Cocaine gives Greyhound racing a black eye

Racing dogs have 230 positive test results in 20 years

By Greg Cima

Racing dogs in Florida have tested positive for cocaine or cocaine metabolites about 230 times in the past 20 years, according to state and court documents.

The Racing Laboratory at the University of Florida's College of Veterinary Medicine has analyzed more than 700,000 race-day urine samples since July 1998. Among the substances found during that time, cocaine and two metabolites—benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester—constitute one-fifth of the violations. The total number of cocaine-related positive test results may be higher when the state publishes data covering July 2016 through June 2017, a period during which complaint documents show dogs tested positive at least 29 times. Samples are collected before or after races.

Cocaine could give dogs an edge in racing, and state authorities say intentional administration is the most plausible explanation. But attorneys for two Greyhound trainers and leaders of organizations with opposing views on Greyhound racing have said the presence of cocaine metabolites in urine samples might be a result of accidental exposure related to human drug use around the dogs.

Three trainers, 30 positives

After a decade of single-digit annual totals, the number of times cocaine metabolites were detected spiked starting in late 2016.

Greyhounds under one trainer, Charles F. McClellan, were positive for cocaine and cocaine metabolites in 18 tests performed in 2017 at the Bestbet Orange Park track near Jacksonville, Florida. He and fellow trainer Natasha L. Nemeth, whose dogs have had six positive test results since October 2016—also at Orange Park—are fighting the rules that govern drug testing at tracks and that were used to suspend their state licenses.

The 24 positive test results under McClellan and Nemeth came from 16 dogs. One, WW's Flicka, had seven positive test results: six under McClellan and one under Nemeth.

Dogs under a third trainer, Malcolm McAllister, had six positive test results, all in January 2017. The state revoked his license, but he is not participating in the rule challenge.

In a letter filed with state authorities, McAllister denied he was responsible for his animals testing positive. He said he was working with four helpers, and one must have administered cocaine to the dogs or dropped it.

An administrative law judge, Lawrence P. Stevenson, sided with McClellan and Nemeth in a late December 2017 ruling that Florida officials had failed to adopt the drug-testing rules through the official process, and the procedures used to collect and test urine samples from Greyhounds were invalid. At press time, the trainers’ licenses remained suspended, state authorities were appealing the ruling, and the judge was yet to rule on a related challenge to the state's lack of an acceptable limit for cocaine metabolites in urine samples.

Kathleen Keenan, deputy communications director for the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation, declined to answer questions on whether the ruling affects testing at tracks or endangers any existing complaints or decisions against trainers. She said the department is unable to comment on ongoing litigation.

In Florida, dog trainers are responsible for the condition of their animals, including the presence of prohibited substances found during testing.

Attorney Jennifer Y. Rosenblum, who is representing McClellan and Nemeth, declined to comment on behalf of her clients before December's ruling and did not return messages afterward.

Since filing the rule challenge last September, Rosenblum and other attorneys representing the trainers have argued that the substances detected could reflect contact with trace amounts of cocaine through contaminated grass, people who handle cocaine-contaminated cash, or cocaine-contaminated hands and faces of people, including the state employees who collect urine samples. The attorneys also claim the metabolites found are indicative of exposure to amounts too small to affect performance.

“It defies logic to presume that trainers would knowingly violate and continue to violate the statute and place their licenses at risk,” the trainers said in a January court filing.

Attorneys for the Department of Business and Professional Regulation's Division of Pari-Mutuel Wagering have countered in court documents that cocaine is far more likely to be administered by an animal's trainer, there is no evidence the positive test results were caused by environmental contamination, and years of drug testing data contradict suggestions that environmental contamination with cocaine is affecting the Greyhound industry. Court documents filed by the state in January also notes that no authority has set an acceptable amount of cocaine in racing animals, and Greyhounds have no “normal physiological level of cocaine.”

Race benefit or contamination

Tom Vickroy, PhD, executive associate dean and professor in the Department of Physiological Sciences at the University of Florida, is a pharmacologist who has conducted research on the effects of cocaine and other drugs on the central nervous system. He is not affiliated with the university's racing laboratory.

Dr. Vickroy said cocaine has similar stimulatory effects in most animals, increasing awareness, heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscles and other organs. Depending on dosage, it also can cause excitation, vigilance, and a sense of euphoria.

“Because it is a stimulant, cocaine has the potential to enhance athletic performance in short-lasting events,” he said. “The effect of cocaine on endurance events is less clear, but, in short-lived situations, it can improve performance.”

He is unaware of any studies that would show, for example, a direct correlation between race performance and concentrations in blood or urine of cocaine or cocaine metabolites.

Racing animals have tested positive for other prohibited substances following environmental exposure, Dr. Vickroy said. He cited as an example positive test results decades ago for caffeine in horses that drank water from troughs where trainers had emptied remains from their coffee cups.

The National Greyhound Association has supported the contention that environmental contamination could have caused positive test results in dogs, quoting Rosenblum in a December 2017 statement that “even the tiniest trace amounts are being treated as major violations.”

James Gartland, the NGA's executive director, said in an interview that the number of positive test results for cocaine or cocaine metabolites is small in comparison with the hundreds of thousands of samples collected during the same periods. He also expressed doubt the concentrations found affected performance.

“I don't think there was any malintent on the part of any of these trainers,” he said. “There's been evidence shown—or even testing shown—that the samples could have been tainted by the people taking the samples, by outside contaminants.”

Asked about the clustering of 30 positive samples under three trainers, Gartland said that had raised concerns. He maintains many past positives could be explained by sensitive laboratory tests detecting contact with contaminated surfaces.

“But when it all happens to one trainer in one place at the same time, then you have an issue with the trainer,” he said. “Now, does that mean the trainer was necessarily giving these Greyhounds drugs for the racing? I don't believe so. But does that mean the trainer may have a problem? That's another question.”

Gartland clarified that he is not making accusations against any specific trainers.

Carey M. Theil is executive director of Grey2K USA, an organization that advocates against Greyhound racing, alleging the dogs are subjected to cruel conditions and practices. He said environmental contamination claims seem plausible when that includes illegal drug use by people who are around the dogs.

Conversations with racing industry insiders indicated to him cocaine use occurs in kennels, and exposure to crack cocaine smoke could explain the metabolite detection, he said. But, he added, “We would be naive to assume that race fixing doesn't happen.”

The dog with seven laboratory-reported positive test results for benzoylecgonine, WW's Flicka, had first-place finishes in two of those races. Theil noted that the dog was 4 years old, an age when Greyhounds tend to slow down.

He said he doesn't know which possibility is worse: that dogs are under the care of people with drug habits or that the dogs might be administered cocaine for racing.

Enforcement and change

Orange Park town Police Chief Gary Goble said he had received no reports about cocaine in Greyhounds. He said post-race urine samples are sent away for testing, and he thinks state law enforcement would have the authority to investigate.

Officials in the Florida attorney general's office did not respond to requests for comment.

Gartland, of the Greyhound association, said any presence of cocaine in the Greyhounds is a concern.

He said he has spoken with officials from Greyhound tracks about the potential for cocaine contamination. Officials are able to tell kennel owners to remove problematic trainers, but they also want to ensure trainers get their day in court, he said.

In the announcement from December, NGA leaders called for Florida's wagering division to work with the Greyhound racing industry to develop a new drug testing regime that is “veterinary-based,” protects Greyhound health, ensures racing integrity, and provides consistent compliance and enforcement.

“The state's failure to officially promulgate and publish the drug-testing rules effectively invalidates any pending enforcement actions,” the NGA said.

Florida has nine of the 17 NGA-listed Greyhound tracks. Others are in Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, Texas, West Virginia, and Mexico.

Grey2K is citing state data on positive test results for cocaine and cocaine metabolites in support of a proposal to prohibit wagering on dog races. At press time, the proposal was before Florida's Constitution Revision Commission, a body that convenes every 20 years and will vote on proposals to place on the November 2018 general election ballot.

Theil thinks that, if the proposal reaches the general election ballot, the public will vote in favor of it. If it fails to reach the ballot, he said to expect a citizen petition in 2020.

Gartland said the proposal would eliminate thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in revenue and shatter lives of people in the Greyhound industry. He also said everything before the commission has a chance to appear on the ballot.

“After this last year, I don't trust anything that happens in politics,” he said.

Veterinarians can earn certificate in human-animal bond

Human Animal Bond Research Institute, NAVC offering program with AVMA as educational partner

By Katie Burns

Practicing veterinarians as well as veterinary technicians and practice managers can now learn more about research backing the human health benefits of pet ownership and human-animal interactions—and learn how to use that knowledge in veterinary practice.

That's according to an announcement from the Human Animal Bond Research Institute and the North American Veterinary Community. On Feb. 3 at the NAVC's 2018 Veterinary Meeting & Expo in Orlando, Florida, HABRI and the NAVC launched an online certificate program in the human-animal bond, with the AVMA as a founding educational partner.

“Research has shown the benefits of good human-animal relationships— not only for animals, but for people,” said Dr. Michael Topper, AVMA president. “We've all read about the positive impacts of the human-animal bond on depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and heart health. We also know that most pet owners value their veterinarian more when they recognize the benefits of the human-animal bond.

“The AVMA has served as a source of expertise and a think tank for veterinarians and others interested in human-animal relationships since the early 1980s, so we are a natural partner when it comes to education in this field. As a member of the HABRI board of trustees and as a founding educational partner for the human-animal bond certificate program, the AVMA is extremely pleased to work with these like-minded organizations in support of veterinarians, their patients, and their clients.”

To assemble the course material, HABRI and the NAVC convened a group of highly qualified veterinarians, researchers, and academics. The AVMA was a key contributor. Among the course presenters are Dr. Kendall Houlihan, a veterinarian and an assistant director of the AVMA Animal Welfare Division, and Emily Patterson-Kane, PhD, the animal welfare scientist in the division.

The course consists of six online modules and costs $299, with a 20 percent discount for AVMA members. The modules are being rolled out over time, with some available in late February and the rest anticipated to be available by the end of March. The NAVC reports the course will offer 24 hours of continuing education for veterinarians, pending approval by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards’ Registry of Approved Continuing Education.

To earn the certificate in the human-animal bond, a candidate must be a practicing veterinarian, veterinary technician, practice manager, or veterinary assistant; complete the work-at-your-own-pace course; and pass an examination. Candidates who earn the certificate will receive a copy to display in their practice and online, and will receive marketing tools to help attract new pet owners to the practice via social media and other online avenues.

Zoetis, Petco, and PetSmart Charities are the premier sponsors for the course.

Human Animal Bond Certified

The certificate program in the human-animal bond consists of six online modules that have the following learning objectives:

  • • The science of the human-animal bond.

  • • Communicating the human-animal bond.

  • • How community engagement reinforces the human-animal bond.

  • • Embracing the bond—building a successful practice.

  • • Pillars of the bond—animal welfare and wellness.

  • • Nurturing the bond when providing medical care.

Course details are available at www.navc.com/hab.

Education council schedules site visits

The AVMA Council on Education has scheduled site visits to eight schools and colleges of veterinary medicine for the remainder of 2018. Comprehensive site visits are planned for the National Autonomous University of Mexico, April 7–13; St. George's University School of Veterinary Medicine, April 22–26; Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine, April 29–May 3; University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science in Gatton, Australia, Sept. 9–13; Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, Sept. 30–Oct. 4; Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 14–18; University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 28–Nov. 1; and University of London Royal Veterinary College in London, Nov. 4–8.

The council welcomes written comments on these plans or the programs to be evaluated. Comments should be addressed to Dr. Karen Martens Brandt, Director, Education and Research Division, AVMA, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Comments must be signed by the person submitting them to be considered.

In with the new at VMX 2018

North American Veterinary Community's flagship conference abounds with announcements, recognizes innovators

VMX coverage by Katie Burns


An attendee cuddles one of the adoptable puppies at the 2018 Veterinary Meeting & Expo in Orlando, Florida, presented by the North American Veterinary Community. All the puppies found homes. (Courtesy of the NAVC)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

A new certificate program in the human-animal bond, a study on communications gaps between practices and clients, a report on antimicrobial usage in feline patients, and the winners of the first Veterinary Innovation Awards were among the highlights of the 2018 Veterinary Meeting & Expo, Feb. 3–7 in Orlando, Florida.

The North American Veterinary Community, a nonprofit that provides a variety of education, publications, and other services, renamed its flagship conference as VMX starting this year. VMX 2018 attracted nearly 18,000 attendees from all 50 states and nearly 80 countries. Among the attendees were 7,118 veterinarians, 1,901 veterinary technicians, 691 practice managers, 840 support staff members, and 548 veterinary and veterinary technology students.

At the conference, the Human Animal Bond Research Institute and the NAVC launched the new certificate program in the human-animal bond, with the AVMA as a founding educational partner (see page 782). Partners for Healthy Pets released a study finding that many dog and cat owners fail to recognize what happens during their pet's physical examination (see page 785). Banfield Pet Hospital joined with the NAVC to present the second Veterinary Emerging Topics Report, focusing on antimicrobial usage in feline patients (see page 786).

On Feb. 4, the NAVC and its Veterinary Innovation Council announced the winners of their first Veterinary Innovation Awards. The individual winners are Dr. Kerri Marshall (Washington State ‘85), for the Trupanion Express app; veterinary technician Lindsay Peltier, for a full-time telecommuting method; practice manager Cassie Sizemore, for a method to improve workflow and foster engagement; veterinary student Kaitlin McDaniel, for work with the startup House Collars Concierge Vet Techs; and Jill Taylor, for telemedicine innovations at Banfield Pet Hospital.

The organizational winners are Lap of Love, a veterinary network helping people care for geriatric pets; VETgirl, an online continuing education platform; Pet Peace of Mind, a nonprofit helping care for pets of human patients in hospice and palliative care; Tufts at Tech Community Veterinary Clinic, which provides care for pets of low-income clients; and the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, for the annual ACVO event to provide free eye examinations for service animals.

Among other awards, the new Feather in Her Cap Association presented the inaugural Feather In Her Cap awards to female leaders in the animal health industry for contributions to the industry and for developing future female leaders. Among the recipients was a U.S. veterinarian, Dr. Catherine Knupp (Illinois ‘85), Zoetis executive vice president and president for research and development.


VetPartners, an association of management consultants, presented the Veterinary Hospital Managers Association with the Pioneer Professional Award, which recognizes 20-plus years of service as a pioneer in practice consulting or advising. The VHMA mission is to enhance and serve veterinary management professionals through superior education, certification, and networking. Accepting the award for the VHMA were Jim Nash, president; Gerard Gervasi, immediate past president; and Christine Shupe, executive director.

Also at VMX, The Bridge Club launched a video-based community for veterinary professionals. Membership is free at www.thebridgeclub.com. Bridge Club conversations are 25–30 minutes via video conference. Content is 30 percent professional development, 30 percent veterinary medicine, 30 percent personal growth, and 10 percent topics impacting society. The Bridge Club will host live events at conferences, too.

The 2018–2019 NAVC officers are Dr. K. Leann Kuebelbeck, Brandon, Florida, president; Dr. Cheryl Good, Dearborn, Michigan, president-elect; veterinary technician Paige Allen, West Lafayette, Indiana, vice president; Dr. Laurel Kaddatz, Pound Ridge, New York, treasurer; and Dr. Gail H. Gibson, Skowhegan, Maine, immediate past president. The other members of the board of directors are veterinary technician Harold Davis, Davis, California; Dr. Sally Haddock, New York City; Dr. Bob Lester, Harrogate, Tennessee; and Dr. Mark Russak, Berlin, Connecticut.

Pet owners don't recognize what happens during exam

A recent study by Partners for Healthy Pets found that many dog and cat owners fail to recognize what happens during their pet's physical examination and the importance of the veterinary services performed.

The study findings were announced Feb. 5 during a session by the American Animal Hospital Association at the North American Veterinary Community's 2018 Veterinary Meeting & Expo in Orlando, Florida.

More than five years of data compiled from staff and client survey responses determined that pet owners don't always hear what veterinary team members think they communicate. According to an announcement summarizing the results, the study indicates that practices have an opportunity to better communicate not only what is being done in a preventive examination but also how the examination benefits the pet.

The PHP study gathered data from practices that used the PHP's free online survey tool, The Opportunity, designed to help practices identify communication gaps between their teams and clients during a pet's yearly examination.

The study compiled responses from surveys of 1,193 practice staff members, 833 dog owners, and 527 cat owners from April 2012 through June 2017. The study revealed communication disconnects between staff and clients in the areas of pain assessment and dental examinations, among other areas.

Compared with staff members, fewer clients said pain assessment is an important component of preventive care. About 45 percent of dog owners and 30 percent of cat owners believed that a pain assessment was discussed or performed at their pet's most recent checkup. When staff members were asked whether a pain assessment is typically performed at every examination during a visit for preventive care, 73 percent said yes for dogs, and 68 percent said yes for cats.

Staff members also reported much higher rates of canine and feline dental examinations than clients did. For dogs and cats alike, 95 percent of staff members indicated that a dental examination is typically performed at every examination during a visit for preventive care. About 77 percent of dog owners and 78 percent of cat owners believed a dental examination was discussed or performed at their pet's most recent checkup.

Communication gaps were also found in these canine and feline veterinary services: general physical examination, weight and nutritional assessment, internal parasite testing, broad-spectrum parasite control, heartworm testing, behavioral assessment, vaccinations, follow-up plans based on assessments and recommendations, and retrovirus testing for cats.

“Practices that use The Opportunity to reveal their unique communication gaps have taken the first step to provide better and more valued health care for clients,” said Dr. David Granstrom, PHP co-chair and AVMA assistant executive vice president, in the announcement about the study.

“The second step is to develop good communication skills by the staff. It really is the fix for ensuring that a client has full appreciation and understanding of the components of a preventive health care exam and their importance.”

The results of the PHP study have been published as an AAHA-AVMA white paper, “The Opportunity: Pet owners don't always hear what we think we tell them (and how to fix that).” The white paper, survey tool, and free communication tools for staff training are available at www.partnersforhealthypets.org.

Banfield reports on antimicrobial usage in feline patients

About 40 percent of cats receive antimicrobial medications for a presumptive urinary tract infection with no urinalysis or with negative urinalysis results.

That was one of the key findings of the second Veterinary Emerging Topics Report from Banfield Pet Hospital and the North American Veterinary Community. Banfield and the NAVC released the report, “A Feline Focus on Antimicrobial Usage,” on Feb. 5 during the NAVC's 2018 Veterinary Meeting & Expo in Orlando, Florida.

The first report focused on antimicrobial usage in canine patients at Banfield hospitals. The second report explored antimicrobial usage in feline patients at 973 Banfield hospitals throughout the United States in 2016, looking specifically at urinary tract infections and respiratory tract infections in cats for which antimicrobials were dispensed in the hospital.

After positive results on a urinalysis for a urinary tract infection, only 11 percent of feline patients received further culture and susceptibility testing to confirm the diagnosis. As in dogs, many urinary tract infections and respiratory tract infections in cats are treated with an antimicrobial not concordant with guidelines from the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases.

Two primary drivers for prescribing antimicrobials instead of performing additional tests or suggesting other forms of treatment were concerns about compliance.

According to an announcement summarizing the report, “Opportunities exist to achieve improved adherence to existing antimicrobial usage guidelines through increased veterinarian focus on patient diagnostic testing, client education and support, and improving the ease of medication administration.”

The full report is available at www.banfield.com/exchange.

UF accepting applications for aquaculture fellowships


(Photo by PeggyGreb/USDA-ARS)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

Aquaculture is an important component of global animal production and, like all animal agriculture operations, faces health management challenges. Veterinarians provide many services to aquaculture operations by addressing site-specific herd health needs, biosecurity recommendations, disease surveillance and testing, medications, and health certifications for trade.

Commercial aquaculture in the United States needs more production animal veterinarians willing to work in rural communities where agriculture, including aquaculture, exists. Success of these private, rural veterinary practices often requires a business model that includes diversification of veterinary expertise in animals beyond traditional farm species.

To address the veterinary needs of underserved aquaculture producers in rural America, the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, is offering eight veterinary fellowships for a two-year training program in aquatic animal health and aquaculture production medicine.

The UF IFAS fellowship is one of 13 programs that received a total of $2.35 million from the USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture last November. The grants are awarded to support rural veterinary services and relieve veterinarian shortages in parts of the U.S. and its insular areas.

Training, comprising online and field instruction, includes implementation of the National Aquaculture Association–USDA Commercial Aquaculture Health Program Standards for clients. Tuition and related educational expenses are provided, and a stipend of $5,000 per participant will be paid on successful completion of each year of training.

Recent veterinary graduates with five years of experience or less working in rural areas may apply by submitting an application packet consisting of the following: a written statement of interest in working with aquaculture producers, including a statement of commitment to continued interest after the fellowship; three professional references; documented verification of a state veterinary license; and USDA accreditation as a category II practitioner.

Preference will be given to applicants submitting at least one letter of reference from an aquaculture facility.

The application deadline is June 1.

For additional information, contact Dr. Ruth Francis-Floyd, extension veterinarian at the University of Florida, at rffloyd@ufl.edu or by calling (386) 643-8904.

Study: Service dogs associated with less-intense PTSD symptoms

By Malinda Larkin


(Photos courtesy of K9s For Warriors)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

A preliminary study led by researchers at the Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine has shown that overall symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are less intense among war veterans who have trained PTSD service dogs, according to a Feb. 8 university press release. The Human Animal Bond Research Institute and Bayer Animal Health co-funded the pilot study.

Maggie O'Haire, PhD, assistant professor of human-animal interaction at Purdue's veterinary college, led the study with the help of K9s For Warriors, a nonprofit organization that provides veterans with service dogs. The pilot research project provides scientific evidence of mental health benefits experienced by war veterans with PTSD who have service dogs.

The 141 participants were veterans who applied and were approved to receive a trained PTSD service dog from K9s For Warriors. Approximately half the participants were on the wait-list to receive a service dog during the study, and the other half already had a service dog. Results reveal that war veterans suffering from PTSD who had a service dog experienced better mental health and well-being on several measures, including the following:

  • • Lower overall symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

  • • Lower degrees of depression.

  • • Higher degrees of life satisfaction.

  • • Higher overall psychological well-being.

  • • Lower degrees of social isolation and greater ability to participate in social activities.

  • • Higher degrees of resilience.

  • • Higher degrees of companionship.

  • • Less absenteeism from work because of health issues among those who were employed.

The only areas measured in which there was no substantial difference between the two groups were physical functioning and employment status, according to the study.

Kerri Rodriguez, human-animal interaction graduate student at Purdue's veterinary college, was co-author of the study.

“The results have important implications for understanding the specific areas of life that a PTSD service dog may help improve,” Rodriguez said. “As the number of service dogs given to veterans with PTSD continues to increase, this is an important first step towards proof of concept that service dogs can actually provide measurable, clinical changes for veterans.”

Dr. O'Haire and Rodriguez also said that service dogs did not replace evidence-based treatment for PTSD, nor did they cure it. Although the veterans still had PTSD, they had substantially less-intense symptoms.

“Pairing service dogs with our nation's veterans should be recognized as a significant complementary method of treatment,” said Steven Feldman, HABRI executive director, in the release. “The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has cited a lack of scientific research supporting service dogs for veterans with PTSD. This study is a significant step in providing scientific documentation, and I hope the promising results from this study will prompt a renewed focus on the benefits that service dogs provide.”

Rory Diamond, CEO of K9s For Warriors, told JAVMA News that his organization helped facilitate the study to take away the VA's argument that there is no evidence for the effectiveness of providing service dogs in the treatment of PTSD.

“Our warriors use fewer services at the VA, so the overall cost to the government is less (than if they didn't have a service dog), and the warrior is not on pills and is alive,” Diamond said. “But dogs cost money and are complicated. The VA is a bureaucracy that doesn't want to change; it's that simple.”

K9s For Warriors spends about $24,000 per service dog, including for veterinary care once the veteran and service dog are together.


Rory Diamond, CEO of K9s For Warriors, says his organization helped facilitate the study to take away the Department of Veterans Affairs’ argument that there is no evidence for service dogs’ effectiveness in treating PTSD.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

Dr. O'Haire says the data from the pilot study helped secure National Institutes of Health funding to conduct a large-scale clinical trial to further investigate the efficacy and role of providing service dogs for military veterans with PTSD.

Diamond also hopes the research will help validate which service dog tasks are most useful for veterans as well as whether certain veterans benefit more from a service dog. Anecdotally, he has seen service dogs having the greatest impact in the first two to three years after returning from service.

“That's when a warrior learns to get out of the house, how to go to school or work, and participates in society again. They learn how to get up in the morning, eat full meals, and manage their anxiety and fear,” he said.

Afterward, about a third of participants no longer need a service dog, another third keep their service dog for its natural life but don't need a replacement, and the remaining third need a service dog for the rest of their life.

The study is published in the February issue of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, available at http://jav.ma/servicedogstudy.

World Veterinary Day promotes sustainable development

The theme of World Veterinary Day 2018, which falls on April 28, is “The role of the veterinary profession in sustainable development to improve livelihoods, food security, and safety.”

The World Veterinary Association created World Veterinary Day in 2000 as an annual celebration of the veterinary profession, falling on the last Saturday of April. Each year, the WVA and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) choose a theme.

Among its recent efforts in food security, the AVMA hosted the Global Food Security Summit, Feb. 9–11, 2017, in Washington, D.C. More than a hundred people attended, including representatives from humanitarian and intergovernmental organizations involved with food development. The AVMA Committee on International Veterinary Affairs is developing recommendations for future action by the AVMA to continue the Association's involvement in global food security.

The WVA and OIE confer the World Veterinary Day Award for the best contribution on the annual theme by a WVA member association working alone or with other veterinary groups.

In 2017, the theme of World Veterinary Day was “Antimicrobial Resistance—From Awareness to Action.” The National Council of the Order of Veterinarians of France won the 2017 World Veterinary Day Award for extensive contributions in this area revolving around participation in France's plan to reduce the risks of antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine.

Details about World Veterinary Day and the World Veterinary Day Award are available at www.worldvet.org.

FDA issues alert about pentobarbital contamination in dog food

The Food and Drug Administration is investigating contamination with pentobarbital in canned dog food manufactured by The J.M. Smucker Co., according to a Feb. 16 announcement from the agency.

Because pentobarbital residues are unaffected by rendering or canning temperatures and pressures, animals killed with chemical euthanasia substances, including pentobarbital, cannot be used in the manufacture of pet foods.

One dog died and others became ill after, in late 2016, eating canned food from Evanger's Dog and Cat Food Co. that was contaminated with pentobarbital. WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C., later tested 62 samples of wet dog food across more than two dozen brands for pentobarbital. Nine of 15 cans of Gravy Train from J.M. Smucker had positive results. After learning of the results, J.M. Smucker initiated a withdrawal of all lots of canned dog food from its Gravy Train, Kibbles ‘N Bits, Ol’ Roy, and Skippy brands manufactured from 2016 through Feb. 16.

The FDA's preliminary evaluation of the testing results of Gravy Train samples indicated that the low concentration of pentobarbital present in the withdrawn products was unlikely to pose a health risk to pets.

On Feb. 23, J.M. Smucker announced that it had identified the source of pentobarbital as beef fat, which was used only in the recalled brands of dog food.

Pet foods recalled over Salmonella, Listeria contamination

Two companies are recalling raw pet foods linked with salmonellosis and listeriosis in people and pets.

Together, contamination in the products has been linked with two illnesses in children and at least six reports of illnesses in pets, including one in which a kitten died, according to notices published in February by the Food and Drug Administration.

Christofersen Meats Co., doing business as Swanson Meats of Minneapolis, recalled 1- and 5-pound sealed plastic tubes of Raws for Paws Ground Turkey Food for Pets manufactured Oct. 12, 2017, because of potential contamination with Salmonella serotype Reading. One of two children sickened developed septicemia and osteomyelitis, and the same Salmonella strain was isolated from the children and four samples of the pet food.

The products were packaged in Turkey Pet Food cases bearing codes of 9900008 or 9900009 and Pet Food Combo Pack cases bearing codes 9900014 or 9900015.

Arrow Reliance issued four recalls between Oct. 17, 2016, and Feb. 10, 2018, for ZooLogics and Darwin's Natural foods linked with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella infections in pets. The FDA received six complaints of illnesses in dogs and cats, some involving multiple animals.

The most recent recall involves potential Salmonella contamination in ZooLogics Duck and Vegetable Meals for Dogs from lot 41957 and ZooLogics Chicken with Vegetable Meals for dogs from lot 41567.

The full list of recalled products is available at http://jav.ma/FDAfoodrecalls.

Joint pathology meeting


Dr. Krista La Perle

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778


Dr. Anne Barger

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778


Dr. Erica Behling-Kelly

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778


Dr. Megan Caudill

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778


Dr. Candice Pei-Hua Chu

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778


Dr. Cynthia Lucidi

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

Event: American College of Veterinary Pathologists, American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology, joint annual meetings, Nov. 4–8, 2017, Vancouver, British Columbia

Program: The ACVP program included pre- and post-meeting workshops, mini symposiums, joint plenary sessions, scientific sessions, and specialty group sessions. The ASVCP held pre-meeting workshops, and scientific, educational, and clinical sessions.

American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Awards: Young Investigator Award, category of diagnostic pathology, First place: Drs. Lauren W. Stranahan, Quinci Plumlee, and Laura K. Bryan, Texas A&M University, for “Rhodococcus equi infection in goats: Characterization of virulence plasmid phenotype”; Second place: Drs. Margaret E. Martinez, Katie Seeley, Dawn Zimmerman, Priya Bapodra, and Rachel Cianciolo, The Ohio State University, for “Systemic amyloidosis in a captive population of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana)”; and Third place: Drs. Krystal J. Vail, Tasha Likavec, Philippa Gibbons, and Raquel Rech, Texas A&M University, for “ Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a goat.” Category of natural disease, First place: Drs. Candice P. Chu and Mary B. Nabity, Texas A&M University, for “Small RNA-SEQ evaluation of microRNAs during disease progression in kidney biopsies from dogs with x-linked hereditary nephropathy”; Second place: Drs. Mason C. Jager, Jennifer K. Grenier, Erica A. Sloma, and Andrew D. Miller, Cornell University, for “RNA-SEQ transcriptome analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine glioma”; and Third place: Dr. Lauren Harris, Kelly Hughes, Dr. E.J. Ehrhart, Janna Yoshimoto, Robert Burnette, and Dr. Anne Avery, Colorado State University, for “Gene expression profiling identifies canine CD4+ T-cell lymphoma as a naturally occurring model of an aggressive subset of human peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified.” Category of experimental disease, First place: Drs. Travis K. Meuten and Douglas H. Thamm, Colorado State University, for “Evaluation of efficacy of dual P13K/AKT/MTOR pathway inhibition in canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro and a xenograft mouse model”; Second place: Drs. Natalie Wall Fowlkes, Dominique Townsend, Brent Stanfield, Paul Rider, Vladimir Chouljenko, Rafiq Nabi, Ramesh Subramanian, Michael Mathis, and Konstantin Kousoulas, Louisiana State University, for “A synegeneic immunocompetent double-labeled B16F10 murine melanoma model for efficacy and safety testing of oncolytic virotherapy using the HSV-1 VC2 live-attenuated vaccine strain”; and Third place: Drs. Jessica S. Fortin, Chady H. Hakim, Scott Korte, Gayle C. Johnson, and Dongsheng Duan, University of Missouri, for “Widespread severe myodegeneration in a homozygous female dog with dystrophin deficiency;” Category of industrial and toxicologic pathology, First place: Drs. Shan K. Naidu, Brent Stanfield, Nithya Jambunathan, Nagarjuna Cheemarla, Vladimir Chouljenko, Renee T. Carter, Ingeborg Langohr, and Konstantin G. Kousoulas, Louisiana State University, for “Vaccination of mice with VC2, a novel mutant strain of herpes simplex virus 1, protects against ocular herpesviral infection.” Student Poster Award, clinical cases, First place: Kai S. Moore, Dr. Nicole Nemeth, Thisuri Eagalle, Dr. Hugues Beaufrere, Dr. Leonardo Susta, and Dr. Csaba Varga, University of Guelph, for “Neoplastic diseases in captive psittacine birds submitted to the Ontario Veterinary College”; Second place: Drs. Ashley E. Saver, Cory R. Hanks, Marigold E. Ernst, and Geoffrey K. Saunders, Virginia Tech, for “Canine cutaneous lymphoma with concurrent methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection”; and Third place: Caitlin Maureen Culligan and Dr. Kim Newkirk, University of Tennessee, for “Blackleg: A retrospective study of the frequency of cardiac lesions in fatal cases of clostridial myositis.” Experimental disease, First Place: Kerry Ann Goldin, Dr. Jessica Lawrence, Dr. Angela M. Craig, Dr. Clara Ferreira, Dr. Luke Hoeppner, and Dr. Davis Seelig, University of Minnesota, for “Sorafenib treatment in a novel mouse model of acute radiation-induced dermatitis”; Second place: Betsy A. Pray and Dr. Abigail Durke, Purdue University, for “Developing a novel porcine model of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease”; and Third place: Latasha Ludwig, Dr. Emily Brouwer, Dr. Courtney Schott, Dr. Alicia Viloria-Petit, and Dr. Geoffrey Wood, University of Guelph, for “Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2/HER2) antibody specificity in canine mammary tumours and osteosarcomas.” Society of Toxicologic Pathology Student and Resident Poster Award: Colby Klein, Dr. Sophie Derveau, Ivanna Kozii, Sarah Wood, Roman Koziy, Ihor Dyvyluk, and Dr. Elemir Simko, University of Saskatchewan, for “Histologic characterization of testicular development of apis mellifera drones during sexual maturation.” ACVP–American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians Diagnostic Pathology Travel Award: Drs. Allison M. Watson, A.C. Cushing, J.D. Sheldon, E. Anis, R.P. Wilkes, E.J. Dubovi, and L.E. Craig, University of Tennessee, for “Characterization of natural canine distemper virus infection in five adult Linnaeus's two-toed sloths.” Best Poster Award: Zachary S. Croslin, Dr. James H. Meinkoth, Dr. Laura A. Nafe, and Dr. Rebecca S. Tims, Oklahoma State University, for “Vegetative endocarditis as a cause of septic polyarthritis in a dog.” Harold W. Casey Memorial Scholarship: Dr. Bonnie Harrington, The Ohio State University. William Inskeep II Memorial Scholarship: Dana Hill, Colorado State University. Presidential Award: Wendy Coe (posthumously); Allan Cohen, PhD, Athens, Georgia; and Dr. Julie Webb, Markham, Ontario. The ACVP elected Drs. John Cullen, Raleigh, North Carolina, and Victor E.O. “Ted” Valli, Visalia, California, as distinguished members, and Dr. Joe Kornegay, College Station, Texas, as an honorary member.

Officials: Drs. Krista La Perle, Columbus, Ohio, president; Dorothee Bienzle, Guelph, Ontario, president-elect; Mark Ackermann, Ames, Iowa, secretary-treasurer; Anne Barger, Urbana, Illinois, immediate past president; and councilors—Drs. Susan Tornquist, Corvallis, Oregon; Karen Terio, Maywood, Illinois; Kirstin Barnhart, Chicago; and Jerry Ritchey, Stillwater, Oklahoma

American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology

Awards: Lifetime Achievement Award: Dr. Dennis DeNicola, North Grafton, Massachusetts, for contributions to the advancement of veterinary clinical pathology. A 1978 graduate of the Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine and a diplomate of the ACVP, Dr. DeNicola has served as chief veterinary educator at Idexx Laboratories in North Grafton since 2002. Prior to that, he was a professor of veterinary clinical pathology at Purdue University. Educator Award: Dr. Anne Barger, Urbana, Illinois, for her contributions and dedication to clinical pathology education. A 1996 graduate of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine and a diplomate and immediate past president of the ACVP, Dr. Barger is a clinical professor of pathobiology and assistant director of the veterinary diagnostic laboratory at the veterinary college. She directs the UIUC clinical pathology residency program and chairs the ACVP Examination Committee. Early Career Award: Dr. Erica Behling-Kelly, Ithaca, New York, was the inaugural recipient of this award, given to ASVCP members in the early stages of their careers who show exceptional promise in the discipline of veterinary clinical pathology through efforts in research, diagnostic service, teaching, or service to the society. A 2002 graduate of the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine and a diplomate of the ACVP, Dr. Behling-Kelly is an associate professor in the Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. Share the Future Research Grant Award ($2,500): Dr. Megan Caudill, University of Georgia, for “Comparison of serum vs. EDTA-plasma in canine crossmatch reactions.” Young Investigator Award: Dr. Candice Pei-Hua Chu, Texas A&M University, for “Comparison of methods for preparation of biofluids in dogs for small RNA sequencing,” and Dr. Cynthia Lucidi, University of Wisconsin-Madison, for “Increased IgG and phosphatidylserine on marrow erythroid precursors of dogs with precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia and on blood RBCs of dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.”

Officials: Drs. Kurt Zimmermann, Blacksburg, Virginia, president; Julie Webb, Markham, Ontario, president-elect; Mark Johnson, College Station, Texas, secretary; Melinda Camus, Athens, Georgia, secretary-elect; Sarah Beatty, Gainesville, Florida, treasurer; Lindsay Tomlinson, Cambridge, Massachusetts, immediate past president; and board members—Drs. Sharon Dial, Tucson, Arizona; Amy MacNeill, Fort Collins, Colorado; and Laura Snyder, Waukesha, Wisconsin

Lappin chairing WSAVA one-health committee

Dr. Michael Lappin of Colorado State University is the new chair of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association's One Health Committee.

A professor of infectious disease in the Department of Clinical Sciences at the CSU College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Dr. Lappin also directs the Center for Companion Animal Studies. Last year, he received the AVMA Clinical Research Award for his contributions to the study of infectious diseases in animals.

Dr. Lappin succeeded Dr. Michael Day, emeritus professor of veterinary pathology at the University of Bristol in the U.K., who initiated creation of the one-health committee in 2010. The committee works to ensure the prominence of the small companion animal–human interface in the global one-health agenda. Dr. Day was elected to the WSAVA executive board and will become its liaison to the committee in September.

In a WSAVA press release, Dr. Lappin said, “As with Michael, One Health has been my major career interest since completing my PhD studying feline toxoplasmosis. Joining the OHC has been a career highlight and I am honoured to have been elected to follow in his footsteps and to lead the WSAVA's work in this area. We have a range of activities planned for 2018, including the launch of an online modular continuing education (CE) programme in One Health for WSAVA members.”


Dr. Michael Lappin

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

American College of Veterinary Dermatology

The American College of Veterinary Dermatology certified 14 new diplomates following the certification examination held Nov. 9–10, 2017, in Pomona, California. The new diplomates are as follows:

Jennifer J. Bentley, Bend, Oregon

Daniel G. Bowden, Paramus, New Jersey

Elizabeth Falk, Stamford, Connecticut

Daniel C. Fickle, Charlotte, North Carolina

Martha Lane Friedman, Fairhope, Alabama

Nao Hensel, Munchenstein, Switzerland

Evie C. Knight, Stafford Heights, Australia

Carine Laporte, Gilbert, Arizona

Elizabeth A. Layne, Madison, Wisconsin

Rendina A. McFadden, Eden Prairie, Minnesota

Fiona M. Scholz, Perth, Australia

Andrew C. Simpson, Aurora, Illinois

Heng Leet Tham, Blacksburg, Virginia

Christine Zewe, Woburn, Massachusetts

American Veterinary Dental College

The American Veterinary Dental College welcomed 13 new diplomates following the board certification examination held June 6–8, 2017, in Las Vegas. The new diplomates are as follows:

Molly Angel, Washington, Michigan

Michael Balke, Gilbert, Arizona

Katherine Block, Portland, Oregon

Ana Castejon-Gonzalez, Philadelphia

Stephen Galloway, Somerville, Tennessee

Lorraine Hiscox, London, Ontario

Naomi Hoyer, Fort Collins, Colorado

Candace Lowe, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

Louise Marron. Carbondale, Colorado

Danielle Mendelsohn, Charlotte, North Carolina

G.G. Comet Riggs, Seattle

Amy Somrak, Urbana, Illinois

Kipp Wingo, Phoenix

Michigan VMA officers announced

The Michigan VMA installed its officers during its annual meeting Jan. 26–28 in Lansing.

Officers are Drs. Lori Penman, Lake Orion, president; Mike Thome, Carson City, president-elect; Melissa Owings, Clarklake, first vice president and treasurer; Christian Ast, Northville, second vice president; and Bruce Cozzens, Maple City, immediate past president.

Obituaries: Colleagues mourn death of Saul Wilson

By R. Scott Nolen

Dr. Saul T. Wilson Jr., a visionary leader in the control and eradication of animal diseases and a respected academician at the Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine, died Feb. 1. He was 87.

“The College of Veterinary Medicine is mourning the loss of another veterinary trailblazer, Professor Emeritus Dr. Saul T. Wilson, Jr. He has ended his earthly journey of love, commitment, and dedication to Tuskegee University, but the impact he has made locally, nationally, and globally is so significant, that his name will be forever remembered and noted in history as one of the greatest in veterinary medicine,” CVM Dean Ruby L. Perry said in a statement.

Dr. Wilson was a member of the first preveterinary medicine class at Tuskegee Institute—now Tuskegee University—and was among the second class of Tuskegee veterinary college (then veterinary school) graduates. He told JAVMA News during a 2010 interview that he had not met a black veterinarian prior to enrolling at Tuskegee. “I did not know any existed. I had never seen one,” he said.

After graduating from Tuskegee in 1950, Dr. Wilson began his career with the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Animal Industries, which later became part of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, as a field veterinarian and one of the country's first African-American public practice veterinarians.

He worked on the Mexico-U.S. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Eradication Commission. It was his leadership, expertise, and dedication, along with the empathy he showed Mexican livestock producers, that helped eradicate this dreaded disease when no one thought it could be done, and kept it from reinfecting U.S. livestock.


Dr. Saul T. Wilson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 7; 10.2460/javma.252.7.778

Dr. Wilson served in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps from 1952–54. A year later, he received his master's in public health from the Harvard School of Public Health. He then returned to APHIS Veterinary Services, assisting in the eradication of several livestock diseases, including hog cholera and exotic Newcastle disease.

At APHIS, Dr. Wilson had many roles—from diagnostician to assistant administrator. In 1986, he received the Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Executive Service and the USDA Distinguished Service and Superior Service awards.

After retiring from APHIS in 1989, Dr. Wilson returned to his alma mater as a professor of epidemiology and director of the Center for Tropical Animal Health. He retired from Tuskegee University in 2015 but continued to serve in a consultant role.

In 1991, Veterinary Services established the Saul T. Wilson Jr. Internship Program. The mentorship and career development program provides financial support and paid summer employment to undergraduate and graduate students pursuing biomedical science and veterinary medical careers.

Dr. Wilson is survived by his daughter, Adrienne; two grandsons, Ryan and Damien; one brother, Sherald; and one sister, Mary Elizabeth. He was preceded in death by his wife, Alva Marian.

AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember

Richard R. Basom

Dr. Basom (Cornell ‘44), 94, Henrietta, New York, died Nov. 12, 2017. He practiced mixed animal medicine in Henrietta for more than 40 years. Following graduation, Dr. Basom served as veterinarian for New York's Monroe County for a few years. He subsequently established Basom Animal Hospital in Henrietta, later building a new hospital in Henrietta.

Dr. Basom is survived by his daughter. Memorials may be made to the American Heart Association, P.O. Box 3049, Syracuse, NY 13220, or Lollypop Farm, the Humane Society of Greater Rochester, 99 Victor Road, Fairport, NY 14450.

Lester L. Beck

Dr. Beck (Pennsylvania ‘60), 84, Williamsport, Pennsylvania, died Oct. 14, 2017. He was the founder of Loyalsock Animal Hospital in Williamsport. Dr. Beck was a member of the Pennsylvania VMA and the Texas & Blockhouse Fish & Game Club, chairing the club's Habitat Committee.

Dr. Beck is survived by his wife, Carol; a son; and two sisters. Memorials may be made to the Lycoming Centre Presbyterian Church, 656 W. Creek Road, P.O. Box 310, Cogan Station, PA 17728.

Gary W. Buckmaster

Dr. Buckmaster (Colorado State ‘79), 67, Grants Pass, Oregon, died Nov. 8, 2017. He was a mixed animal veterinarian.

Dr. Buckmaster is survived by his wife, Cortney, and his children.

Elizabeth J. Collins

Dr. Collins (Pennsylvania ‘41), 99, Saugerties, New York, died Oct. 4, 2017. She owned Kingston Animal Hospital in Kingston, New York, prior to retirement. Early in her career, Dr. Collins practiced in Manhattan.

Memorials may be made to Guiding Eyes for the Blind, Headquarters and Training Center, 611 Granite Springs Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598.

Warren J. Davis

Dr. Davis (Purdue ‘64), 78, Pocatello, Idaho, died Jan. 29, 2018. Prior to retirement at the age of 60, he worked for the Idaho Humane Society in Boise. Following graduation, Dr. Davis practiced briefly in Illinois before serving two years in the Army. He subsequently practiced mixed animal medicine in several Indiana communities, later establishing a small animal practice in Valparaiso, Indiana. Dr. Davis moved in the late 1980s to Idaho, where he served as a relief veterinarian before working for the humane society.

He is survived by his wife, Sally; a son, two daughters, and two stepdaughters; four grandchildren and four step-grandchildren; and two sisters. Memorials may be made to Argos Dollars For Scholars, Argos Community Schools, 410 N. First St., Argos, IN 46501; First Presbyterian Church Memorial Fund, P.O. Box 4488, Pocatello, ID 83205; or American Cancer Fund, P.O. Box 7262, Hillsborough, NJ 08844, www.americancancerfund.org.

Robert E. Fahr

Dr. Fahr (Texas A&M ‘43), 100, Conway, Arkansas, died Dec. 16, 2017. A mixed animal veterinarian, he founded Paragould Animal Clinic in Paragould, Arkansas, where he practiced until retirement in 1983. Dr. Fahr was a member of the Arkansas VMA and was named Veterinarian of the Year in 1978. A veteran of the Army Veterinary Corps, he attained the rank of captain. Dr. Fahr served on the Paragould School Board and Arkansas Department of Health.

His wife, Gwendolyn; two sons and two daughters; six grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren survive him.

Frank C. Fraunfelter

Dr. Fraunfelter (Ohio State ‘60), 83, Spring Hill, Florida, died Feb. 5, 2018. He owned Hill Crest Veterinary Hospital in Canton, Ohio, where he practiced small animal medicine for 25 years prior to retirement. Following graduation, Dr. Fraunfelter served in the Air Force Veterinary Corps for almost 10 years.

He is survived by his wife, Carol; two sons and a daughter; five grandchildren; and a great-grandchild. Memorials may be made to Holy Cross Lutheran Church, 6193 Spring Hill Drive, Spring Hill, FL 34606.

Gerald D. Gaines

Dr. Gaines (Georgia ‘54), 87, Marietta, Georgia, died Feb. 2, 2018. Following graduation, he served in the Army Veterinary Corps for 20 years, retiring as a colonel from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, D.C. During that time, he earned the Bronze Star, Army Commendation, National Defense Service, Vietnam Service, Armed Forces Reserve, and Republic of Vietnam Campaign medals.

Dr. Gaines went on to establish the Whitlock Animal Clinic in west Marietta, where he practiced small animal medicine for 17 years. He subsequently served as a relief veterinarian prior to retirement in 2010. Dr. Gaines was a past president of the Cobb County VMA. His wife, Barbara; a daughter; three grandchildren; and a sister survive him.

Scott O. Galbreath Jr.

Dr. Galbreath (Auburn ‘46), 92, Natchez, Mississippi, died Oct. 22, 2017. In 1959, he moved to Natchez, where he established a mixed animal practice. Earlier, Dr. Galbreath served in the Army Veterinary Corps and owned a practice in Westfield, New Jersey. During the 1960s and 1970s, he also farmed cotton and soybeans, and, in 1979, he established Old South Winery in Natchez.

Dr. Galbreath was a charter member of the American Heartworm Society and was active with the Natchez Horsemen's Club. His wife, Edeen; five daughters and a son; 22 grandchildren; and 21 great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Blair E. Batson Hospital for Children, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State St., Jackson, MS 39216; The Manning Family Fund for a Healthier Mississippi, 2500 N. State St., Jackson, MS 39216; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105; or Wounded Warrior Project, P.O. BOX 758516, Topeka, KS 66675.

James E. Jordan

Dr. Jordan (Texas A&M ‘60), 85, Marshall, Texas, died Oct. 17, 2017. A mixed animal veterinarian, he owned Jordan Veterinary Service, a mobile practice. Following graduation, Dr. Jordan joined Sanders Veterinary Hospital in Marshall, Texas. The practice subsequently became the Sanders-Jordan Veterinary Clinic, and, later, the Jordan-Allred Veterinary Hospital. Dr. Jordan later sold the practice and established his mobile clinic. A member of the East Texas VMA, he served on the Marshall-Harrison Board of Health for 41 years, also serving on the board of directors of the Humane Society of Harrison County.

Dr. Jordan was a veteran of the Air Force. His wife, Gay; a son and a daughter; nine grandchildren; three great-grandchildren; and a brother and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to the Humane Society of Harrison County, The Pet Place, 1901 Jefferson Ave., Marshall, TX 75670, or First Baptist Church, 405 W. Austin, Marshall, TX 75670.

Eugene A. Martin

Dr. Martin (Pennsylvania ‘51), 95, Luray, Virginia, died Dec. 12, 2017. He owned Page Valley Veterinary Clinic in Luray for 41 years, initially practicing large animal medicine, and, later, mixed animal medicine. Dr. Martin was a charter member of the Luray Volunteer Rescue Squad and a member of the Luray Volunteer Fire Department. He served in the Army during World War II.

His two daughters and three grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Page Free Clinic, 200 Memorial Drive, Luray, VA 22835; Luray Volunteer Fire Department, 1 Firehouse Lane, Luray, VA 22835; or Christ Episcopal Church, 16 Amiss Ave., Luray, VA 22835.

Michael G. Ramieri

Dr. Ramieri (Ross ‘02), 44, Sparta, New Jersey, died Jan. 24, 2018. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Advanced Veterinary Care in Franklin, New Jersey. Dr. Ramieri began his career at Nutley Animal Hospital in Nutley, New Jersey. He then served as a partner at Vernon Veterinary Clinic in Vernon, New Jersey, before establishing his own practice.

Dr. Ramieri was a member of the board of directors of the Dog Owners Gathering Society of Vernon. He is survived by his wife, Terri; two daughters and a son; his parents; and a brother and sister. Memorials may be made to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, P.O. Box 96929, Washington, DC 20090.

Otto E. Schroeder Jr.

Dr. Schroeder (Texas A&M ‘60), 87, Arlington, Texas, died Aug. 29, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Park Row Animal Hospital in Arlington for more than 25 years, prior to retirement. Dr. Schroeder was a veteran of the Army. His wife, Doris; two sons and two daughters; 12 grandchildren; a great-grandchild; and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX 77843.

Joseph A. Watkins

Dr. Watkins (Michigan State ‘66), 75, Englewood, Florida, died Nov. 18, 2017. He was a small animal veterinarian.

Nancy B. Watts

Dr. Watts (Colorado State ‘83), 72, Thornton, Colorado, died Jan. 8, 2018. She practiced small animal medicine in the Denver area.

Dr. Watts was a member of the Colorado VMA. She is survived by her daughter, three grandchildren, and four brothers.

Matthew H. Wykoff

Dr. Wykoff (Iowa State ‘46), 94, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, died Aug. 13, 2017. He practiced primarily small animal medicine in Missouri and Wisconsin. During his career, Dr. Wykoff also conducted research with the University of Tennessee-Atomic Energy Commission and what was known as Ethicon Suture Laboratories. During that time, he co-invented and patented surgical stapling devices.

Dr. Wykoff was an Army veteran of World War II and served as a captain in the Air Corps during the Korean War. He was a member of the American Legion and the Freemason Society. Dr. Wykoff is survived by his wife, Patrecia; three daughters, two sons, and four stepchildren; and several grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Memorials may be made to Sierra Club, Sierra Club Member Services, 2101 Webster St., Suite 1300, Oakland, CA 94612, or Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc., Attn: Online Services, P.O. Box 97166, Washington, DC 20090.

Eugene A. Zeller

Dr. Zeller (Auburn ‘71), 70, New Orleans, died Oct. 7, 2017. He practiced small animal medicine for 46 years in uptown New Orleans, where he established Freret Veterinary Hospital, relocating in 2005 to Maple Small Animal Clinic. Dr. Zeller served three terms as president of the Southeast Louisiana VMA. He was a lifetime member of the Louisiana VMA and served on the board of directors of the Louisiana Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Dr. Zeller is survived by his wife, Carolyn; two daughters; five grandchildren; and a sister. His daughter, Dr. Emily Zeller Lemann (Louisiana State ‘05), practices at Maple Small Animal Clinic. Memorials may be made to the Dr. Walter J. Ernst Jr. Veterinary Memorial Foundation, Louisiana VMA, 8550 United Plaza Blvd. Suite 1001, Baton Rouge, LA 70809, www.lvma.org; Louisiana SPCA, 1700 Mardi Gras Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70114, www.la-spca.org/donate; or St. Luke's United Methodist Church, 5875 Canal Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124.