Farrell, Sacramento, California

Lindsey Fejfar, Brooklyn, New York

Meghan Fick, Raleigh, North Carolina

Sarah Gaudette, Edmonton, Alberta

Rita Ghosal, Niagara Falls, Ontario

Marcella Granfone, Scottsdale, Arizona

Thomas Greensmith, Newbury, England

Sonya Hansen, Lewisville, Texas

Kayla Hanson, New Berlin, Wisconsin

Jenica Haraschak, Champaign, Illinois

Alex Hatch, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, France

Natasha Hodgson, Knoxville, Tennessee

Kristen Hutchinson, Roseville, California

Brittany Jaeger, Tampa, Florida

Tiffany Jagodich, White Rock, British Columbia

Jonna Jokisalo, Espoo, Finland

Megan Kees, Alexandria, Virginia

Christine Keyserling, New York

Kevin Kirchofer, Oviedo, Florida

Corinne Lawson, Fitchburg, Wisconsin

Nikki Licht, Salt Lake City

Ashley Lockwood, Quincy, Massachusetts

Jennifer Loewen, Winnipeg, Manitoba

Kristen Marshall, Knoxville, Tennessee

Elizabeth Martin, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Katharine Mauro, Raleigh, North Carolina

Amy Nadolski, San Diego

Christopher Norkus, Bloomfield, Connecticut

Kimberly Oparil, Grafton, Massachusetts

Kathleen Osekavage, Louisville, Colorado

Mariana Pardo, Huntington, New York

Colin Reich, Columbia, Missouri

Robyn Sherman, Cottleville, Missouri

Kristin Smith, New Haven, Connecticut

Kim Sprayberry, Paso Robles, California

Monique Stanley, Wooloowin, Australia

Laurie Stephens, Spring, Texas

Jennifer Stewart, Agoura Hills, California

Brittany Sylvane, Mineola, New York

Hamsini Yagneswar, St. Paul, Minnesota

Eunice Lee Yuh, Pittsburgh

Erik Zager, Hastings on Hudson, New York


Drs. Daniel Fletcher, Ithaca, New York, president; Ken Drobatz, Philadelphia, president-elect; Beth Davidow, Seattle, vice president; Scott Shaw, Oxford, Massachusetts, treasurer; Armelle de Laforcade, North Grafton, Massachusetts, executive secretary; Elisa Mazzaferro, Norwalk, Connecticut, immediate past president; and regents—Drs. James Barr, College Station, Texas; Daniela Bedenice, North Grafton, Massachusetts; Marie Kerl, Columbia, Missouri; Greg Lisciandro, Spicewood, Texas; Maurine Luschini, East Syracuse, New York; and Deb Silverstein, Philadelphia



The academy conducted its 21st certification examination and held a pinning ceremony and reception for the Class of 2017. Angel Rivera, Milwaukee, was honored as Technician of the Year.


Committee reports were presented and ratified.


Louise O'Dwyer, Manchester, England, president; Megan Brashear, Portland, Oregon, president-elect; Kenichiro Yagi, Ithaca, New York, treasurer; Andrea Steele, Guelph, Ontario, executive secretary; Amy Newfield, Tewksbury, Massachusetts, immediate past president; and members-at-large—Justin Chandler, Matawan, New Jersey; Jess Kerr, Clifton, New Jersey; and Katy Waddell, College Station, Texas



Thirty-two abstracts were presented. Drs. Juan Duchesne, New Orleans, and Steven Spitalnik, New York, lectured on “Massive Transfusion and Transfusion Reactions.” Dr. Nick Andrews, Boston, presented “Evaluation of Novel Analgesics and Methods of Assessing Pain in Non-Human Species.” Dr. Robert Brosnan, Davis, California, delivered “Anatomic and Molecular Mechanisms of Inhaled Anesthetics, Intracranial Pressure Changes in Different Species.” Dr. Alan Kaye, New Orleans, presented “Liposomal Encapsulated Bupivacaine.” Drs. Peter Pascoe, Davis, California, and Debbie Wilson, East Lansing, Michigan, lectured on “Gastroesophageal Reflux.” The 2018 ACVAA Career Achievement Award was given to Dr. Cynthia Trim, Watkinsville, Georgia. A 1970 veterinary graduate of the University of Liverpool in England, Dr. Trim is professor emeritus of anesthesiology at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. She is a past president of the ACVAA and a diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Dr. Trim serves as editor-in-chief of the journal Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Dr. Doris Dyson (Guelph '76), Guelph, Ontario, received the ACVAA President's Award for Meritorious Service. Dr. Dyson is professor emeritus of anesthesiology at the University of Guelph Ontario Veterinary College. She is a diplomate of the ACVAA. Drs. Claudio Natalini and Sarah Shane, Mississippi State University, were awarded the ACVAA Foundation Research Grant for “Determination of plasma levels for target intravenous continuous rate infusion and repeated intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine in standing horses.” A memorial tribute was given to the late Dr. William Lumb (see obituary, April 15, 2018, page 924).


Dr. Cynthia Trim

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495

New diplomates

Sixteen new diplomates were welcomed into the ACVAA following the board certification examination it held June 1–3 in Chicago (see story, Sept. 1, 2018, page 543).


Discussions were held on the results of the 2018 certifying examination and bylaw amendments that need to be voted on by the membership by the end of 2018. Also discussed was the financial status of the college and the North American Veterinary Anesthesia Society. Nominees for the 2018 executive secretary and Region 2 and 5 director positions were announced, with additional nominations welcomed.


Drs. Christine Egger, Knoxville, Tennessee, president; Colin Dunlop, Gladesville, Australia, president-elect; Lynne Kushner, Portsmouth, Rhode Island, executive secretary; and Lesley Smith, Madison, Wisconsin, immediate past president


Dr. Christine Egger

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 253, 12; 10.2460/javma.253.12.1495



The certification examination was conducted.


The academy met with the ACVAA and discussed issues facing both organizations. Katy Waddell, the new president of the academy, outlined short-term and long-term goals for the AVTAA.


Katy Waddell, College Station, Texas, president; Jennifer Sager, Gainesville, Florida, president-elect; Lynette DeGouff, Cortland, New York, treasurer; Darci Palmer, Auburn, Alabama, executive secretary; Kim Spelts, Colorado Springs, Colorado, immediate past president; and members-at-large—Jody Nugent-Deal, Davis, California; Brynn Schmidt, Los Angeles; and Amanda Shelby, Avon, Indiana



The foundation partnered with the Louisiana Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and provided spay/neuter services for animals in shelters and feral cats. Also provided was basic veterinary care. Volunteers helped troubleshoot complicated medical cases at the society's adoption center. The foundation hosted its fifth annual K9 ER Care and CPR Course. More than 30 first responders attended the all-day course, which included hands-on instruction and lectures on anatomy, wound management, CPR in the field, exposure to toxins, and common traumas. The foundation raised more than $12,000, a portion of which will be directed toward the Dougie Fund for Disaster Relief, to help veterinary practices and animal caregivers impacted by natural disasters.


Alyce D'Amato, Appleton, Wisconsin, president; Dr. Deborah Silverstein, Philadelphia, president-elect; Dr. Gary Stamp, San Antonio, treasurer; and Dr. Bill Smith, Seale, Alabama, immediate past president


Veterinarians and students in foreign countries can make use of the unused textbooks, journals, instruments, equipment, and other supplies cluttering many veterinary clinics in the United States.

The AVMA maintains a list of individuals and organizations that collect contributions for various countries. The list is available at https://jav.ma/donate-books. Potential donors should call or email contacts on the list directly.

Individuals or organizations that collect contributions may inquire about being added to the list or updating their listing by calling 800–248–2862, ext. 6754, or emailing asuresh@avma.org.


The Nov. 15, 2018, JAVMA News articles “What's in a name?” and “Prime issue for veterinary technicians: Underutilization” incorrectly gave the titles for Mary L. Berg and Kara M. Burns. Berg is immediate past president of the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America and Burns is president of NAVTA.

The Dec. 1, 2018, JAVMA News article “The corporatization of veterinary medicine” incorrectly stated that Mars Inc. employs over 50,000 veterinarians. That number actually encompasses all veterinary professionals, including veterinary technicians and veterinary assistants.



Dr. Clausen (Iowa State '51), 96, Stuart, Iowa, died Oct. 11, 2018. Following graduation, he established a mixed animal practice in Stuart. In the early 1970s, Dr. Clausen joined the Department of Agriculture, working as a meat inspector in Dennison, Iowa. His five sons, six daughters, 21 grandchildren, and 18 great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to LCMS Mission Central, 40718 Highway E 16, Mapleton, IA 51034.


Dr. Cohen (Georgia '67), 75, Chocowinity, North Carolina, died Oct. 1, 2018. A small animal veterinarian, he was the co-founder of Chocowinity Veterinary Hospital and Chocowinity Pet Resort and Day Camp. Following graduation, Dr. Cohen served with the U.S. Public Health Service in Las Vegas for two years. He subsequently practiced for more than 40 years, first in Maryland's Prince George's County, and, later, in Chocowinity. During that time, Dr. Cohen established four veterinary practices. He is survived by his wife, Lois; a daughter and a son; five grandchildren; and a sister. Memorials may be made to the Humane Society of Beaufort County, P.O. Box 33, Washington, NC 27889, www.humanesocietyofeaufortcounty.com, or Alzheimer's Association, 225 N. Michigan Ave., Floor 17, Chicago, IL 60601, www.alz.org.


Dr. Ganaway (Missouri '53), 91, Lewes, Delaware, died Oct. 4, 2018. From 1961 until retirement in 1984, he served in the U.S. Public Health Service as chief of the microbiology unit in the comparative pathology section of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Ganaway attained the rank of captain with the USPHS. Earlier in his career, he served in the Air Force, first on the Azores Islands in Spain and later at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, D.C. Dr. Ganaway also earned his master's in public health from Johns Hopkins University during that time. In retirement, he directed veterinary medicine at Microbiological Associates Inc. in Bethesda.

Dr. Ganaway was a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. Known for his expertise in naturally occurring diseases of laboratory animals, he received the PHS Commendation Medal in 1973 for designing methods to maintain animal health. He received the Charles A. Griffin Award from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science in 1984 for outstanding accomplishments in improvement of the care and quality of animals used in biologic and animal research. Dr. Ganaway was a veteran of the Army.

He is survived by three daughters, nine grandchildren, 12 great-grandchildren, a brother, and a sister. Memorials may be made to All Saints' Episcopal Church, 18 Olive Ave., Rehoboth Beach, DE 19971, or Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, 4915 St. Elmo Ave., Suite 202, Bethesda, MD 20814.


Dr. Gutman, 82, Long Valley, New Jersey, died Sept. 11, 2018. A 1971 veterinary graduate of the University of Bologna in Italy, he owned a practice in Long Valley for 43 years, initially practicing equine and small animal medicine and later focusing solely on small animals. Early in his career, Dr. Gutman worked in Clifton, New Jersey. He was a veteran of the Army. Dr. Gutman's wife, Judith; two daughters and a son; and five grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Eleventh Hour Rescue, P.O. Box 218, Rockaway, NJ 07866; American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, P.O. Box 96929, Washington, DC 20077; or Popcorn Park Zoo, 1 Humane Way, Forked River, NJ 08731.


Dr. Merry (Minnesota '54), 92, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, died Sept. 4, 2018. He practiced in Sun Prairie for 40 years, initially in large animal medicine and focusing later on small animals. Dr. Merry also bred Hereford cattle. He is survived by four sons, 11 grandchildren, seven great-grandchildren, and two sisters. Memorials, toward the Marian and Gordon Merry Scholarship Fund, may be sent c/o Amy Cowan, Hereford Youth Foundation, American Hereford Association, 11500 N. Ambassador Drive, Kansas City, MO 64153.


Dr. Moon (Minnesota '60), 82, Danville, Pennsylvania, died Oct. 7, 2018. He was the Frank K. Ramsey Endowed Chair in Veterinary Medicine in the Department of Veterinary Pathology at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 1996–2002, retiring as professor emeritus of veterinary pathology in 2003.

Following graduation, Dr. Moon served as an instructor in the veterinary diagnostic laboratory at the University of Minnesota. After earning his doctorate in veterinary pathology in 1965 from the university, he worked at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York for a year. Dr. Moon subsequently served two years as an associate professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathology at the University of Saskatchewan Western College of Veterinary Medicine.

In 1968, he joined the Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service, working at the National Animal Disease Center for more than 25 years, serving several years as research veterinarian and research leader and directing the center from 1988–95. Dr. Moon then directed the USDA Plum Island Animal Disease Center for a year before being named F.K. Ramsey Endowed Chair at the ISU veterinary college. During his career, he took sabbaticals as a professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine in 1973 and traveled in 1979 to Canberra, Australia, to study immunology.

A diplomate and a past president of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and an honorary diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, Dr. Moon was known for his research on the mechanisms of enteric disease of swine and cattle, especially with regard to Escherichia coli. He was a past president of the Comparative Gastroenterology Society and Iowa chapter of the National Association of Federal Veterinarians, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a life member of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. Dr. Moon served on committees and expert panels for the National Research Council, World Health Organization, National Academy of Sciences, and National Institutes of Health.

He received several honors from the USDA, including the Talcott W. Edminster Award in 1981 and Superior Service Award in 1985, and he was inducted into the USDA Science Hall of Fame. In 1991, Dr. Moon was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 1998, he received the American Feed Industry Award. He is survived by two sons, two daughters, four grandchildren, and three brothers. Memorials, benefiting a veterinary medical fund for pathology advancement, may be sent to the Iowa State University Foundation, 2505 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50010.


Dr. Payne (Texas A&M '64), 78, Arlington, Texas, died Sept. 25, 2018. In 1982, he co-founded American Animal Health in Grand Prairie, Texas, a biologic company developing and marketing toxoids, adjuvant systems, and bacterins. Dr. Payne later co-founded AmPharmCo in Fort Worth, Texas, offering analytical, product development, and manufacturing services to pharmaceutical companies.

Early in his career, following graduation, he served with the Army at the Walter Reed Medical Research Hospital in Washington, D.C., attaining the rank of captain; obtained his doctorate in microbiology in 1970 from Purdue University; and worked as a senior microbiologist and director of scientific affairs and operations for several biologic companies. Dr. Payne was a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists and a past president of the Association of Veterinary Biologics Companies. In 2002, the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biological Sciences honored him with an Outstanding Alumni Award. Dr. Payne's wife, Joan, survives him.


Dr. Porter (Kansas State '51), 91, Fergus Falls, Minnesota, died Aug. 14, 2018. He practiced mixed animal medicine in Fergus Falls for 45 years. Active in his community, Dr. Porter was a member of the Fergus Falls School Board for 12 years, helped establish the Fergus Falls campus of Minnesota State Community and Technical College, was active with the Rotary Club, and was a member of the Fergus Falls Area Chamber of Commerce. Dr. Porter served in the Army Air Corps from 1944–46. His wife, Dorothy; two sons and two daughters; eight grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Fergus Falls Area YMCA, 1164 Friberg Ave., Fergus Falls, MN 56537; Federated Church, 224 N. Union Ave., Fergus Falls, MN 56537; or LB Hospice, 805 E. Channing Ave., Fergus Falls, MN 56537.


Dr. Roeder (Georgia '56), 94, Silver Spring, Maryland, died Aug. 3, 2018. He owned Roeder Animal Hospital, a small animal practice in Silver Spring, for 30 years prior to retirement in 1988. Dr. Roeder was a past president of the Wheaton-Kensington Rotary Club. He took up skiing in his 50s and competed in downhill events at both the National Standard Race and Senior Olympics, winning races in 1999, 2000, and 2001, in the 75–79 age group.

Dr. Roeder served in the Army during World War II. He is survived by his wife, Mary; three sons and three daughters; 21 grandchildren; seven great-grandchildren; and a sister and a brother. Memorials may be made to KEEN Greater DC, an organization providing free, noncompetitive exercise, fitness, and fun programs to youth with disabilities, at P.O. Box 341590, Bethesda, MD 20827, www.keengreaterdc.org.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 146 0 0
Full Text Views 1370 1269 133
PDF Downloads 183 122 11