In This Issue • August 1, 2017

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JAVMA scientific and news content is now available on a mobile app. In other news, the AVMA Council on Education has revised accreditation standards that require veterinary colleges to promote diversity and inclusion.

See page 248

Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

See page 273

What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis?

See page 277

Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

See page 281

ECG of the Month

See page 285

Anesthesia Case of the Month

See page 291

Animal Behavior Case of the Month

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Pathology in Practice

See pages 299, 303


Fifty years of contributions by the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology

The American Board of Veterinary Toxicology is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2017. As the first professional organization to provide certification in the field of toxicology, the ABVT has played an important role in protecting animals and people from environmental and other toxicologic hazards.

See page 268


Over bagging in dairy show cows: an ethical crisis

The use of prolonged (≥ 24 hours) nonmilking intervals (ie, over bagging) to artificially improve udder size and appearance has been on the list of forbidden practices in the codes of ethics for many major dairy shows for > 20 years, but violations have not been consistently enforced.

See page 271

Small Animals & Exotic

Laparoscopy versus exploratory laparotomy for dogs with suspected gastrointestinal obstruction

Results of a study involving 16 dogs with evidence of gastrointestinal obstruction indicated that laparoscopy is a feasible alternative to exploratory laparotomy, but the authors suggested that careful patient selection and liberal criteria for conversion to an open surgical approach are necessary when considering the use of laparoscopy for diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions in dogs. In the study, dogs underwent single-incision laparoscopy with intracorporeal and extracorporeal examination of the gastrointestinal tract, immediately followed by exploratory laparotomy. In 3 dogs, complete laparoscopic examination was not possible, and in another 4, surgical treatment of identified lesions required an open surgical approach.

See page 307

Ultrasonographic and CT characterization of suspected mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction in dogs

In a study of 16 dogs with evidence of mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction that subsequently underwent exploratory laparotomy, noncontrast abdominal CT was found to be a rapid and accurate diagnostic method. Overall, 10 dogs had complete obstruction, 3 had partial obstruction, and 3 had no obstruction, and results of abdominal CT and exploratory surgery agreed for all 16 dogs. Importantly, image acquisition time for abdominal CT (median, 2.5 minutes) was significantly shorter than that for abdominal ultrasonography (26.0 minutes). In both the dorsal and transverse CT planes, dogs with gastrointestinal obstruction (partial or complete) had significantly larger intestinal diameter ratios than did dogs without obstruction.

See page 315

Learning curves for ovariohysterectomy of dogs and cats and castration of dogs

A learning curve illustrates the relationship between repetition and improvement in the performance of a task. In a study involving 88 fourth-year veterinary students that performed 3,056 ovariohysterectomies or castrations in dogs and cats during a spay-neuter surgery and animal shelter rotation, surgery time decreased in a nonlinear manner as student experience increased for castration of adult or pediatric dogs and for ovariohysterectomy of pediatric dogs and adult or pediatric cats. Surgery time decreased in a linear manner as student experience increased for ovariohysterectomy of adult dogs. Results clearly indicated the value of repetition to improve surgical skills (as measured by surgery time) during a 3-week period.

See page 322

Single oblique osteotomy for correction of antebrachial angular and torsional deformities in a dog

A 9-month-old Shih Tzu with a 4-week history of left forelimb lameness was found to have a 32° angular deformity of the left radius in a 45° craniomedial oblique plane (equivalent to 23° valgus and 23° procurvatum) and a 55° external torsional deformity. A 3-D printed bone model created from reconstructed CT images was used for surgical planning, and the deformities were corrected with a single oblique osteotomy located 45° medial to the sagittal plane of the radius at the level of the center of rotation of angulation and oriented 32° distolaterally from the transverse plane of the radius. Findings for this case suggested that SOO may be a viable alternative to wedge osteotomies in dogs with angular and torsional long bone deformities.

See page 333

Surgical treatment of a paraspinal abscess with osteomyelitis and spinal cord compression in a rabbit

A 16-month-old Continental Giant rabbit was referred for evaluation of acute, progressive, symmetric paraparesis. Marked extradural spinal cord compression with contrast enhancement of adjacent epaxial muscles was evident on MRI images of the T11–T12 region. A left-sided T11–T12 hemilaminectomy was performed, and copious purulent material was removed. Results of aerobic, anaerobic, and enriched bacteriologic cultures of swab specimens from the surgical site were negative. Findings suggested that paraspinal abscess with vertebral canal involvement should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rabbits with clinical signs of progressive T3–L3 myelopathy and that surgical treatment can result in a favorable long-term outcome.

See page 340


Association between a commercial vaccine against Moraxella bovis and cumulative incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in beef calves

Because of the adverse effects of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis on the health and production of calves, prevention through vaccination is desirable. However, a randomized, controlled trial of a commercial Moraxella bovis vaccine marketed for use in cattle did not find any reduction in the cumulative incidence of IBK or increase in the weaning weights of vaccinated beef calves, compared with control, unvaccinated calves. Overall, IBK was detected in 65 of 110 (59.1%) vaccinated calves and 62 of 104 (59.6%) unvaccinated calves (unadjusted risk ratio, 0.99) during the study period. No significant difference in weaning weights was identified between vaccinated and unvaccinated calves (unadjusted effect size, 4.40 kg [9.68 lb]).

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