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DIVIDED BY DEBT

How the growing division between the wealthy and the poor is impacting veterinary students and recent graduates

By Malinda Larkin

Income inequality in the U.S. continues to increase and is, in some ways, dividing Americans. For the highest earners, income has boomed: In 1980, the top 1 percent of adult workers earned, on average, 27 times more than the bottom 50 percent of adults, while today, the top 1 percent earns 81 times more, according to a study by the National Bureau of Economic Research released last year.

Furthermore, the top 1 percent earn a mean $1.3 million a year, which is more than three times as much as they did in the 1980s, when they earned a mean $428,000. Meanwhile, the bottom 50 percent of adult American workers earned a mean $16,000 in pretax income in 1980, an amount that hasn't changed in over three decades.

The veterinary profession hasn't been immune to this trend. Some aspiring veterinarians are getting priced out of veterinary education as tuition and fees continue to escalate. For those who do make it to veterinary college, this wealth disparity has created two distinct classes of students—those with no debt and those with insurmountable debt.

Ups and downs

On the surface, some of the numbers may not seem so dire. From 2015–17, the debt-to-income ratio for recent veterinary graduates declined from 2.04:1 to 1.86:1. Much of this, however, had to do with starting salaries increasing by a mean 4 percent. Meanwhile, overall educational debt dropped by a mean 1.5 percent in that time frame. This is according to figures released during the 2017 AVMA Economic Summit, held Oct. 23–24 in Rosemont, Illinois.

So how did total educational debt among veterinary graduates decline if tuition and fees increased by 14.5 percent in that three-year period? The answer is that the percentage of veterinary graduates without any debt went from 11 to 17 percent during that time as well.

“There's been lots of increase in people with zero debt, so we're accepting more rich kids,” said Michael R. Dicks, PhD, director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, at the summit.

He later added, “If we're only looking at the debt-to-income ratio in that index value, that's not giving us a description of the problem. There's a growing group of people with a much higher DIR and a similar group with a much lower one. So that means you have fewer graduates who have a (high) DIR, but of the ones that do, they have a much greater DIR problem, and that is going to be a serious problem. It's OK if everyone is between a 1.4:1 and 2:1 ratio, but if you have lots of people with 4:1 to 5:1 ratios, you're setting someone up for serious problems down the road.”

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Source: Lisa Greenhill, EdD, AAVMC, 2017 AVMA Economic Summit

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

At a disadvantage

Lisa Greenhill, EdD, senior director for institutional research and diversity with the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, stated at the 2016 AVMA Economic Summit that there was evidence the profession was beginning to attract applicants more likely to be able to afford attending veterinary college. At least a quarter of students in the Class of 2020 said they would rely, at least in part, on family support to help them pay for school, and 31 percent said they would rely on personal savings. Both are key to keeping debt low, Dr. Greenhill said.

There are more telling statistics. Twenty-seven percent of current veterinary students have received or are eligible for Pell Grants (a proxy for low-income status), and 21 percent are first-generation students, and there have been incremental declines in both categories of these students in recent years. Also according to applicant data, low-income and first-generation students are far less likely to have family support (13.5 percent and 11.1 percent, respectively). These two applicant groups also have plans to finance more of their education than their peers (10.7 percent and 9.2 percent, respectively).

In another twist, Dr. Greenhill has come to the conclusion that scholarship funds are being awarded disproportionately to students with more diversified funding portfolios.

“We know that the colleges are more often front-loading scholarship monies to competitive, nonresident applicants in an effort to recruit them. As low-income and first-generation students are less likely to be admitted and have a higher likelihood of only receiving one offer, the funds are going to applicants with more choices, and that group is largely the group with more financial resources already,” she told JAVMA News.

Finally, while the typical applicant has less than $10,000 of debt—which is only about one-third of the national mean of undergraduate debt—applicants coming from lower-income backgrounds are more likely to have $5,000 to $6,000 more in undergraduate debt than their peers. Dr. Greenhill said all of this is concerning, as the situation conflicts with the profession's ability to ensure access to a wide pipeline of potential students.

“I would argue that the gritty ones are pushed out of the market when they have to think about cost, and there are less options available to them if they still go through with going to veterinary school,” she said at this year's summit. This means they may choose higher-cost schools or wind up paying nonresident tuition rates, even though they might not have the means. Why?

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(Photos by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

As the AAVMC has found in its surveys of applicants, cost is not the deciding factor until applicants have an offer of admission.

“One thing we've found is that even though they are increasingly aware of the cost of a DVM, cost is not the decision driver in terms of where to apply. They're looking at things like where the seats are available, how competitive they think they are for aspirational schools, program offerings, and other variables. After admission, cost ranks higher for more affluent students. Lower-socioeconomic and first-generation students don't care about cost as much because they typically have fewer choices,” Dr. Greenhill said.

Study abroad's impact

Tuition at U.S. veterinary colleges has increased—a lot. In 1999, the mean (annual) tuition was $10,668, compared with $28,504 in 2017, a 167 percent increase. Furthermore, 84 percent of applicants lived in states with veterinary colleges, but half the overall seats available were nonresident ones, Dr. Greenhill said, meaning resident students have more competition than ever before and fewer seats are at cheaper rates.

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Debt-to-income ratio of U.S. graduates of foreign veterinary colleges with full-time employment (unweighted) Source: 2017 AVMA Economic Summit

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

No surprise, then, that every U.S. veterinary college showed an increase in debt among its students between 2016 and 2017—that is, except for two. The University of Wisconsin-Madison showed a decline, and the University of California-Davis stayed constant.

“What did they do differently? How did they control debt of students? Both schools have tremendous scholarship programs. I won't say that's what did it, but that's a huge part of it,” Dr. Dicks said.

For the first time, the AVMA has published data on U.S. graduates of foreign veterinary colleges, specifically those with high numbers of U.S. students. They were graduates of Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine in St. Kitts, West Indies; St. George's University School of Veterinary Medicine in Grenada, West Indies; St. Matthew's University in Grand Cayman, West Indies; University College Dublin in Ireland; and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.

Although the 30 percent response rate for their 2017 senior student survey was not as high as the response rate for the survey of U.S. veterinary college graduates, it was a start, said Bridgette Bain, PhD, assistant director for analytics in the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division. Of those respondents, the mean veterinary educational debt for this year's graduates was a little more than $250,000, compared with $138,067 for graduates from U.S. veterinary colleges in 2017. In fact, almost 60 percent of U.S. graduates from foreign institutions had a debt-to-income ratio greater than 4:1 in 2017, even though the overall mean debt-to-income ratio was 3.4:1. It should also be noted that 14.7 percent of these respondents had no debt.

“There's no significant difference in the salaries of those finding employment, whether they graduated from a U.S. or foreign institution, but there's a huge difference in their debt,” Dr. Bain said.

And therein lies the problem. While the costs for veterinary colleges range greatly, starting salaries do not. The good news is that since 2013, the number of new veterinarians finding employment and the starting salaries have increased simultaneously. The weighted mean starting salary for new veterinarians finding full-time employment prior to graduation in 2017 was $76,130. In fact, updated income projections suggest that starting veterinary salaries will reach $100,000 by 2027, Dr. Bain said.

Furthermore, 95 percent of veterinary graduates this year received an offer for full-time employment or to continue their education. Of those, 41.9 percent opted for small animal private practice, followed by 38.5 percent choosing advanced education. Notably, this year marked the first time since 2008 that more graduates went into practice than continued their education. That's important because new veterinarians going into internships make about $35,000 less than those going into small animal practice, according to the 2017 AVMA & AAVMC Report on the Market for Veterinary Education.

The bad news is that debt is increasing faster than salaries, outstripping any potential gains.

“On average, the income of new veterinarians finding full-time employment increases by about $700 a year. And the debt of new veterinarians is increasing, on average, by about $4,900. So the debt-to-income ratio will grow to 7:1 at the margins,” Dr. Bain said.

Turning things around

Echoing Dr. Bain, Dr. Dicks foresees that the number of graduates with zero debt and the number with debt above a sustainable rate will only continue to increase.

“Will we force people out, or will colleges try to do something with respect to the number of seats to rein in tuition? Regardless of what they do, there will be an increase in the debt-to-income ratio,” Dr. Dicks said.

Since the Economics of Veterinary Medical Education Summit, or Fix the Debt summit, was held in the spring of 2016, efforts to turn things around have been incremental. The Fix the Debt summit had four collective goals: to reduce the debt-to-income ratio from 2:1 to 1.4:1 by eliminating interest during school, to eliminate excessive student debt, to increase salaries by 10 percent, and to reduce educational expenses by 10 percent. If all these goals were implemented, the overall DIR would be 1.03:1, according to Dr. Dicks' estimate.

The first goal isn't a sure bet, at least in the near term, considering that potential cuts to federal student aid programs and further increases in the cost of student borrowing could take effect as soon as award year 2018–19 (see JAVMA, Oct. 1, 2017, page 24). In fact, the House of Representatives passed a tax plan in mid-November that would drastically increase the tax burden on graduate students. Hidden in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is a repeal of Section 117(d)(5) of the current tax code, a provision that would count tuition waivers as taxable income for students who pursue master's degrees or doctorates.

The second goal also remains confounding. Dr. Dicks said more information is needed to better understand the factors that contribute to the high variation in tuition and fees among veterinary colleges as well as why students seem to incur more debt (above costs) at certain institutions than at others. The three schools with the highest percentages of students who had debt in excess of total costs plus interest in 2017 were the University of Missouri (63 percent), Virginia-Maryland (59 percent), and Tuskegee University (40 percent).

The third goal still has potential. From 2013–18, both the percentage of new veterinarians finding employment and starting salaries have been increasing. In addition, some employers are getting creative in how they compensate their associate veterinarians. Across the business world in general, student loan repayment has become one of the newest employee benefit trends, with at least some suggestion that help repaying student loans is one of the most desired benefits among young workers. Banfield Pet Hospital announced Nov. 8, 2017, its Veterinary Student Debt Relief Pilot Program to help support its associates' financial well-being. Starting this past December, the program began providing eligible doctors either a low-interest refinancing option with a supplementary 0.25 percentage point interest-rate reduction, a monthly student loan contribution of $150, or a one-time, $2,500 payment for each qualifying Banfield student program in which the doctor participated prior to graduating.

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Debt of new graduates: mean debt of graduates with debt versus mean debt of all graduates Source: 2017 AVMA & AAVMC Report on the Market for Veterinary Education

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

Finally, regarding the fourth goal of reducing educational expenses, no veterinary college has indicated it will cut tuition, although some have frozen tuition for a period. Instead, veterinary colleges are looking to provide more scholarships to help defray educational costs.

Dr. Greenhill found in surveys of AAVMC member institutions conducted in 2015 and again in 2017 that scholarship resources and distributions “demonstrate relatively static trend-lines during a time when substantial growth is needed,” according to an August AAVMC release.

The research demonstrated that the percentage of veterinary students receiving aid increased slightly from 46 percent to 47 percent between 2015 and 2017. The average amount of total scholarship aid awarded for all veterinary students increased from $5,488 to $5,774, but the average award for all first-year veterinary students decreased from $5,536 to $5,417.

Some institutions are making more progress than others. The University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine announced this past fall that, in the two years since the launch of its Veterinary Access Scholarship Program, it had doubled the amount of scholarship dollars awarded every year.

The AAVMC board of directors decided at its summer 2017 meeting to move forward with the creation of an AAVMC Excellence in Scholarship Fundraising Award. While plans for that program are still in development, the goal is to inspire increased effort and performance in this area at the institutional level.

DECLINE IN REAL VETERINARY INCOMES CONTINUES DESPITE STRONG JOB MARKET

Studies show an economically complex profession

Story and photo by R. Scott Nolen

Real mean income, that is, income adjusted for inflation, for private practice veterinarians has declined since 2010, in part as a result of changes in age distribution over the past decade. Net present value of obtaining a veterinary degree is increasing for women but not for men. The unemployment rate for veterinarians continues to fall, but job satisfaction among veterinarians is decreasing, and burnout has risen.

These are some of the key findings presented during the fifth AVMA Economic Summit, held Oct. 23–24 in Rosemont, Illinois. Highlights from the latest AVMA pet demographic survey were also shared. The survey report—due out in 2018—found the number of households that owned dogs to be the highest since the AVMA began measuring pet ownership, while the number of cat owners has dropped drastically. Horse and pet bird ownership are declining, while backyard poultry ownership is “skyrocketing.”

AVMA economist Frederic Ouedraogo, PhD, spoke about how demographic trends within the veterinary profession are impacting veterinary incomes, which, he said, when adjusted for inflation, have been declining since 2010. “Every year income goes up, but when we account for the real value of the dollar, we see income was actually lower,” said Dr. Ouedraogo, who is an assistant director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division.

In 2006, income across the private veterinary practice sector represented a normal distribution when accounting for age, according to Dr. Ouedraogo: A minority of new veterinarians earning much less than the mean, a minority of older veterinarians earning much more than the mean, and a large majority of mid-career veterinarians earning near the mean. Yet, 10 years later, the low-earning minority had become the majority, a phenomenon that is likely to skew the veterinary income distribution for the foreseeable future, he said.

Veterinarians are likely to experience peak income— roughly $125,000 annually—by age 59, Dr. Ouedraogo said. Also, veterinarians who become practice owners soon after graduation earn more than those who become owners later in their career. “If you're not an owner after 10 years postgraduation, continue being a nonowner,” he said. “Owners make money in the first years after graduation, and nonowners, they have low income initially, but after 30 years, their income is equal to owners'.”

Charlotte Hansen, a statistical analyst in the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, discussed during her presentation the net present value of obtaining a veterinary degree versus a bachelor's degree, with net present value representing the present value of the costs and benefits associated with earning a degree.

“Female veterinarians (on average) earn $300,000 in today's dollars (over) their lifetime more than they would (have), had they stopped at a bachelor's degree, while men (on average) make less money with a DVM than if they had just taken a bachelor's degree,” Hansen said. She explained that, from a purely economic perspective, the opportunity costs of earning a DVM degree are, on average, higher for men because men typically earn more with a bachelor's degree than women do. Thus, men are, on average, forgoing more income than women do during the four years they spend in veterinary school.

Starting salaries for male and female veterinarians continue to climb, with men earning roughly $2,500 more than women, according to Hansen.

Hansen said further investigation of veterinary unemployment revealed the current rate to be 0.5 percent, not 1.5 percent as previously thought. “Clearly, the low level of unemployment is an indicator of the vigor of the market,” she observed. As for underemployment, Hansen said more than 3,000 full-time-equivalent veterinarians are needed to satisfy the work hour preferences reported by practitioners.

Among the more troubling findings from Hansen's research, increasing numbers of veterinarians are reporting low compassion satisfaction, defined as gratification drawn from work. Hypothesized explanations for these developments include high educational debt and declining real income, she explained.

Dicks to retire from AVMA economics division

R. Scott Nolen

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Michael R. Dicks, PhD

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

After five years as the AVMA's chief economist, Michael R. Dicks, PhD, is stepping down.

Dr. Dicks announced his retirement as director of the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division while speaking at the Association's Economic Summit on Oct. 23.

“A lot of you have helped me, mentored me, and provided me information. I couldn't ask for a better group of people to work with. It's been an honor to lead this work, and I'm indebted to you for your friendship and your guidance and your trust,” Dr. Dicks told summit attendees.

Prior to joining the AVMA in 2013 as the first director of the fledgling Veterinary Economics Division, Dr. Dicks spent much of his career at Oklahoma State University studying the production, distribution, and consumption of agricultural goods and services.

Dr. Dicks hired a team of economists to study veterinary markets with the goal of helping veterinarians better understand the economic trends impacting their profession. During his tenure, the AVMA began offering personal finance tools and a program in increasing practice profitability and publishing the series of AVMA Veterinary Economic Reports, which provide analysis of such areas as veterinary income, educational debt, and employment.

In addition, Dr. Dicks publishes a monthly article in dvm360 magazine.

He plans to retire following the AVMA Convention 2018 in Denver. Dr. Dicks said he intends to spend his retirement fishing, enjoying time with his family, and writing.

AVMA backs bills on student loans, debt

Association hopes to influence Higher Education Act reauthorization

Greg Cima

The AVMA will lobby to save programs that reduce educational debt and provide access to low-cost loans.

The Association also will support legislation that could help veterinarians and veterinary students refinance their educational loans and manage repayment.

In November 2017, the AVMA Board of Directors voted to support seven bills that could help veterinarians and veterinary students maintain access to loans or reduce their educational debt. Another bill supported by the AVMA would help people separate consolidated loans issued to married couples under a Department of Education program that ended in 2006.

Gina Luke, assistant director of the AVMA Governmental Relations Division, expects the AVMA will have opportunities to push its agenda while Congress deliberates reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. At press time, Rep. Virginia Foxx of North Carolina and Sen. Lamar Alexander of Tennessee were expected to introduce reauthorization bills in late 2017 and early 2018.

Reauthorization has been delayed by other legislative priorities since 2013, most recently by the proposed repeal and replacement of the Affordable Care Act and the tax proposals that, at press time, Republicans in Congress hoped to deliver to the president by Christmas. In addition, Luke noted that the federal government was operating under a continuing resolution through Dec. 8, and another continuing resolution could extend spending bill work into early 2018.

The legislation identified by the Board in November for AVMA support joins existing legislative priorities.

Luke said preserving the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program is the AVMA's top priority in this area. The program forgives the remaining balance of federal Direct Loans to borrowers who make 10 years of payments while working for government agencies or certain tax-exempt organizations, including some with charitable, scientific, or educational missions. The Obama administration proposed capping loan forgiveness, and the Trump administration has proposed eliminating it, she said.

Establishing a refinancing option for student loans is the next most important goal. AVMA leaders think student loan recipients should be able to refinance their debts to take advantage of lower interest rates as homeowners are able to do with mortgages.

The AVMA also will push for elimination of the origination fees deducted from student loans before disbursement to schools, lower caps on student loan interest rates, and higher caps on the amount students can borrow through federal student loan programs. The AVMA also would oppose any efforts to eliminate income-driven loan repayment plans, a proposal that has some backing on the Hill.

In addition, the AVMA will try to restore a subsidy for Stafford Loans to graduate and professional students, Luke said. The subsidy, which prevents interest accrual while the borrowers remain students, was eliminated by the Budget Control Act of 2011.

In November, the AVMA Board approved supporting the following legislation.

The Educating Student Loan Borrowers Act of 2017, HR 3051, would make federal education loan servicers provide annual disclosures to borrowers, including what repayment plans are available, how to change plans, and what conditions need to be met to forgive or cancel part or all of the loan principal and interest. Background information from the AVMA indicates student loan recipients often fail to take advantage of financial strategies that could help them reduce their debt more quickly, and loan servicers have no obligations to update borrowers on repayment and forgiveness options beyond the required counseling to college students.

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Dr. José Arce, District IV representative, speaks during November's meeting of the AVMA Board of Directors. (Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

The Streamlining Income-driven, Manageable Payments on Loans for Education Act, HR 3554 and S 1712, would make the Department of Education collect information on student loan recipient incomes to determine whether they are eligible for loan discharge, give information on repayment plans to borrowers who are delinquent at least 60 days, and enroll borrowers in income-driven repayment plans if they are delinquent on their loans for 120 days. In a statement and a summary of the legislation, Rep. Suzanne Bonamici of Oregon, who introduced the House version, said the legislation also would reduce paperwork for borrowers, remove paperwork requirements for disabled borrowers whose loans were discharged, and automate the annual process of updating income information while a borrower is enrolled in an income-driven repayment plan.

More than a million people defaulted on student loans in 2016, and more than 8 million are in default, according to information from Bonamici. The legislation would help people access relief already available under federal law.

The Student Loan Borrowers' Bill of Rights Act, HR 3630, would let recipients of student loans use bankruptcy to discharge debts owed to a government or nonprofit institution. It also would create a six-year statute of limitations for filing lawsuits to collect some financial assistance and loans, prohibit collection of debts to the Department of Education through federal tax refunds or wage garnishment, exclude all types of student loan forgiveness from taxable gross income rather than only forgiveness in exchange for work, ensure students can access educational transcripts and credentials regardless of loan defaults, and cancel half the interest and principal balances on eligible federal direct loans issued to borrowers who work in public service for five years while repaying the loan.

The Student Opportunity Act, HR 3346, would give refinancing opportunities to borrowers under the Federal Family Education Loan Program or Direct Loan Program, prevent taxation of loan forgiveness as income when borrowers use income-based repayment plans, eliminate origination fees assessed when student loans are disbursed, and lower interest rates for federal student loans, according to information from Rep. Al Lawson of Florida, who introduced the legislation.

The Student Loan Relief Act of 2017, HR 3390 and S 1521, would reduce the maximum interest rates for federal direct student loans, eliminate loan origination fees for those loans, and allow refinancing of them and Federal Family Education Loan Program loans.

The Federal Student Loan Refinancing Act, HR 2718 would provide opportunities to refinance loans given since July 2006 through the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program or the Federal Family Education Loan Program, letting borrowers consolidate those loans as Federal Direct Consolidation Loans. Interest rates would be capped at 4 percent, with lower rates applied to borrowers who would consolidate loans that had a lower weighted average interest rate.

The Federal Perkins Loan Program Extension Act of 2017, HR 2482 and S 1808, would provide a two-year reauthorization of a low-interest loan program for college students in need. It expired in September 2017.

And the Joint Consolidation Loan Separation Act, HR 2949 and S 1384, would let borrowers separate consolidated loans that were issued to married couples under a program canceled in 2006.

AVMA supports technician standardization

The AVMA is backing a campaign to standardize the credentials, scope of practice, and title for U.S. veterinary technicians.

But the Association remains neutral on a campaign goal that the title should be “registered veterinary nurse.”

The National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America is pushing for the changes in legislatures across the U.S. through the Veterinary Nurse Initiative. Standardization and increased public awareness about the credentials possessed by those nurses would aid their careers and elevate practice standards, which would improve patient care and consumer protection, NAVTA information states.

The AVMA Board of Directors voted in November 2017 to support the initiative's standardization goals. An AVMA-NAVTA leadership committee, in its recommendation for that vote, wrote that inconsistent state application requirements, oversight, and regulations can hamper veterinary technicians' ability to change jobs, hold back their profession's development, and confuse even veterinary professionals.

“Changing to one national standard and title could increase mobility, understanding and recognition of roles and responsibilities within the veterinary medical team and community, and increased public understanding of the role that veterinary technicians play in human and animal health,” the recommendation states. “These in turn could increase longevity within the profession, improved delegation of duties, and higher remuneration.”

Animal welfare, health policies updated

Animals used in pre-college education should not be subjected to uses that cause any pain, an updated AVMA policy states.

The AVMA Board of Directors voted in November to express opposition to such uses and advocate that those who use animals in pre-college classrooms also consider risks to students from zoonotic disease and allergens. The policy, “Use of Animals in Precollege Education,” already encouraged use of alternatives to live animals in pre-college classroom instruction and expressed opposition to uses that cause more than minor and momentary distress.

In addition to voting in support of legislation related to student loans and educational debt (see page 24), the AVMA Board voted to support legislation that could prevent deaths of children and animals left in locked vehicles. The bill, HR 2801, would require that new passenger vehicles come with alert systems intended to remind drivers not to leave passengers in the back seats when exiting.

And, among other modifications to the AVMA's policy on eradicating tuberculosis in cattle and cervids, the AVMA now recommends that the Department of Agriculture work with animal health and public health agencies in the U.S. and other countries to share results of genome sequencing of tuberculosis strains. The AVMA also now recommends that the USDA implement management practices that minimize contact between cattle and wildlife as well as manage trade-related tuberculosis risks.

AVMA plans leadership events, considers international ones

The AVMA will co-host networking events with a women's leadership organization and may host two international meetings.

Through votes in November, the AVMA Board of Directors committed to continue collaborating with the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative on networking events at meetings of veterinarians. The organizations are planning gatherings this year at AVMA Convention 2018, the AVMA Veterinary Leadership Conference, Veterinary Meeting & Expo (formerly the North American Veterinary Community Conference), the Western Veterinary Conference, and dvm360's Fetch conference. The AVMA Board also approved studying whether to submit a bid to host a World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress in 2022. That meeting would be held in conjunction with AVMA Convention 2022 in Philadelphia.

The Board also decided the AVMA should develop a business plan for hosting a possible global food security summit in 2019. The Association hosted a global food security summit in February 2017 in Washington, D.C., that was attended by representatives from humanitarian and intergovernmental organizations.

AVMA sponsors organizations, political action

In November, AVMA leaders voted to give the American Veterinary Medical Foundation up to $350,000 for operational expenses.

Most donations to the AVMF are given under the condition that they be used to address particular needs, whereas the AVMA contribution would be intended to cover expenses of operating the charity in 2018, according to documents given to Board members and deliberations during their meeting.

The AVMA also would spend $60,000 to market the AVMA Political Action Committee and $40,000 to expand the influence of the AVMA Congressional Action Network, through which AVMA members establish relationships with politicians and host fundraising events for the AVMA PAC.

By contributing $75,000 to the Human-Animal Bond Research Institute, the AVMA also will participate in the organization as a decision-making trustee. The nonprofit institute supports research and education related to human-animal interactions, the benefits of pets to human health, and public policy that encourages relationships with pets.

Honor roll members inducted

The following 834 AVMA members have been granted honor roll status beginning in 2018. These individuals have maintained membership in the Association for a period of 40 years or more and have reached the age of 70, or have reached the age of 72 and have maintained continuous membership since graduation. As honor roll members, they will continue to receive the full benefits and privileges of membership while being exempt from the payment of dues.

ALABAMA

John D. Bagwell, Brewton

Herchel B. Bain, Daleville

Tom J. Beam, Anniston

Jack R. Davidson, Prattville

John R. Grider, Monroeville

William H. Hendley, Oxford

Robert G. Hunt, Dadeville

Bruce D. Hutchinson, Gadsden

Kennedy M. Jordan, Mobile

Steven A. Kincaid, Auburn

Steve L. Pearson, Hartselle

Billy J. Renfroe, Huntsville

Carter R. Smith, Florence

John P. Strickland, Birmingham

Madan M. Vig, Auburn

ALASKA

David A. Colwell, Kodiak

James L. Morris, Wasilla

Robert J. Sept, Chugiak

ARIZONA

Raymond C. Anderson, Mesa

John R. Bass, Green

Valley Bonnie J. Buntain, Tucson

Pasquale Campanile, Phoenix

Steven F. Crofoot, Peoria

Steven H. Dow, Prescott

Simon J. Escalada, Nogales

Roger W. Finkenbine, Tucson

Richard S. Funk, Mesa

William T. Gammill, Chandler

Gary D. Kaufman, Scottsdale

Raymond T. Marsh, Peoria

Alyn M. McClure, Gilbert

Reuben E. Merideth, Tucson

Howard R. Moore, Tucson

Robin W. Waldron, Kingman

Thomas C. Watson, Laveen

Haskell S. Wright, Glendale

ARKANSAS

William J. Nixon, Mountain View

James B. Ralston, Hot Springs Village

CALIFORNIA

Larry J. Allen, Sacramento

John F. Amann, Culver City

James R. Babbitt, Oceanside

James F. Beebee, Pleasant Hill

Ronald L. Beeley, Alta Loma

Donald W. Bell, San Pedro

William M. Bender, Granada Hills

Richard N. Benjamin, Berkeley

Paul Bettelheim, Lafayette

Thomas E. Casselberry, Napa

Bruce W. Cauble, Encinitas

Larry J. Connelly, Littlerock

Terry Cosgrove, San Rafael

Larry D. Cowgill, Sacramento

Gregg J. Cutler, Moorpark

Lloyd G. Davies Jr., Yuba City

David C. Davis, Citrus Heights

John J. Donahue, Santa Clarita

Douglas J. Duston, Hanford

George W. Dyck, Newhall

Nancy E. East, Alturas

George F. Farley, Arnold

Edward C. Feldman, Berkeley

Ronald C. Friedlander, San Dimas

Robert J. Garcia, Oakland

Laurel J. Gershwin, Davis

Kathleen A. Goemann, Yuba City

Gary B. Griffenhagen, Oak Park

Erik J. Hansen, Alamo

Jim D. Hardesty, Fallbrook

Gene P. Harlan, Cotati

Norman K. Hibser, San Diego

Daphne T. Hill, Fresno

Steven E. Holmstrom, San Pedro

Richard C. Johnson, Moraga

Barbara J. Jordan, Pacific Grove

Charles L. Kessinger, Soquel

Carlton R. Kibbee, Alpine

Donald J. Klingborg, Davis

John J. Lammerding, La Quinta

Richard L. Leither, Crescent City

Sandra L. Maas, Novato

Terrance L. McGinnis, Berkeley

Sandra V. McNeel, Pinole

Paul D. Menard, Fair Oaks

William H. Meyer, Kingsburg

Jim L. Nyholt, Palmdale

Mark M. Ott, Cherry Valley

Charles W. Palmer, Cottonwood

L.S. Papas, Palm Desert

Joyce L. Pedersen, Santa Rosa

Marc A. Rachofsky, San Diego

Sara F. Rice Smith, Ukiah

Robert D. Russum, Fairfield

Irene K. Sakaishi, Georgetown

Michael S. Salkin, Forestville

Marshall E. Scott, Riverside

Marilyn K. Seals, Carlsbad

David H. Sesline, Davis

Philip J. Shanker, Campbell

Alice L. Simpson, Santa Rosa

Scott A. Sloan, La Crescenta

J.C. Smith, Alamo

Richard A. Smollin, Winnetka

Prakash C. Talati, Downey

William P. Thomas, Davis

Dwight G. Throgmorton, Chino

Mark C. Thurmond, Kneeland

Philip C. Tillman, Arroyo Grande

Ralph W. Walton, Tulare

Russell D. Williams, Rocklin

Jon I. Wolfson, Sacramento

Sherman Wong, San Francisco

Fred J. Zadick, Anza

COLORADO

Theodore J. Cohn, Lone Tree

William R. Fredregill III, Sterling

Richard L. Goode, Pueblo

Alan M. Harris, Centennial

Gary H. Johnson, Highlands Ranch

Henry J. Kagerer, Basalt

Alicia M. Keegan, Loveland

Donald T. Ley, Canon City

Dennis R. Linemeyer, Leadville

Lawrence R. Mackey, Greeley

C.W. McIlwraith, Loveland

Martin T. Newcomb, Westcliffe

Barney L. Oldfield, Hesperus

James K. Olson, Castle Rock

Thomas D. Parks, Yuma

Robert A. Riffle Jr., Cotopaxi

Peter W. Rodgers, Boulder

William G. Rodkey, Edwards

Randolph L. Seward, Eaton

Patrick C. Smith, Conifer

Edward L. Umlauf, Windsor

Thomas G. Venard, Gunnison

Kent D. Walpole, Ault

Stephen J. Withrow, Fort Collins

CONNECTICUT

Robert A. Aldrich, New Haven

Fred A. Cesana, Plainville

David S. Coley, Bolton

Daniel B. Doyle, Bantam

Eunice P. Fuller, Plainfield

Lewis E. Jolly, North Haven

John F. Ouellette, Madison

Steven M. Price, Watertown

Mark Russak, Berlin

John E. Stambaugh, Mystic

Robert R. Steckel, Norwalk

Richard J. Suhie, New Fairfield

Lawrence D. Washington, Woodbury

Harry W. Werner, North Granby

Steve M. Zeide, Stamford

DELAWARE

Lea M. Tammi, Frederica

FLORIDA

John P. Alford, Live Oak

Harold P. Alterman, Sarasota

William H. Baker, Panama City

Ronald C. Ballard, Longwood

Gerald C. Beck, Tampa

Frederick W. Benker, Ocala

James A. Bowers, Fort Myers

Jonas G. Brewer, Deland

George E. Burch, Hallandale

David J. Carlson, Port Saint Lucie

Kerry N. Chatham, Auburndale

Jeffrey M. Cooper, Ormond Beach

James D. Dee, Hollywood

William C. Fouts, Pensacola

Bill Francisco, Sarasota

Andrew J. Gale, Cape Coral

Robert H. Gordon, Mims

John L. Green, Atlantic Beach

Marc A. Hall, Ocoee

Donald G. Henry, Cocoa

Thomas L. Jezek, New Port Richey

Kenneth L. Judson, Dade City

Paul H. King, Newberry

Charles W. Leffler, Ormond Beach

Nancy J. Logue, Summerland Key

Michael D. Lokai, Ocala

Douglas M. MacCoy, Parkland

Earl W. Marshall, Jacksonville

Richard J. McKinniss, Eustis

Lloyd S. Meisels, Coral Springs

John R. Middleton, New Smyrna Beach

Dawn Miller, Newberry

John S. Mitchell, Boca Raton

William D. Mitchell, Davie

Dean L. Moentman, Seminole

Michael A. Mossler, Bradenton

Lawrence E. Parrish, Keystone Heights

David L. Personett, Orange Lake

Ralph W. Raymond, Lakeland

Paul Reifer, Clearwater

Richard R. Rimensberger, Mount Dora

Gene A. Rinderknecht, Alva

John B. Rowell, Boca Raton

John R. Sanders, Tallahassee

Karen L. Seamans, Port Charlotte

Thomas G. Sidor, Palm Harbor

William C. Slocumb, Saint Petersburg

Stephen G. Soule, Marathon

Crispin P. Spencer, Vero Beach

Kenneth A. St. John, Clearwater

Debra N. VanRoekel, Alva

David T. Wise, Miami

Nancy E. Wiswall, Oldsmar

Patrick J. Wright, Starke

Jan R. Zwilling, Lauderhill

GEORGIA

Daniel C. Anderson, Lawrenceville

Paul B. Averill, Marietta

Jeanne Barsanti, Watkinsville

Richard B. Best, Marietta

Ronnie A. Bickley, Decatur

Roy E. Brogdon, Cleveland

Linda K. Brooks, Cornelia

Charron D. Bryant, Mableton

Joe B. Crane II, Quitman

John H. Ford, Murrayville

Kenneth Krawford, Duluth

Alan D. Liggett, Tifton

Jimmy K. Matthews, Moultrie

William D. McDougal, Toccoa

Cynthia M. Moore, Watkinsville

Alvah M. Pasley, Thomaston

Kenneth R. Payton, Blakely

Morris E. Potter, Chamblee

Susan Prasse, Bethlehem

Jan G. Rossiter, St. Simons Island

Gerald R. Skees, Woodstock

Martin G. Stotelmyer, Atlanta

Elizabeth A. Strobert, Stone Mountain

William G. Taff, Taylorsville

Karen L. Thomas, Locust Grove

Wayne D. Wiest, Chamblee

HAWAII

Patrick A. Ahana, Kapaa

Cordell W. Chang, Mililani

Carole T. Fujioka, Wahiawa

IDAHO

William S. Cegnar, Homedale

Samuel M. Fassig, Boise

Janet R. Houlihan, McCall

Richard L. Shackelford, Meridian

William L. Strobel, Twin Falls

Stanton G. Thorsell, Grangeville

Darwin R. Yoder, Filer

ILLINOIS

Ronald D. Beasley, Eldorado

Charlene Boeing, Long Grove

James A. Bollmeier, O'Fallon

Susan G. Boyd, Lake Forest

Thomas H. Champley, Oregon

Roger A. Dupuis, Naperville

Kathleen E. Fauth, Western

Springs Djordje Gvojic, Lemont

David W. Jackson, Grayslake

Larry C. Johnson, Morris

Charles E. Koehn, Murphysboro

Bruce M. Kramer, Highland

Wayne O. Larson, Elburn

Bruno K. Latoza, Oak Lawn

Jerome D. McGraw, Pingree Grove

David R. Michalski, Hickory Hills

Mohammed N. Nazeer, Rock Island

Arthur F. Odell, Avon

John R. O'Malley, Ohio

Ronald G. Pierce, Lincoln

Ronald A. Price, Long Grove

Jerre K. Rorick, Marion

Robert E. Schleef, Onarga

Gregory L. Schroeder, Oglesby

Thomas J. Wake, Wilmette

James J. Zieren, Carmi

INDIANA

Stephen L. Banet, Borden

Larry W. Booher, Dyer

Rodney C. Duncan, Indianapolis

Herman V. Felger, Anderson

George M. Graves, Noblesville

Wes L. Hildebrandt, New Palestine

John W. Hughes, Sharpsville

Terrance J. Kaeser, Goshen

James L. Kinnard, Monticello

Rodney P. Leibring, Evansville

Edward A. Leonard, Harlan

Theodore F. Lock, Bloomington

Larry E. Mitchell, Indianapolis

Larry E. Owen, Anderson

Nicholas Pappas, Crown Point

David G. Pence, Marion

Andrew A. Pickering, Terre Haute

Ronald J. Smith, Ramsey

Richard L. Sommers, Silver Lake

Ray A. Whitman, Linton

IOWA

Paul J. Armbrecht, Rockwell

City Larry C. Booth, Ames

Thomas F. Carr, Moville

Michael B. Davis, Carroll

Jerry S. DenHerder, Waterloo

Jerald C. Katzer, Creston

Kent L. Melick, Cedar Falls

Keith E. Miller, Mount Ayr

Donald J. Otto, Knoxville

Sally B. Prickett, Glenwood

Elizabeth L. Riedesel, Ames

Suzanne E. Robinson, West Des Moines

Patrick F. Rohret, Adel

Richard L. Runyon, Chariton

Douglas L. Weiss, Clive

David F. Wilgenbusch, Cresco

Loras C. Wilgenbusch, Victor

KANSAS

Janice J. Bigelow, Leon

Alan G. Bosomworth, White City

William L. Brown, Westmoreland

Cary R. Christensen, Overland Park

Ronnie G. Elmore, Manhattan

Gerald L. Gibson, Montezuma

Lannie L. Hanel, Courtland

Richard W. Markham, Basehor

Laura J. Morland, Girard

Gary D. Olson, Lawrence

Noreen C. Overeem, Edgerton

Patricia A. Payne, Manhattan

Richard N. Peterson, Pittsburg

Glenn W. Riggs, Sedan

Charles M. Savell, Overland Park

Steve P. White, Arkansas City

KENTUCKY

Henry E. Allen, Versailles

Rodney B. Baker, Eddyville

Sue K. Billings, Springfield

James D. Cecil, Mount Washington

David E. Cleveland, Danville

James L. Cole, Tompkinsville

Richard R. Goranflo, Prospect

Joseph M. Griffitt, Nicholasville

Philip E. Hays, Campbellsville

Max Michel, Louisville

John L. O'Brien, Bowling Green

William A. Rood, Lexington

LOUISIANA

Katherine I. Beier, Prairieville

Vincent A. Brencick Jr., Bossier City

Gregory E. Gill, Shreveport

Frederic Michaelson, Baton Rouge

Walter O. Nelson, New Roads

Boyer B. Stringer, Baton Rouge

Eugene A. Zeller, New Orleans

MAINE

Matthew E. Holden, South Paris

Douglas B. Rink, Woolwich

Ross W. Thompson, York

Craig D. Underhill, Warren

James D. Wahlstrom, West Farmington

MARYLAND

Edward P. Coulston, Easton

Suresh K. Dua, Bowie

Robert G. Dubois, Brentwood

Irvin E. Herling, Baltimore

William P. Higgins, Centreville

Marilyn S. Khoury, Bethesda

Steven A. Melman, Potomac

Martin L. Morin, Centreville

Daniel C. Negola, Gaithersburg

Glenn H. Olsen, Laurel

Michael W. Radebaugh, Parkton

Linda B. Rawls, Walkersville

James J. Rushing, Clements

MASSACHUSETTS

Michael Bernstein, Weymouth

Robert B. Berridge, Plymouth

Jeffrey B. French, Gloucester

James S. Harper, Sterling

Leslie S. Hirsch, West Roxbury

Russell C. Lawson Jr., Salisbury

Laura M. LeVan, Concord

Donald A. Marcus, Methuen

Foster K. Palmer, Teaticket

Terry L. Purbaugh, Wayland

Thomas A. Silberhorn, Norton

Elizabeth S. Sinnigen, Easthampton

James R. Tiede, Seekonk

Harmen VanDer Velden, Ware

Robert J. Wessels Jr., Taunton

James K. Wilson, Cambridge

MICHIGAN

Susan J. Alexander, Ortonville

Benjamin B. Bartlett, Traunik

John H. Berends, Middleville

Claude E. Curry, Livonia

Elizabeth J. Dawe, Beverly

Hills Douglas L. Engers, South

Lyon Lester W. Faremouth, Rockford

Patrick J. Gorczyca, Jackson

John D. Gunther, Mason

Thomas H. Herdt, Lansing

Donald J. Hitzemann, Big Rapids

Daniel J. Hoekema, Grand Rapids

Kerry L. Ketring, Whitehall

Mark W. Lanier, Kewadin

Kenneth E. Main, Gobies

Casey Nash, Grand Haven

David F. Norton, Carp Lake

Rudolph S. Nucci, Saint Clair Shores

Rex E. Payne, Ludington

Tanveer H. Pirzada, Shelby Township

Gerald W. Schave, Highland

Charles J. Schena, Warren

Gary L. Schwocho, Royal Oak

James J. Sharp, Fraser

Mary D. Sist, Williamston

Joel J. Smiler, Lakeville

Russ L. Stickle, Williamston

Khalid H. Tirmizi, Pontiac

James W. Wilson, Comstock Park

Gail S. Wolfe, Okemos

MINNESOTA

Harvey R. Aluni, Virginia

Robert R. Bogan, Blue Earth

Richard E. Clarey, Lindstrom

James H. Fountaine, Kenyon

William W. Habedank, Red Wing

Wayne O. Hagen, Belgrade

Michael Holm, Owatonna

Duane W. Jordison, Fairmont

Shirley L. Kittleson, Sherburn

John C. Lawrence, Burnsville

Bernard M. Malone, Blue Earth

Kakambi V. Nagaraja, Saint Paul

Thomas M. Rohman, South Haven

Eugene F. Schlueter, Willmar

James V. Schoster, Roseville

Daniel E. Shebuski, Prior Lake

David R. Steiner, Blaine

George E. Thomas, Apple Valley

Marvin J. Trandem, Faribault

Charles W. Westman, Saint Paul

MISSISSIPPI

James S. Dowdle, Columbus

Richard B. Gingles, Long Beach

Dave A. Gross, Hattiesburg

Tip R. Hailey, Canton

Douglas F. Jefcoat, Laurel

Donald G. May, Union

Carroll L. Tyner, Starkville

Samuel E. Wilcox, Columbus

MISSOURI

Larry T. Alkire, Saint Louis

William W. Branscum, Jackson

Philip R. Brown, Springfield

Forrest S. Byergo, Tipton

Joseph W. Derr, Independence

Galen E. Ericson, Blue Springs

Jerry R. Espey, Grain Valley

Duane H. Farmer, Centralia

Anita J. Fischer, Saint Peters

James J. Flasar, Chesterfield

Ronald L. Franklin, Sullivan

Brent D. Jones, Columbia

Maynard B. Jones, Versailles

Ronald M. Kirkpatrick, Ballwin

Randall R. Lary, Gladstone

Grace B. Long, Chesterfield

Marcellus H. Markway, Eldon

Leslie A. Reed, Hillsboro

Joseph T. Saranita, Saint Charles

Dennis L. Schmitt, Springfield

Harry L. Whitlock, Brookline

MONTANA

Gerald E. Hackett Jr., Harlowton

Richard A. Maage, Hardin

Ray W. Randall, Bridger

Ronald E. Skinner, Hall

Charles E. Skow, Ronan

NEBRASKA

Steven L. Alberts, Aurora

William W. Burdett, Cairo

James W. Furman, Alliance

Timothy J. Knott, Arthur

William L. Lawrence, Bennet

Norman B. Schmeeckle, Hastings

Mike Speece, Auburn

Robert G. Stout, Alliance

Arden R. Wohlers, Scottsbluff

NEVADA

Gary L. Ailes, Carson City

Robert A. Cocanour, Sparks

Jerry P. Gumfory, Las Vegas

Robert R. King, Henderson

John A. Koehm, Reno

Garth W. Lamb, Las Vegas

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Timothy J. Butterfield, Windham

Richard W. Fite, North Hampton

Randall P. Snyder, Hillsboro

William S. Walker IV, Lancaster

NEW JERSEY

David B. Ackerman, Neptune

John G. DeVries, Paramus

Adel A. Hamdan, Totowa

Paul L. Henrich, Newton

Charles G. Jewell, Manalapan

Barry N. Kopp, Matawan

James C. Nelson, Trenton

R.W. Randolph, Flemington

Keith L. Samson, Bloomfield

Ronald S. Sher, Marlboro

James L. Smith Jr., Califon

Frank E. Stoudt, Martinsville

Alexandra Wetherill, Princeton

NEW MEXICO

Michael J. Alber, Roswell

Linda H. Locklar, Silver City

Janis S. Murray, Veguita

Brian L. Patterson, Carlsbad

Myron G. Rightman, Santa Fe

Julia P. Skains, Edgewood

Robert B. Southwick, Albuquerque

NEW YORK

Michael J. Barra, Middletown

Roman O. Bohonowych, Kerhonkson

Steven M. Bruck, Marcellus

Ira S. Buchalter, South Ozone Park

Michael J. Casale, Palmyra

Leslie B. Dattner, Oceanside

Thomas D. DeVincentis, New York

William A. Gerber, Niagara Falls

Frank J. Giaquinto, Cape Vincent

Mary W. Giaquinto, Dexter

Martin G. Goldstein, South Salem

Michael J. Gould, Riverhead

Ronald F. Gruhn, Loudonville

Dennis M. Herstein, Little Neck

George V. Kollias, Ithaca

Ira Linderman, Commack

Ronald K. Linkenheil, Horseheads

Kevin G. Lynch, Center Moriches

William J. Maier, Penfield

Stephen R. Naile, Old Chatham

John L. O'Donoghue, Honeoye Falls

Ralph K. Oles, Troy

Jay H. Rogoff, Rockaway Park

Eileen Rowan, Bay Shore

Arnold R. Rugg, Kingston

H.J. Schroll, Massapequa Park

Sheldon S. Schwarzbrott, Dix Hills

Laura G. Senk, Carle Place

Allan B. Simon, Rockaway Park

Mary C. Smith, Freeville

Moises Villadelgado, Staten Island

Marc S. Wallach, Uniondale

George A. Wiseley, Perry

Michael Woltz, Scarsdale

JoAnn F. Young, Shelter Island

NORTH CAROLINA

Timothy D. Banker, Greensboro

David L. Barkman, Fayetteville

Richard K. Bartel, Durham

Frank T. Batten, Elm City

Dwight A. Bellinger, Hillsborough

Richard B. Ford, Raleigh

David W. Gray, Benson

Melvin H. Hamlin II, Raleigh

Jerry F. Hardisty, Research Triangle Park

Kenneth W. Hill, Hickory

Dietra M. Jolley, Durham

Richard E. Keeton, Murphy

James C. Krepp, Fayetteville

Charles E. Loops, Pittsboro

Robert E. McCaskill, Charlotte

Gregory C. McDonald, Candler

Arlen G. Mills, Tryon

Judith N. Nielsen, Mebane

James R. Rabon, Supply

Ray J. Randall, Atlantic

Beach Harold E. Rodeffer, Hillsborough

Ross E. Shaffer, Manteo

Earl T. Sheppard, Westfield

Arthur M. Spencer III, Gastonia

Donna R. Stewart, Cary

NORTH DAKOTA

Gerald R. Buchholz, Bismarck

Thomas P. Colville, Fargo

Sheldon Malmedal, Linton

Steven G. Swartz, Neche

OHIO

Ronald C. Abrams, Loveland

David B. Allmon, Chardon

Timothy R. Barman, Fort Recovery

Allan S. Brubaker, Maineville

Ronald J. Budz, Wickliffe

Robert A. Burge, Broadview Heights

Robert C. Burns Jr., Greenville

Robert E. Carr, Martins Ferry

Gary L. demons, Milford

Thomas L. Cliffe, Stow

Thomas G. Crago, Youngstown

Lonnie L. Davis, Troy

David W. Farst, Arcanum

James R. Foltz, Baltimore

Diane F. Gerken, Carroll

William M. Gesel, Canal Winchester

Ralph E. Hecht, Celina

Stephen E. Hickman, Massillon

Nicole Hird, Columbus

Robert V. Hutchison, North Ridgeville

Mary C. Kelley, Cincinnati

Gary M. Kinnison, Kenton

Dilbagh S. Kooner, Columbus

James A. Milligan, Lake Milton

James A. O'Neill, Sandusky

John E. Rehm, Millersburg

Bradley H. Reiser, Delta

Robert K. Reynolds, Salem

Mark A. Rutman, Chesterland

Robert R. Schwartz, Washington Court House

Marvin D. Steed, Saint Clairsville

John E. Stoughton, Westerville

Paul C. Stromberg, Columbus

Mark W. Ulrich, West Alexandria

Lucinda M. Vogtsberger, Columbus

Robert A. Wickes, Macedonia

Arden A. Wiley, Valley City

OKLAHOMA

Paul L. Aldridge, Owasso

Robert A. Bower, Lawto

J.C. Bryson, Owasso

Phillip R. Chitwood, Poteau

Anthony W. Confer, Stillwater

Gary L. Detrich, Cushing

James R. Ekart, Tulsa

George F. Haggerty, Tulsa

Michael R. Hurt, Purcell

Lonnie G. Jay, Miami

J.M. Johnston, Edmond

Cliff R. McDonald, Poteau

Roger L. Mims, Holdenville

John L. Myers, Vinita

Kenneth E. O'Hanlon, Altus

Richard C. Wilson, Chouteau

OREGON

James R. Bauersfeld, Redmond

John L. Baumann, Klamath Falls

Phillip E. Cochran, Portland

Henry M. Dykehouse, Portland

Jay B. Fineman, Newport

Francis W. Gross, North Bend

Anita J. Johanson, Tillamook

John P. Maas, Ashland

David A. Middle, Saint Helens

Marvin L. Olmstead, Springfield

Michael J. Palmer, Bend

April J. Plummer, Rainier

Vera R. Rogers, Days Creek

Laurence M. Sams, Lake Oswego

Ann G. Samsell, Eugene

George H. Sepulvado, Roseburg

Claire J. Spackman, Beaverton

Stephen J. Waldhalm, Redmond

David R. Waters, McMinnville

R.R. White, Portland

PENNSYLVANIA

Paul K. Adolf, Easton

Richard K. Baird, Uniontown

Kenneth E. Banzhof, Allentown

Gary M. Brooks, Hanover

Richard T. Brown, Cochranville

Jack B. Drummond, New Bethlehem

Ronald W. Feindt, Honesdale

Vasilios A. Gerovasiliou, Prospect Park

Lino G. Giampaolo, Huntingdon Valley

Gregory W. Godon, Birdsboro

Genay E. Hess, Vandergrift

Joseph R. Itle, Martinsburg

Harley M. Kooker, Christiana

Patricia E. Losco, West Chester

Ellsworth S. McAllister, Centre Hall

Glen K. Miller, West Point

Daniel J. Murphy Jr., Allison Park

Michael A. Obenski, Zionsville

Robert L. Peiffer Jr., Newtown

Elizabeth K. Ricklefs, Seven Valleys

Richard L. Rill, Seven Valleys

Lenora Sammons, Sunbury

Larry L. Stefanick, Sharon

James W. Temple, Sunbury

Donald C. Tummons, Uniontown

David C. Welch, Berlin

George F. Zimmerman, Denver

RHODE ISLAND

Patricia L. Ader, Warwick

SOUTH CAROLINA

Barry R. Edwards, Greenwood

Curtis S. Huffstetler, Saint

Matthews E.R. Irwin II, Inman

Ben D. Phillips, Greenville

Larry A. Suber, Columbia

Michael E. Wiggers, Taylors

SOUTH DAKOTA

Douglas R. Brost, Sioux Falls

Roger M. Genetzky, Brookings

John A. Ismay, Sturgis

Donald L. Lepp, Yankton

Janet H. Messner, Yankton

Anna M. Ouverson, Madison

William P. Shulaw, Hot Springs

TENNESSEE

Robert C. Davis, Lexington

C.M. Farrar, Fayetteville

Donald D. Headrick, Franklin

William M. Hezel, Memphis

Douglas G. Hooks, Martin

Jerry B. Horn, Collierville

James L. Jarman, Murfreesboro

Carol L. Macherey, Nashville

George N. Moseley, Memphis

Maurice L. Neal, Crossville

Bob Page, Dresden

Jack C. Presnell, Bristol

Sandra A. Priest, Knoxville

Ronald E. Scott, Johnson City

Joseph P. Weigel, Knoxville

Ronald E. Whitford, Clarksville

William G. Willhite, Maryville

Samuel L. Young, McMinnville

TEXAS

Samuel H. Adams, Stephenville

Jess O. Adkins, Fairfield

Ray M. Ayers, Aransas Pass

Jacqueline M. Bass, Palestine

Frank E. Bortle, Boerne

Douglas C. Bronstad, McKinney

Michael G. Burk, De Leon

William C. Campaigne, Seguin

David B. Carter, Castroville

Henry L. Chenault, Hurst

Marvel C. Church, Snyder

Marie E. Diestler, Galveston

Miley B. Eitelman, Abilene

Jon F. Esposito, El Paso

Larry D. Farley, Lubbock

Joseph A. Foltin, Hockley

Michael L. Freeman, Edgewood

Robert B. Gillard, Piano

S.K. Glenn, Graham

Robert P. Harle, Baird

Wiley C. Heath, El Paso

Martin L. Hoffman, Bulverde

Billy W. Irwin, Henderson

Mitchel Jager, Robinson

Elton D. Joines, Harlingen

Gerald D. Killgore, Rosebud

Dwight D. King, Wharton

Larry M. Kornegay, Houston

James R. Koschmann, El Paso

John H. Kothmann, San Antonio

Sonja O. Lee, Lubbock

Steven W. Lee, Schulenburg

Roland F. Lenarduzzi, Manvel

Lafon C. Lively Jr., College Station

Philip W. Martin, San Antonio

Mack T. McClister, Mansfield

George R. Moreland, El Paso

William H. O'Brien, Somerville

David W. Oubre, Texarkana

Bernie R. Page, Kerrville

Johnnie L. Perkins, Lipan

Lloyd A. Rieger, Portland

David W. Rosberg, Mason

William R. Schrader, Madisonville

John F. Scott, Inving

Andreas M. Senske, Rosenberg

Richard H. Shepherd, Lake Dallas

Jerry E. Skidmore, Mount Pleasant

Stanley L. Vanhooser, Bryan

Tommy J. Walker, Arlington

John M. Wayman, Dallas

Alfred C. Wehner, Beaumont

Jack W. Whitmore, Spring

William P. Yonushonis, Katy

So Y. Yoo, Houston

Harold W. Young, Kirbyville

Stanley L. Zbylot, Tomball

UTAH

Richard L. Bagley, Cedar City

Larry C. Mitchell, Lewiston

Gary L. Peterson, Salt Lake City

Roger E. Rees, South Jordan

Terry D. Shields, Orem

Robert M. Simmons, Escalante

Timothy G. Terrell, Ivins

VERMONT

Robert H. Johnson, Stowe

Paul H. Urband, Middlebury

Ronald Veenema, East Dummerston

VIRGINIA

Charles W. Blevins, Vienna

Richard L. Bradley, Manassas

Robert C. Brown, Great Falls

Glenn A. Bucher, Chesapeake

Harry E. Burchard, Culpeper

Suzanne Cliver, Markham

Wilmer R. Davis, Stephens City

Lydia L. Donaldson, Middleburg

James C. Foley, Poquoson

Walter E. Hylton, Staunton

Richard L. Jordan, Chesterfield

Gerald A. Liles, Tazewell

Judy A. Mason, Ashland

William H. McCormick, Middleburg

Marvin D. Meinders, Clifton

J.C. Middleton, Charlottesville

N.L. Newman, Strasburg

Clinton L. Pease, Marshall

Guy L. Pidgeon, Berryville

Bruce H. Radomski, Virginia Beach

Thomas S. Roehr, Marshall

Steven A. Rogers, Falls Church

Ashton N. Rose, Richmond

Gregory R. Schmidt, Keswick

John W. Shoup, Virginia Beach

Don R. Waldron, Blacksburg

WASHINGTON

Richard R. Badger, Bainbridge Island

Bruce M. Bell, Olympia

Ann M. Brudvik, Edmonds

Charles W. Coleman, Pasco

David D. Duclos, Mill Creek

Donna Fellows, Olympia

Robert V Fleck, Woodinville

Brian D. Johnson, Vancouver

Kenneth D. McKim, Seattle

William S. Miner, Steilacoom

Chester Newman, Seattle

Larry Pickering, Duvall

Kennie J. Reeves, Dayton

William M. Rosolowsky, Seattle

Pritam S. Sahota, Kennewick

David O. Sigmond, Bainbridge Island

Jonathan L. Stowater, Port Townsend

Richard E. Weller, Selah

MaryEllen Zoulas, Seattle

WEST VIRGINIA

John M. Barnes, New Martinsville

Dennis K. Dibbern, Charles Town

Kay W. Gilpin, Martinsburg

Matthew J. Kessler, Morgantown

Paul E. Shockey, Ripley

WISCONSIN

Julie A. Agen, Seymour

Michael A. Beisbier, Reedsburg

Richard R. Dubielzig, Madison

Calvin W. Edwards, Berlin

Wayne E. Hoppe, Brown Deer

John H. Lorfeld, Oshkosh

Robert M. Mitchell, Racine

Dennis C. Nyren, Green Bay

John K. Ryder, Oregon

Stephen C. Sash, Hurley

Douglas R. Skrade, Medford

Robert R. Spencer, La Crosse

Cedric A. Veum, Westby

WYOMING

Steven R. Cummings, Wyarno

Robert M. Farr, Cheyenne

William W. Gould, Meeteetse

Frederick P. Hosking, Bedford

Jac Weinheimer, Buffalo

INTERNATIONAL

Alfred Benjamin, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

Arthur J. Doerksen, Lethbridge, Alberta

Gen Kato, Tokyo

Christophe W. Lombard, Wabern, Switzerland

Conor F. McMahon, Kilcullen, Ireland

AVMA Life adds member advocate position

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Belkys Llanes

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

Since August, Belkys Llanes has been working for AVMA Life in a newly created position as member advocate.

In her new role, Llanes helps AVMA Life members navigate the complex health care system, a job that includes identifying health coverage options, resolving medical claims, assisting with complex billing questions, and helping members with Medicare issues.

In addition, Llanes works closely with AVMA Life agents and insurance carriers to ensure that enrollee needs are met.

“The AVMA Life Trust has been diligently investigating how we can help our members with complex medical claims coordination. After years of investigation, there was clearly no support program like this in the health care industry,” explained Dr. Carolynn MacAllister, co-chair of AVMA Life's board of trustees.

“I am thrilled that the AVMA Life Trust added a member advocate position to specifically address and help members manage and coordinate health plans and claims,” Dr. MacAllister continued. “This initiative by the trustees enhances the member experience with the Trust and provides a high level of satisfaction and serves members, which as trustees is our ultimate goal.”

Llanes spent the past 14 years with AVMA Life's former administrator in sales and agent support before joining the Trust. She graduated from the University of South Florida with a bachelor's degree in management information systems.

“I'm excited with the opportunity to work for AVMA Life members in addressing their health insurance inquiries and concerns,” Llanes said.

Learn more about Llanes and her work as member advocate for AVMA Life members by visiting www.avmalife.org/advocate.

Education council schedules site visits

The AVMA Council on Education has scheduled site visits to 10 schools and colleges of veterinary medicine for 2018.

Comprehensive site visits are planned for Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Feb. 11–15; Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine, March 25–29; the National Autonomous University of Mexico, April 7–13; St. George's University School of Veterinary Medicine, April 22–26; Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine, April 29–May 3; University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science in Gatton, Australia, Sept. 9–13; Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, Sept. 30–Oct. 4; Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 14–18; University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 28–Nov. 1; and University of London Royal Veterinary College in London, Nov. 4–8.

The council welcomes written comments on these plans or the programs to be evaluated. Comments should be addressed to Dr. Karen Martens Brandt, Director, Education and Research Division, AVMA, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Comments must be signed by the person submitting them to be considered.

WHO seeks end to antibiotic use without disease

Greg Cima

Global health authorities are discouraging use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the absence of disease.

World Health Organization guidelines published in November 2017 state that livestock industries should stop using antimicrobials to prevent disease or improve production in livestock. They also advocate reducing overall antimicrobial administration to livestock, especially administration of drugs important for human medicine.

The WHO also is recommending veterinarian oversight of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals, use of antimicrobial resistance tests in treatment decision-making, use of vaccines and sanitation to prevent disease, and limitation of some classes of antimicrobials to use in human medicine.

The 90-page document is available at http://jav.ma/WHOguide.

Marc Sprenger, MD, director of the WHO antimicrobial resistance secretariat, said in a press conference that antimicrobial resistance is causing untreatable infections and a substantial public health threat. Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans and animals have been important causes of resistance.

Kazuaki Miyagishima, MD, the WHO's director of food safety and zoo-noses, said prolonged or routine antimicrobial use promotes antimicrobial resistance and that reducing overuse in animal production is necessary to protect public health.

Dr. Miyagishima said antimicrobials should not be used for production or as preventive measures in the absence of animal disease, with potential exceptions for prevention uses under veterinarian oversight. The WHO also recommends taking samples from animals to determine which antimicrobials are effective and using the most likely effective antimicrobials that are least important for human medicine.

The guidelines published in November were developed through the organization's stringent guideline development process, which includes systematic reviews, he said.

U.S. Department of Agriculture acting chief scientist Chavonda Jacobs-Young, PhD, said in an announcement that the WHO guidelines on antimicrobial use in animals lack support from “sound science.” She said the recommendations conflate disease prevention and growth promotion.

Dr. Jacobs-Young notes that the guidelines indicate the WHO's recommendations are based on “low quality evidence.”

The recommendations to reduce overall antimicrobial use in food-producing animals and restrict growth promotion and disease prevention uses include notes of “strong recommendation, low quality evidence.” The recommendations of limiting or preventing antimicrobial administration to food-producing animals on the basis of the antimicrobial's importance in human medicine include notes of “conditional recommendation, very low quality evidence.”

The WHO guidelines indicate the organization assessed its own recommendations using a grading system that is designed to assess clinical and public health interventions and assigns initial ratings of “low quality” to all studies that are not randomized control trials. The body of evidence for the recommendations was bound to have low ratings under that system.

“It is not practical, and in some cases not ethical, to conduct randomized clinical trials to investigate the impact of restricting antimicrobial use in food-producing animals on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance,” the guidelines state.

Adapting the grading system to address complex questions involving environmental exposures and interventions is challenging, the guidelines state.

The document also states that the WHO guideline development group concluded that the potential human health benefits of lowering the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in humans outweighs any potential harm or unintended negative consequences of limiting antimicrobial use. The evidence for the recommendations comes from review of substantial information supporting the assertion, it states.

Winn Feline Foundation: 50 years of advancing medicine

Katie Burns

Feline medicine has come a long way in the past half-century, thanks in part to the Winn Feline Foundation.

2018 is the foundation's 50th anniversary. Since 1968, Winn has provided more than $6 million for feline health research.

Kicking off a yearlong celebration, Winn marked Oct. 21, 2017, as the inaugural Cures4Cats Day during the American Association of Feline Practitioners' conference in Denver. Dr. Margie Scherk spoke about the long history of domestic cats and relatively short history of feline medicine, and the foundation released the book “50 Years of Advancing Feline Medicine: Winn Feline Foundation Helping Every Cat, Every Day.”

In 1968, the Cat Fanciers Association started what was then the CFA Foundation with a $100 donation. In 1971, the foundation was renamed after the late Robert H. Winn, who had been the association's attorney and an original member of the foundation's board. In 1978, the foundation held its first annual symposium on feline health.

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Jamie S. Perry, an artist who has devoted her career to drawing cats, created “No Place Like Home” for the cover of Winn's 50th anniversary book. The original was lost in a California wildfire in October 2017, along with the rest of Perry's artwork.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

According to the anniversary book, funding from Winn Feline Foundation has contributed to the following developments:

  • 1987 The discovery that most cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in cats are related to taurine-deficient diets, leading to reformulated standards for all commercial cat foods.

  • • Identification of the feline immunodeficiency virus.

  • 1988 Demonstration that blood pressure can easily be measured in cats with the correct cuff sizes.

  • 1989 Determination of the inheritance pattern of feline blood groups and the mechanism of neonatal isoerythrolysis, making it possible to avoid fading kitten syndrome.

  • 1995 A study of kittens altered at 7 weeks of age compared with kittens altered at 7 months of age, providing evidence that earlier spay and neuter surgery is safe and feasible.

  • 2000 Confirmation that tablets or capsules given to cats may remain in the esophagus for more than five minutes, unless a drink of water or a small treat is given afterward.

  • 2003 Demonstration of the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet to treat diabetic cats.

  • 2004 Identification of a genetic trait associated with feline polycystic kidney disease.

  • • Confirmation of the efficacy of medication delivered to cats in metered dose inhalers, improving the treatment of feline asthma.

  • • Identification of the genetic mutation that causes feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Maine Coon cats.

  • 2007 Identification of the genetic mutation that causes feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Ragdoll cats.

  • • Identification of the mutations in red blood cells that cause A and B blood groups.

  • • An analysis of genetic data from more than 1,100 cats indicating that the Mediterranean was the site of cat domestication and that the genetic diversity of cats remains broad around the world.

  • 2012 Identification of the genetic mutation that causes hypokalemia in Burmese cats.

  • • Development of best practices for treating ringworm in infected cats and disinfectant protocols.

  • 2013 Discovery of a mutation that allows the feline infectious peritonitis virus to bind to and enter cells.

  • 2014 Development of a protocol for using mesenchymal stem cells derived from a cat's own fat to treat feline chronic gingivostomatitis.

  • 2015 Identification of the genetic mutation that causes spasticity in Devon Rex and Sphynx cats.

  • 2016 Beginning of a clinical trial of a drug to treat feline infectious peritonitis.

  • • Identification of the genetic mutation responsible for a craniofacial defect in Burmese cats.

  • • Exploration of safer and more effective drugs for Tritrichomonas foetus infection.

  • 2017 A report on the transdermal application of an appetite stimulant, mirtazapine, in cats.

The anniversary book is available to download for free or to order for the cost of shipping at www.winnfelinefoundation.org/50th-anniversary-book.

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Dr. Jessica Quimby interacts with her cat, Telia, who died of complications of chronic kidney disease in 2014. Winn Feline Foundation has supported Dr. Quimby's research on the use of stem cells to treat the disease in cats and on transdermal mirtazapine administration to maintain appetite in cats with the disease‥ (Images courtesy of Winn Feline Foundation)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

Morris Animal Foundation funds feline studies

Morris Animal Foundation announced Nov. 14, 2017, that it has awarded more than $400,000 in grants for studies in feline health.

The studies are as follows:

“Investigating the re-emergence of a fatal gastrointestinal disease in shelter cats”

In the past 10 to 15 years, feline panleukopenia has re-emerged as a major cause of death in shelter-housed cats. Researchers will determine whether multiple parvovirus strains or other viruses are contributing to the re-emergence of panleukopenia. Awarded to the University of Sydney, Australia.

“Developing new diagnostic and prognostic tests for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)”

Feline infectious peritonitis is perhaps the most devastating infectious disease of cats. Definitive diagnosis of FIP prior to death remains a challenge. Researchers will explore novel ways to diagnose FIP and predict the likelihood of a cat developing the disease. Awarded to Colorado State University.

“Combating feline herpesvirus– related upper respiratory infections”

Feline herpesvirus type 1 causes about half of diagnosed viral upper respiratory tract infections in cats. FHV-1 spreads rapidly in multicat environments, making it a problem in shelters. Researchers will identify genes responsible for the lack of immune defenses associated with feline herpesvirus with the aim of developing a more effective vaccine. Awarded to Michigan State University.

“Understanding why cats respond differently to a common heart medication”

The drug clopidogrel is frequently prescribed for cats with heart disease to help prevent and treat blood clots. However, individual cats may process clopidogrel differently. Researchers will determine whether genetic mutations are directly linked to how well a cat with heart disease responds to the drug. Awarded to the University of California-Davis.

“Evaluating the effectiveness of a commonly prescribed drug for chronic kidney disease (CKD)”

Researchers will evaluate the effectiveness of omeprazole, a gastric acid suppressant commonly prescribed to treat clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease in cats with chronic kidney disease. This project consists of two grants, one of which is a fellowship, awarded to the University of Tennessee.

AAV gives grants for research on companion, wild birds

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Dr. Marcy Souza

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

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Dr. Miranda Sadar

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

The Association of Avian Veterinarians has provided over $560,000 in funding for avian health research since 1982. In 2017, the association divided its annual research funding into two grant categories, allowing for more diversity and greater funding opportunities.

The AAV Companion Bird Health Fund is for projects addressing clinical aspects of companion bird health. Areas of interest include but are not limited to diagnostic testing, disease treatment, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and practice management. Grants are limited to $10,000 for individual projects.

For the AAV Wild Bird Health Fund, projects of interest include but are not limited to epidemiology of disease in wild populations, ecotoxicology, diagnostic testing and treatment of wild birds, and conservation medicine. Grants are limited to $5,000 for individual projects.

Dr. Marcy Souza of the University of Tennessee was awarded the 2017 AAV Companion Bird Health Fund Grant of $9,785 for her project “GI pharmacokinetics and drug-withdrawal times for eggs following Clavamox in chickens.” Dr. Miranda Sadar of the University of Saskatchewan was awarded the 2017 AAV Wild Bird Health Fund Grant of $5,000 for her project “Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in Bald Eagles.”

Association of Avian Veterinarians

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Dr. Michael Lierz

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

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Dr. Yvonne van Zeeland

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

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Dr. Lauren V. Powers

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

Event: Annual meeting, July 29-Aug. 2, 2017, Washington, D.C.

Awards: Dr. T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner Award: Dr. Michael Lierz, Giessen, Germany, for advancing avian medicine and surgery while providing inspiration and showing compassion. A 1996 graduate of the Veterinary College of Hannover in Germany, Dr. Lierz is a professor in avian medicine and director of the Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish at the Justus-Liebig University of Giessen. He is president of the European Association of Avian Veterinarians, a diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine and European College of Poultry Veterinary Science, and a member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Donald W. Zantop Memorial Lecture Honoree: Dr. Brenna Fitzgerald, Oakley, California, for “Clinical Cardiovascular Anatomy and Disease States.” House Officer Manuscript Competition Award: Dr. Anna Martel-Arquette, Madison, Wisconsin, for “Effects of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol on gastrointestinal transit time and motility in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).” Research Grant Award: Drs. Yvonne van Zeeland, Utrecht, Netherlands, for “Therapeutic efficacy of paroxetine in feather damaging grey parrots,” and Emma Schachner, New Orleans, for “Lower respiratory system anatomy of the African grey parrot.” President's Service Appreciation Award: Dr. Laurie Hess, Bedford Hills, New York

Business: The association has expanded its annual research funding by offering two new bird health grants (see sidebar).

Officials: Drs. Lauren V. Powers, Huntersville, North Carolina, president; Yvonne van Zeeland, Utrecht, Netherlands, president-elect; Michael Lutz, Nashville, Tennessee, treasurer; and Michelle Hawkins, Davis, California, immediate past president and conference chair.

Booth receives Colorado State alumnus award

Dr. Nicholas H. Booth (Michigan State ‘47) was named as 2017 Distinguished Alumnus on Oct. 12, 2017, by Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, where he earned a master's degree in physiology and biophysics in 1951.

Dr. Booth served on the faculty at the college from 1948–56, as head of the Department of Physiology and Biophysics from 1956–66, and as dean from 1966–71. Other positions held by Dr. Booth were at the Food and Drug Administration as director of the Division of Veterinary Medical Research and at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, where he retired as a professor emeritus of physiology and pharmacology.

Dr. Booth served as secretary and chair of the Research Section of the AVMA Annual Convention and as chair of the AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents. Over a 35-year period, he served as co-author and co-editor of the book “Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.” He is a Navy veteran of World War II.

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Dr. Nicholas H. Booth

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

Iowa State confers Stange, Switzer awards

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Dr. D.L. “Hank” Harris

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

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Dr. Richard F. Ross

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

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Dr. Jack A. Shere

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

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Dr. Bill Williams

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 252, 1; 10.2460/javma.252.1.14

Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine honored four veterinarians Oct. 30, 2017.

Recipients of the 2017 Stange Award for Meritorious Service were Drs. D.L. “Hank” Harris, Richard F. Ross, and Jack A. Shere.

The 2017 William P. Switzer Award in Veterinary Medicine was presented to Dr. Bill Williams for his contributions to society and the ISU veterinary college.

Dr. Harris (Iowa State ‘67) played a key role in identifying the etiology of swine dysentery. His research efforts in the basic science of the disease ultimately led to elimination and control programs. While employed at the Pig Improvement Co., he developed isolated weaning for eliminating infectious agents and developed multiple-site swine rearing systems. He was a founder of vaccine companies NOBL Laboratories Inc. and Harrisvaccines Inc. In 2014, Harrisvaccines developed a vaccine for porcine epidemic diarrhea. Now retired, Dr. Harris was on the faculty at ISU from 1970–1982 and again from 1992–2014.

Dr. Ross (Iowa State ‘59), a professor emeritus at the ISU veterinary college, is an international expert in the field of veterinary microbiology. His research on swine respiratory diseases caused by mycoplasmas has had a substantial impact on the understanding of mycoplasmal infections in animals and humans. During his tenure as dean of the college, he was instrumental in the planning and funding of the Livestock Infectious Disease Isolation Facility. He led the effort to obtain funding for the Healthy Livestock Initiative. Dr. Ross also served in other college leadership roles and as dean of the ISU College of Agriculture.

Dr. Shere (Iowa State ‘87) is deputy administrator for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Veterinary Services and chief veterinary officer of the United States. For the past 27 years, he has been on the leading edge of responses to animal disease outbreaks in the United States and abroad, including outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis, foot-and-mouth disease, avian influenza, and exotic Newcastle disease. He leads USDA efforts in protecting and improving the health, quality, and marketability of the nation's agricultural animals, animal products, and veterinary biologics. He also oversees Veterinary Services' national and international reference laboratory network.

A past president of the Iowa VMA, Dr. Williams (Missouri ‘95) works to increase the visibility of the veterinary profession in Iowa, improve engagement with ISU veterinary students, and champion the IVMA foundation that provides more than $50,000 annually for scholarships for veterinary students. He also volunteers with IVMA legislative activities. For years, he has helped the college in recruiting prospective veterinary students. He has raised more than $10,000 pedaling across Iowa for the Josh Challenge Project at the college, which provides hospitalized children with stuffed animals and other comforting resources. He co-owns two small animal practices, in Des Moines and Altoona.

Obituaries AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember Student

Gene R. Bengston

Dr. Bengston (Colorado State 70), 71, Cheyenne, Wyoming, died Sept. 23, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, he was the founder of Dell Range Animal Hospital in Cheyenne. Dr. Bengston is survived by a son and a daughter, four grandchildren, and a brother.

Gregory P. Boivin

Dr. Boivin (Washington State ‘89), 55, Springboro, Ohio, died Aug. 11, 2017. He was a professor in the departments of pathology and orthopedic surgery and director of laboratory animal resources at Wright State University's Boonshoft School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio, since 2008. Dr. Boivin also worked part time as a veterinary medical officer for the Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center beginning 1992. Following graduation and after earning his master's in laboratory animal medicine from the University of Missouri in 1992, he served as director of comparative pathology at the University of Cincinnati for 16 years. Dr. Boivin was a diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. He was a member of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, receiving its Young Investigator Award in 1999.

Dr. Boivin is survived by his fiancee, Pam; two children; his father; and two sisters. Memorials may be made to the ACLAM Foundation, 2820 Polk Ave., El Paso, TX 79930, www.aclam.org/foundation, or the AALAS Foundation, 9190 Crestwyn Hills Drive, Memphis, TN 38125, www.aalasfoundation.org

Brett M. Cooper

Cooper (Pennsylvania ‘18), 30, Philadelphia, died Sept. 13, 2017. He was a fourth-year student at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. From 2005–09, Cooper worked as a veterinary technician at 4 Paws Animal Hospital in Manalapan, New Jersey. He served in the same capacity on a part-time basis at Furry Friends Mobile Vet in Brick, New Jersey, from 2013–17.

Cooper is survived by his parents, his brother and sister-in-law, and a newborn nephew, named for him. Memorials may be made to the Brett Matthew Cooper Memorial Scholarship, University of Pennsylvania, 2929 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, http://givingpages.upenn.edu/rememberingBrett

Mark L. Griswold

Dr. Griswold (Michigan State 76), 71, Milford, Michigan, died Nov. 1, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Hernando Animal Hospital in Spring Hill, Florida, for more than 30 years. Dr. Griswold retired in 2011. He served in the Navy during the Vietnam War. Dr. Griswold is survived by his wife, Arlene, and two brothers.

Arthur B. Haws

Dr. Haws (Texas A&M ‘48), 90, Austin, Texas, died Sept. 24, 2017. In 1956, he moved to Austin, where he owned a small animal practice for 40 years. Earlier, Dr. Haws served in the Army Veterinary Corps and practiced in Salina, Kansas. A member of the Texas VMA, he served as its treasurer from 1969–73.

Dr. Haws is survived by three daughters and a son, his grandchildren, a great-grandchild, and his sister. Memorials toward academic scholarships may be made to the Texas A&M Foundation, 401 George Bush Drive, College Station, TX 77840.

N. Bruce Haynes

Dr. Haynes (Cornell ‘52), 91, Skowhegan, Maine, died Oct. 7, 2017.

He served as director of veterinary continuing education at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine prior to retirement in 1979. Following graduation, Dr. Haynes worked as an associate veterinarian at Pine Tree Veterinary Hospital in Augusta, Maine. He subsequently established a mixed animal practice in Millerton, New York, focusing on bovine medicine. In 1964, Dr. Haynes joined Cornell as extension veterinarian. He later served a year as an associate professor of veterinary science, before joining the graduate faculty.

Dr. Haynes authored the book “Keeping Livestock Healthy.” He was a past president of what is now known as the American Academy of Veterinary Nutrition and a past director of the American Association of Extension Veterinarians. Dr. Haynes served on several committees of the New York State VMS and was named Veterinarian of the Year in 1975. He was a life member of the United States Animal Health Association and American Association of Bovine Practitioners, and an honorary member of the Maine VMA. Dr. Haynes was a veteran of the Navy.

His wife, Betty; a daughter and a son; three grandchildren; and six great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Somerset Animal Shelter, Middle Road, Skowhegan, ME 04976, or Maine General Hospice, P.O. Box 828, Waterville, ME 04903.

John Kirschke

Dr. Kirschke (Texas A&M ‘61), 80, McKinney, Texas, died Sept. 6, 2017. He practiced in Boerne, Texas. Dr. Kirschke was a member of the Lions Club and was active with the Boy Scouts of America. His wife, Carolyn; seven daughters and two sons; 21 grandchildren; nine great-grandchildren; and two sisters survive him. Memorials may be made to Wounded Warrior Project, 4899 Belfort Road, Suite 300, Jacksonville, FL 32256, www.woundedwarriorproject.org.

Leonard Kohn

Dr. Kohn (Brandeis Middlesex ‘44), 96, Vernon Hills, Illinois, died Oct. 18, 2017. In the early 1950s, he established Kohn Animal Hospital in Highland Park, Illinois, where he practiced small animal medicine until retirement in 1986. Prior to that, Dr. Kohn worked for a practice in Barrington, Illinois.

He is survived by his wife, Cleo; two daughters; three grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. Dr. Kohn's granddaughter, Dr. Greta Mann (Illinois ‘15), practices small animal medicine in Mundelein, Illinois. Memorials may be made to the Morris Animal Foundation, 720 S. Colorado Blvd., Suite 174A, Denver, CO 80246, www.morrisanimalfoundation.org, or American Heart Association, 208 S. LaSalle St., Suite 1500, Chicago, IL 60604, www.heart.org.

Philip Q. Michal

Dr. Michal (Purdue ‘64), 77, Crawfordsville, Indiana, died Oct. 9, 2017. In 1969, he established Northwest Veterinary Clinic just outside Crawfordsville, where he practiced small animal medicine until retirement in 2013. Prior to that, Dr. Michal owned a practice in the Wingate area of Indiana. Active in his community, he was a three-term mayor of Crawfordsville, serving from 1988–2000. During that time, Dr. Michal chaired the West Central Indiana Solid Waste District Committee and was active with the Indiana Association of Cities and Towns. Dr. Michal served 14 years on the Montgomery County Board of Health and 10 years on the Crawfordsville City Council. He was a past president of the Crawfordsville Kiwanis Club, served as a court-appointed special advocate for juveniles in the Montgomery County court system, was active with the Youth Service Bureau Juvenile Mentoring Program, and participated in several Montgomery County CROP hunger walks. In 2014, Dr. Michal received a Sagamore of the Wabash Award for his public service, leadership, and volunteerism.

His wife, Judy; three sons; 12 grandchildren; two great-grandchildren; and a sister and a brother survive him. Memorials may be made to the First Christian Church Memorial Fund, 211 S. Walnut St., Crawfordsville, IN 47933; Rock Steady Boxing Brownsburg (a nonprofit organization focused on fighting Parkinson's disease via a fitness curriculum), 1650 E. Northfield Drive, Suite 100, Brownsburg, IN 46112; or Church World Service/CROP Hunger Walk, 28606 Phillips St., P.O. Box 968, Elkhart, IN 46515.

Clell J. Solomon Sr.

Dr. Solomon (Kansas State ‘83), 61, Wichita, Kansas, died Aug. 26, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Solomon Veterinary Clinic in Wichita. Dr. Solomon also cared for the dogs of the Wichita Police Department. He was a member of the American Animal Hospital Association, American Heartworm Society, and Kansas VMA. In 1990, Dr. Solomon received the KVMA President's Award.

He is survived by his wife, Melody Lau; three sons and a daughter; three grandchildren; his parents; and his sister and brother. Memorials may be made to the Wichita Police Department K-9 Unit, 455 N. Main, Wichita, KS 67202; Kansas Humane Society, 3313 N. Hillside, Wichita, KS 67219; or St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105.

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