In This Issue • February 1, 2018

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Minuscule amounts of synthetic opioids can kill police dogs, so officers and ambulance crews are preparing to reverse overdoses. In other news, an institution at Oklahoma State University is working to expand education on parasitology.

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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Anesthesia Case of the Month

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Pathology in Practice

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Small Animals, Exotic, & Avian

Risk factors and prognostic indicators for surgical outcome of dogs with esophageal foreign body obstructions

Endoscopic retrieval remains the initial treatment of choice for dogs with esophageal foreign bodies, provided that esophageal perforation does not necessitate surgical intervention, according to results of a retrospective study involving 223 dogs evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1995 through 2014. Older age, longer duration of EFB entrapment, and esophageal perforation were associated with a poorer prognosis. Endoscopic retrieval or advancement into the stomach was successful for 183 of 219 (83.6%) EFBs; 16 of 143 (11.2%) entrapments resulted in postprocedural esophageal stricture. Overall mortality rate was 5.4% (12/223); 90 of 102 (88.2%) dogs with a median follow-up period of 27 months had an excellent outcome.

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Clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of cutaneous and oral squamous cell carcinoma in avian species

In a review of 87 client-owned birds of various species with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the skin or oral cavity, complete excision was the only treatment approach significantly associated with a complete or partial response and improved survival time. Only 7 of 64 (11%) birds for which full outcome data were available had complete remission of SCC; 53 (83%) had progressive disease, were euthanized, or died of the disease. Median survival time from initial evaluation for birds receiving complete excision was 628 days, compared with 171 days for birds receiving monitoring with or without conservative treatment. Birds receiving any other additional treatment had a median survival time of 357 days.

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Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos

In a review of 112 leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 through 2013, 52 (46%) had ophthalmic disease (mainly corneal or conjunctival disease). Female geckos were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, and there was a positive association between increasing age and ophthalmic disease. Use of a paper towel substrate, absence of any heat source, and lack of vitamin A supplementation were positively associated with a diagnosis of ophthalmic disease. Head dysecdysis was the only concurrent disorder significantly associated with ophthalmic disease. At necropsy, 5 affected leopard geckos had squamous metaplasia of the conjunctiva.

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Microphthalmia, corneal dermoids, and congenital anomalies resembling Goldenhar syndrome in a cat

An 18-month-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of conjunctivitis and skin-fold dermatitis secondary to bilateral microphthalmia, corneal dermoids, and ankyloblepharon. Computed tomography revealed malformed, thickened bony orbits with mineralization of the orbital ligament bilaterally. Abdominal ultrasonography showed an irregularly marginated left kidney, a right kidney defect suggestive of chronic renal infarction, and an abnormal, well-demarcated, focally thickened region of the muscularis externa of the jejunum. Transpalpebral enucleation was performed bilaterally and relieved the ocular discomfort. The congenital abnormalities observed resembled those described for human patients with Goldenhar syndrome.

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Esophageal leiomyoma in a dog treated by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent

A 10-year-old Rottweiler was referred for evaluation because of a 2-month history of regurgitation and weight loss, despite no apparent change in appetite. Transhepatic ultrasonography and CT revealed a circumferential lesion in the distal portion of the esophagus, and histologic examination of a biopsy specimen supported a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma. In view of numerous possible complications associated with esophageal surgery, the decision was made to palliatively treat the dog by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent under endoscopic guidance. Twenty-four months after stent placement, the dog had a healthy body condition and remained free of previous clinical signs.

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Diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease in a harpy eagle with suspected fenbendazole toxicosis

A 14-year-old harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) was evaluated because of vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss of 4 weeks' duration. The bird had previously been treated orally with fenbendazole. An initial CBC revealed marked heteropenia and anemia, but other diagnostic test findings were unremarkable. During celiotomy, a biopsy specimen of the duodenum was obtained, and histologic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation consistent with inflammatory bowel disease. Corticosteroid administration was initiated in conjunction with antifungal prophylaxis, and cessation of vomiting and a return to normal appetite occurred within 3 days. Fifteen months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment, the eagle continued to do well.

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Zoo Animals

Ultrasonographic characteristics of the reproductive tract and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in captive female red wolves

Thirteen adult female red wolves (Canis rufus) were anesthetized to facilitate ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract and blood collection for determination of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Seven of the 13 wolves had or developed reproductive tract disease during the study. Ranges for measurements of reproductive tract structures overlapped between ultrasonographically normal and abnormal tracts, and cytologic results for fine-needle aspirate samples of the uterus and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations were unable to distinguish wolves with and without reproductive tract disease. Reproductive tract disease was not associated with parity or contraceptive administration.

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