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A glimmer of HOPE for a fatal feline disease

Controlling risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis is difficult, while new antiviral drugs show great promise

By Katie Burns

Feline infectious peritonitis is a heartbreaking disease. It usually strikes kittens and is almost always fatal. According to the Morris Animal Foundation, FIP is a leading cause of death in kittens and young cats and is most common in indoor, multicat environments such as shelters and catteries. In October 2015, Morris made a three-year, $1.2 million commitment to fund research that will advance understanding of feline infectious peritonitis and to dedicate resources to stop the disease.

Winn Feline Foundation has funded FIP research through the years, including 21 projects through the Bria Fund for FIP research. Winn devoted its 2017 symposium, June 29 in Chicago, to FIP prevention and treatment. The speaker was longtime FIP researcher Dr. Niels C. Pedersen, professor emeritus at the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine.

The American Association of Feline Practitioners focused its 2017 conference, Oct. 19–22 in Denver, on feline infectious diseases and pediatrics, starting with FIP. Dr. Pedersen spoke on “Risk Factors Affecting the Incidence of FIP in Dense MultiCat Environments” and “Use of Novel Anti-viral Drugs to Treat Cats with Naturally Occurring FIP.”

Some of the questions after the first session illustrated the difficulties in preventing and treating the disease. Audience members asked about controlling FIP in a kitten rescue, managing a pair of young cats in a home, and interpreting diagnostic test results. None of the answers was clear-cut.


Dr. Niels C. Pedersen, professor emeritus, University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine (Courtesy of AAFP)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Dr. Pedersen presented hope in the second session. He has participated in trials on two antiviral drugs that have led to remission in some cats with FIP.

“Antiviral drugs are the answer,” he said. “We've opened the door and shown that we can successfully cure a large percentage of these cats.”

Risk factors

Dr. Pedersen started studying the disease in 1964. Back then, FIP went hand in hand with feline leukemia. The incidence of both conditions dropped after release of a vaccine against feline leukemia virus, but now the incidence of FIP is rising.

“A lot of veterinarians claim they don't see this disease, but I think we're now starting to recognize all of the forms that occur—and especially some of the chronic dry cases,” Dr. Pedersen said. “As we start to recognize the full spectrum of the disease, we'll start seeing more of it.”

The basic virus is feline enteric coronavirus, an RNA virus that is ubiquitous throughout the world and spread via the fecal-oral route. Up to 60 percent of cats in multicat environments shed the virus at any given time. There are two serotypes, with type 1 being predominant and type 2 accounting for 5 to 20 percent of cases.

Both types can mutate during primary or secondary infection, transitioning to attack macrophages. One study found that mutation occurs in about 20 percent of infections, but the incidence of FIP is 0.3 to 1.3 percent among all cats in studies done in North America and Europe.

“The disease is relatively uncommon compared to the rate of the mutations occurring,” Dr. Pedersen said. “Most cats that undergo this mutation in their body have the ability to immunologically respond to it.” The question is why some cats fail to mount an effective immune response.

The incidence of FIP in a cat population can be as high as 10 percent or as low as zero—and can fluctuate. At high risk is any dense cat population with kittens as part of the equation. High-risk populations include cats at foster and rescue organizations and dense populations of free-roaming cats.

Risk factors for FIP have to do with the host, environment, and agent. The host factors include early weaning, age at the time of coronavirus infection, genetic susceptibility, stresses at the time of enteric coronavirus exposure, and the occurrence of FIP-causing mutants. Stresses at the time of coronavirus exposure can include weaning, overcrowding, elective surgical procedures, vaccinations, and concurrent infections.

Environmental factors include overcrowding, mixed ages, shared litter boxes, and diet. Among the agent factors are the severity of the coronavirus exposure, the strain of coronavirus in terms of virulence and mutability, and possibly the serotype of coronavirus.

“Cats do not transmit FIP virus to each other,” Dr. Pedersen said. The macrophage pathogen is present only in diseased tissues and no longer replicates in the gut. The virus that is passed from cat to cat is the ubiquitous and largely nonpathogenic parent enteric coronavirus.

In the announcement about its FIP funding, the Morris Animal Foundation characterized the disease as difficult to diagnose. Nonspecific, early signs of illness include loss of appetite, weight loss, signs of depression, rough hair coat, and fever. Later signs can include fluid accumulation in the abdomen.

Dr. Pedersen believes FIP is not hard to diagnose. He said, “FIP is a death sentence, and death sentences require definitive proof, don't they?” Not so, he said. Veterinarians know what it is when a young cat comes in with fever, a big belly full of fluid, and other signs. Dr. Pedersen said the diagnosis can be made with a high degree of certainty on the basis of signalment, clinical signs, physical findings, and a simple fluid analysis— including cell count and protein concentration.

Supportive care will prolong life, and some cats with FIP can live in a state of chronic disease for weeks, months, or, rarely, a year or more. He said, “Immunostimulants and immunosuppressives have no curative powers. Vaccines are not effective. That leaves us with antiviral agents.”

Novel drugs

Dr. Pedersen said veterinarians must learn from research on human RNA viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, influenza virus, and Ebola virus. It is possible to make drugs that interfere with specific replication processes of viruses.



  • • Early weaning.

  • • Age at time of coronavirus infection.

  • • Genetic susceptibility.

  • • Stresses at the time of enteric coronavirus exposure.

  • • Weaning.

  • • Overcrowding.

  • • Elective surgical procedures.

  • • Vaccinations.

  • • Concurrent infections.

  • • Occurrence of FIP-causing mutants.


  • • Overcrowding.

  • • Mixed ages.

  • • Shared litter boxes.

  • • Diet.


  • • The severity of the coronavirus exposure.

  • • The strain of coronavirus in terms of virulence and mutability.

  • • Possibly the serotype of coronavirus.

Source: Dr. Niels Pedersen, 2017 American Association of Feline Practitioners Conference


Smokey was a participant in a field trial of the protease inhibitor GC376 for treating feline infectious peritonitis. (Cat photo provided to Dr. Niels C. Pedersen by the cats' owners)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Luna, EV0984 field trial (Cat photo provided to Dr. Niels C. Pedersen by the cats' owners)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Peanuts, GC376 field trial (Cat photo provided to Dr. Niels C. Pedersen by the cats' owners)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Mona was a participant in a field trial of the nucleoside inhibitor EV0984 for treating FIP. (Cat photo provided to Dr. Niels C. Pedersen by the cats' owners)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

“The results of our preliminary field studies with two drugs, a protease inhibitor and a nucleoside inhibitor, are showing great promise in curing certain forms of FIP,” Dr. Pedersen summarized after the AAFP conference.

One candidate for treating FIP is the protease inhibitor GC376. Researchers at Kansas State University; Wichita State University in Wichita, Kansas; and UC-Davis studied the drug in eight cats with experimentally induced disease. The results appeared in “Reversal of the progression of fatal coronavirus infection in cats by a broad-spectrum coronavirus protease inhibitor” on March 30 in PLoS Pathogens, an online journal of the Public Library of Science. The study is available at http://jav.ma/FIPtreatment.

According to the abstract, “We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated.”

Researchers at the universities conducting that study plus Washington State University then conducted a field trial of the drug in 20 cats with naturally occurring disease. The results appeared in “Efficacy of a 3C-like protease inhibitor in treating various forms of acquired feline infectious peritonitis” online Sept. 13 ahead of print in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. The study is available at http://jav.ma/FIPtreatment2.

According to the abstract, “GC376 showed promise in treating cats with certain presentations of FIP and has opened the door to targeted antiviral drug therapy.”

At the AAFP conference, Dr. Pedersen explained that all the cats returned to normal health, but 14 cats had fatal relapses not responsive to the drug. Six cats went into remission, with one receiving the nucleoside inhibitor EV0984. The major adverse effect was inhibition of the formation of permanent teeth in young kittens.

Dr. Pedersen also described unpublished research on EV0984, which inhibits nucleoside reverse transcription. Researchers studied the drug against experimental FIP, then went into a field trial with 30 cats. Four cats died within one to two weeks of related and unrelated complications, but 26 cats achieved complete remission of disease signs. Two-thirds of the latter cats are in long-term and hopefully permanent remission after 12 weeks or so of treatment.

One-third of cats had disease relapses after stopping treatment; one failed to respond to re-treatment, while the rest have responded well to re-treatment. The latter cats may require prolonged or indefinite therapy. There were no major adverse effects.

At the conference, Dr. Pedersen cautioned that commercialization of drugs is not easy. Afterward, he continued, “We feel that FIP-specific antiviral drugs will become the treatment of choice for FIP, but we are reluctant to make guesses on when they might appear in the hands of veterinarians.”

In the book “50 Years of Advancing Feline Medicine” celebrating Winn's upcoming anniversary in 2018, Dr. Pedersen concluded, “The quest for a cure has been slow, but scientists around the world have built a solid base of knowledge of FIP that is finally yielding exciting breakthroughs, especially in the area of anti-viral drug therapy.”

Feline development, from kitten kindergarten onward

By Katie Burns

Cats do a lot of great stuff but also not-so-great stuff, which is confusing and frustrating for owners. Therefore, veterinarians need to help owners understand normal and abnormal feline behavior.

That's according to Dr. Kersti Seksel, a veterinary behaviorist who is the principal of Sydney Animal Behaviour Service in Australia. She spoke at the American Association of Feline Practitioners' 2017 conference, Oct. 19–22 in Denver.

Dr. Seksel gave a talk on how to offer kitten kindergarten classes and delivered presentations about feline development, problem intervention, and socialization.

Kitten kindergarten

In the session “Kitten Kindy Classes,” Dr. Seksel said kitten kindergarten is an educational program for kitten owners. She said, “We do socialize and train the kittens, but really it's for the owners.” The classes teach owners about normal feline behavior and set owners up to prevent problems and thereby prevent relinquishment of cats.

The class is ideally three one-hour sessions over three weeks with two instructors and a maximum of six kittens. The first session is kitten-free because, otherwise, everyone is looking at the kittens. The kittens should be 8–12 weeks of age and no older than 14 weeks at the end of the class. They should have had their first vaccinations and should receive a quick health check at each session. The whole family should attend.

The first session includes subjects such as cats' need for vertical space and separate areas for food, water, and resting; management of litter boxes; tips for training by rewarding desired behaviors; and environmental enrichment. The second session gets into handling, socializing the kittens, more training tips, and preventive health care. The third session covers problematic behaviors, behavioral abnormalities, and behavioral disorders.

Dr. Seksel does charge for the class because she thinks people appreciate it more if they pay for it. Each class concludes with graduation and a certificate.

Feline development

In the session “Important Stages in Feline Development,” Dr. Seksel said behavior is what an animal does as well as when, how, where, and why the animal does it. Behavior is determined by genetics, learning, and environment. Quite a few cats have some sort of mental health disorder.

Young cats spend time learning about their environments, learning how to interact with other cats, and becoming socialized with individuals of other species. Dr. Seksel said learning occurs throughout their life. She said, “The period from birth to adulthood is characterized by intense development and change within the central nervous system.” The neuro-hormonal systems also are involved in this phase.

Early experiences affect an animal's resiliency, or coping capacity, which also varies with genetics and the current environment. Resiliency develops in the young through exposure to microstressors. Early problem intervention may take the form of environmental management, behavioral modification, or medication.

The earliest stages of feline development are as follows: prenatal; neonatal, from birth to 2 weeks; transitional, from 2–3 weeks; and socialization, from 3–7 weeks. Human contact and handling are important at 3–9 weeks. Social play peaks at 9–14 weeks.

The juvenile period lasts from 7 weeks to sexual maturity at 4–10 months, and the adult period lasts from sexual maturity to death. Cats reach social maturity at 36–48 months. Cognitive decline occurs during the senior period.

Problem intervention, feline socialization

In “Problem Intervention: When and Why During Kitten Development,” Dr. Seksel said the behavior of cats can be normal for a cat, a normal response to stress, or truly abnormal.

Behavior is species-specific and relates to the biology of the species. The domestic cat is generally solitary, an ambush hunter, and active at dawn and dusk. Social learning takes place from 2–16 weeks and beyond. Cat societies are insular, with strangers not readily accepted.

Cats need access to resources and will override their emotions to get access to important resources. Cats are solitary feeders but will eat together, for example, even if they don't like each other.

Cats don't stand in line and have no hierarchical structure. They do not wait. They need to eat now, need to urinate now. Dr. Seksel said, “Cats look at things as ‘mine, mine, mine’ and ‘now, now, now.”’

According to Dr. Seksel's conference notes, “Providing an environment that meets the kitten's behavioural needs is often all that is needed to prevent behavioural issues from developing. If problems do develop then early intervention is important.”

Abnormal behavior is behavior out of context, behavior that doesn't make sense for the situation. An anxiety disorder occurs when the anxiety system is overly sensitive, for example.

Treatment of abnormal behavior can include environmental management, behavior modification, and medication or pheromones, plus monitoring. Behaviors such as spraying, house soiling, and aggression may be normal or abnormal. Pica and overgrooming are never normal.

Dr. Seksel's last talk was “Feline Socialization.” According to her conference notes, “Kittens need to be appropriately socialized to help them develop normally. However, even with the best socialization process not all kittens develop into confident, social pets.”

The role of the veterinary practice “is to help owners understand their kitten and its behaviour and set them up for success.”

AAFP president wants culture change toward cats

By Katie Burns

The American Association of Feline Practitioners is one of the organizations leading a culture change toward cats, and Dr. Paula Monroe-Aldridge is one of the veterinarians leading the AAFP.


Dr. Paula Monroe-Aldridge (Photo courtesy of AAFP)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Apryl Steele (Photo courtesy of AAFP)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Lauren Demos (Photo courtesy of AAFP)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Roy B. Smith (Photo courtesy of AAFP)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

The 2018 AAFP president said: “I have always found cats extremely enjoyable and fascinating. They are interesting creatures and have long been misunderstood. Once I was a veterinarian, it was evident that cats were not fully understood even by veterinarians. Their physiology is different, and even the way they respond to fear and pain is different than other species. They need to be treated like the unique creatures that they are, socially and medically.”

Dr. Monroe-Aldridge was joined by like-minded people at the 2017 AAFP Conference, Oct. 19–22 in Denver, which brought in 944 veterinary professionals and 195 exhibitors and guests from 15 countries. The AAFP has grown to 3,918 members in 2017. The Cat Friendly Practice program grew to 1,150 practices in 2017, with another 490 practices in the process of earning the designation.

Like many colleagues, Dr. Monroe-Aldridge decided at a young age to become a veterinarian. She had a love of animals, and she wanted to help the hurt and sick animals. She earned her veterinary degree from Oklahoma State University in 1996.

She currently practices at River Trail Animal Hospital in Oklahoma. The hospital asked her to incorporate her feline expertise and knowledge as the practice was developing.

“While I was lucky enough to have some influence on the actual construction of the building toward a Cat Friendly Practice, I would like to stress to everyone that it is very possible to have a Cat Friendly Practice without major construction,” she said. “It is more of a philosophy project than construction project.”

She continued: “When you decrease the stress of the cat, you are able to do more with the cat and for the cat. You also decrease the stress of the owners as well as the staff. Less stress results in better medical care for the cats, more compliant owners, and potentially less work-related injuries. By incorporating accommodations for cats and paying attention to the special needs of cats, we increased the number of cat patients being seen.”

In addition to the Cat Friendly Practice program, some of the other benefits of AAFP membership are the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, the annual conference, webinars, and a newsletter. Dr. Monroe-Aldridge said one of the biggest benefits is camaraderie with fellow practitioners. The AAFP also develops practice guidelines, position statements, and client materials available to all veterinarians.

In 2017, the AAFP launched an educational website for cat owners at www.catfriendly.com. Dr. Monroe-Aldridge said, “Having this information out there increases owner awareness of feline topics and helps practitioners achieve a higher standard of feline veterinary care.”

As AAFP president, Dr. Monroe-Aldridge would like to see the Cat Friendly Practice program continue to grow, and she would especially like to see more veterinary colleges and veterinary technology programs participate via teaching facilities earning the designation. She said, “These are good places to change the culture.”

Joining Dr. Monroe-Aldridge as AAFP officers for 2018 are Drs. Apryl Steele, Denver, president-elect; Lauren Demos, Waterford, Michigan, immediate past president; and Roy B. Smith, Round Rock, Texas, treasurer.

One Health Commission, EPA launch pet health survey

The One Health Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency are working together on the National Pet Health Survey, a research project using voluntary input from dog and cat owners to identify pet health trends and disease hot spots across the United States.

According to the survey page on the OHC website, “Because pets often share their owners' living spaces and have accelerated life spans, they can also be important indicators of human exposure to chemicals and potential health risks. Pets can be sentinels for diseases and exposures in a shared environment.”

The survey will provide scientists, pet owners, and the general public with one of the largest health and disease databases for pet dogs and cats across the United States. The data will be summarized and integrated into the EPA's EnviroAtlas website at www.epa.gov/enviroatlas. Through EnviroAtlas, the public will be able to view pet health information by specified areas, such as zip codes or states, to learn about emerging pet health issues.

The survey began accepting responses from dog and cat owners in October. Data collection will take place until Jan. 20, 2020, or until 300,000 respondents have filled out the survey, whichever comes first.

The survey page is available at http://jav.ma/enviropets. Additional information is available by emailing petsurvey@onehealthcommission.org.

Modified pigs better at enduring cold, according to study

By Greg Cima

Researchers in China used gene editing to create pigs that are better at maintaining body temperatures early in life and leaner as adults.

The change could reduce neonatal deaths of piglets from hypothermia, improve animal welfare, and improve production, according to a scientific article published online Oct. 23 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The abstract for the article, “Reconstitution of UCP1 using CRISPR/Cas9 in the white adipose tissue of pigs decreases fat deposition and improves thermogenic capacity,” is available at http://jav.ma/UCP1pigs.

The research team added a mouse protein gene, uncoupling protein 1, to the swine genome. In most mammals, the UCP1 protein leaks protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue cells, dissipating energy as heat.


Using a mouse protein gene, Chinese researchers created pigs that are less prone to hypothermia at the neonatal stage and leaner as adults. (Photo by Jianguo Zhao, PhD)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Ancestors of modern pigs lived in tropical and subtropical climates and lost their functioning version of the UCP1 protein about 20 million years ago, the article authors wrote, citing genetic analysis published in 2006 (PLoS Genet 2006;2:e129). Pigs lack functional brown adipose tissue because of the UCP1 gene disruption, but the researchers were able to edit the swine genome with a mouse gene in a porcine UCP1 pseudogene locus.

The modified pigs maintained body temperatures better than non-modified pigs did during acute cold exposure. They also had more lean meat without changes in physical activity or food demands, the article states.

The gene expression decreased fat deposition by about 5 percent. The authors also wrote that the tendency of pigs to accumulate fat may be related to their lack of the UCP1 gene and their susceptibility to cold.

Study finds feral pigs had antibodies to zoonotic organisms

Testing at two Texas abattoirs revealed that feral pigs had been exposed to zoonotic bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

Authors of a scientific article published in August (J Food Prot 2017;80:1239–1242) collected blood samples from 376 feral swine at slaughter in 2015. Forty-nine percent had serum antibodies against Leptospira serovars, 14 percent against influenza A virus, 9 percent against Toxoplasma gondii, and 3.5 percent against Trichinella spiralis.

“Because the likelihood of direct contact with aerosolized particles and infected blood, urine, or tissues is elevated at slaughter facilities, our results indicate that employees should be aware of the potential for exposure,” the article states. “It also suggests that others who come in direct contact with feral swine, such as hunters, wildlife biologists, or veterinarians, should be aware of the risk of becoming infected. Furthermore, consumers of both harvested and processed feral swine meat should also be aware of the increased risk of parasites, compared with pork from domestic swine, and should ensure that appropriate precautions are followed, such as cooking meat to the appropriate temperature.”

The authors noted that they had not tested for other zoonotic pathogens found in feral swine. Those include Escherichia coli, Salmonella organisms, and hepatitis E virus.

The authors recommended further study of zoonotic antigens and parasites in feral swine. Medical programs should monitor abattoir employee health, and meat packaging should include warnings, they said.

Four of the six authors are with the Wildlife Services program in the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, one is with the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, and the other is with the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory.

Practitioners need a break: When more veterinarians want to work less

By Barbara Dutton

In 2016, most veterinarians were content with the number of hours they worked on a weekly basis, reports the 2017 AVMA Report on the Market for Veterinarians, but nearly a fifth indicated they wanted to cut back on the number of hours they currently work. The report, which drew from responses to the AVMA 2016 Census Survey, found that last year, there were more veterinarians wanting to work fewer hours for less pay than there were wanting to extend their workweek for more pay.

In examining work hour preference, the report's analysts found that respondents in advanced education and mixed animal practice, followed by food animal–exclusive practice, had the highest percentages of those who expressed a desire to work fewer hours for less compensation. Equine practitioners had the highest percentage of respondents who wanted to work more hours. “The effect of practice type, though significant, is only one factor that contributes to the variation in hours desired,” observed Bridgette Bain, PhD, assistant director of analytics in the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division, which produced the report.

When a greater number of hours is associated with practitioners wanting to reduce the time they spend working each week than is associated with respondents desiring to increase the time spent working, the net difference is referred to as negative underemployment. “This difference represents a void to be filled. In this case, nearly 3,400 additional veterinarians would be needed on a full-time basis to take up the slack,” Dr. Bain explained.

“This level of negative underemployment, which exceeds that reported in 2015, which in turn was greater than the year prior, is actually an indicator of an increasingly robust market for veterinarians.”

Because veterinary labor is generally “indivisible” (available only in 40-to 50-hour chunks of time), Dr. Bain said, the handful of hours distributed across practice types throughout the country that constitute underemployment are unlikely to entice a veterinarian, who would have to work a modest number of hours at multiple practices.

“Still,” she insisted, “the net difference is an encouraging sign for the market indicating that the demand for veterinarian services is growing faster than the supply of veterinarians.”

All economic reports are available at www.avma.org/products for free download by AVMA members or for purchase by others as a series.

Barbara Dutton is the economics writer/content coordinator for the AVMA Veterinary Economics Division.

AVMA announces members' annual meeting

The 2018 annual meeting of AVMA voting members will be held Friday, Jan. 5, from 8–9:30 a.m. CST at the Hyatt Regency Chicago, 151 E. Wacker Drive. As determined by the AVMA Board of Directors, the meeting will be held in conjunction with the regular winter session of the House of Delegates, during the plenary session of the AVMA Veterinary Leadership Conference.

The meeting will include reports from the treasurer and AVMA staff, a message from the president, speeches by candidates for president-elect and vice president, and other information as determined by the Board.

New website makes it easier to contact Congress on issues

The AVMA has launched a new and improved AVMA Congressional Advocacy Network website at http://avmacan.avma.org to help the veterinary community quickly contact Congress on issues important to the veterinary profession.

The new AVMA CAN website has improved navigation and usability to make it even easier to identify key legislative issues affecting veterinary medicine, quickly personalize and send letters to members of Congress, and look up legislators' contact information. The site also allows veterinarians to share their story with the AVMA on key issues so the Association can provide personal examples of the impact of legislation on constituents. In addition, the site is more mobile-friendly.

More than 30,000 veterinarians, veterinary students, and friends of the veterinary community have joined AVMA CAN to stay abreast of legislative issues that impact veterinary medicine. A sign-up link appears at the top of the CAN website.

Donate books, journals, and supplies

Veterinarians and students in foreign countries can make use of the unused textbooks, journals, instruments, equipment, and other supplies cluttering many veterinary clinics in the United States.

The AVMA maintains a list of individuals and organizations that collect contributions for various countries. The list is available at http://jav.ma/donate-books. Potential donors should call or email contacts on the list directly.

Individuals or organizations that collect contributions may inquire about being added to the list or updating their listing by calling 800-248-2862, ext. 6754, or emailing asuresh@avma.org.

Study finds gains in disaster planning for animals

Many areas woefully unprepared, however

By R. Scott Nolen


A Federal Emergency Management Agency Urban Search and Rescue Team removes a pet dog while looking for stranded residents in a flooded North Carolina neighborhood following Hurricane Matthew in 2016. (Photo by Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Most U.S. states and about half of high-population cities and counties have organizational infrastructure for managing animals during a disaster, such as a state or county animal response team. However, only about one in four smaller-population counties had such an organization, even in regions prone to frequent natural disasters.

These are findings of the first nationwide assessment of emergency response capabilities for animals, conducted by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and published online Sept. 9 in the Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management in an article titled “The National Capabilities for Animal Response in Emergencies (NCARE) Study: An Assessment of US States and Counties” (http://jav.ma/Em_Study).

The survey of officials who oversee emergency preparedness in U.S. states and counties, led by ASPCA consultant Dr. Vic Spain, investigated which American communities are prepared to deal with the animal victims of an emergency and how and where emergency response planning can be improved.

The results of the study were mixed; while much progress has been made, much still remains to be done. While most states and nearly half of high-population cities and counties have the infrastructure to manage animals in a disaster, most reported additional needs for emergency preparedness, such as training, expertise, and equipment.

A little more than half of U.S. counties reported having plans for emergency shelters in which pets and people could be housed together, known as “collocated” or “cohabitational” shelters.

“From previous studies, we know that people with pets are more likely than people without pets to refuse to evacuate in an emergency situation—putting their lives, as well as the lives of first responders sent to rescue them, in danger,” Dr. Spain said.

“It is, therefore, important to remove barriers to evacuation, and when that happened, during Hurricane Sandy, for example, residents were more likely to comply with evacuation orders where pet-friendly emergency shelters were available, their presence was known to local residents, and pet-friendly transportation to the shelters was offered.”

Veterinary professionals or humane organizations interested in emergency preparedness can take any number of actions to address the gaps identified in the study, according to Dr. Spain. As a reference for establishing a county animal response team or similar organization, he recommends the “Community Animal Disaster Planning Toolkit” posted on the Colorado State University Extension website (http://jav.ma/CSU_Ex).

Veterinarians can join the veterinary medical reserve corps in their state in the 36 states that have established a corps, Dr. Spain said. Members of a VMRC can improve capabilities with training for emergency response, such as Federal Emergency Management Agency courses on the Incident Command System or the National Incident Management System.

Also, veterinary professionals and local humane organizations can support planning for shelters where people and pets can be housed in the same location. “In our experience, these models can be implemented effectively and safely, with little or no risk of adverse health consequences for shelter residents,” Dr. Spain explained. “They also cost substantially less than other models because the animal owners, rather than staff, provide care for the animals.”

Most animal deaths during quickly developing disasters, such as wildfires, floods, and tornadoes, occur within the first 24–48 hours of disaster onset—before state or national responders who can assist with animals typically arrive, according to Dr. Spain. Many communities will benefit from identifying a local animal organization that can be charged with managing companion animals in an emergency.

“Organizations at the county or city level are critical for emergency response to occur quickly enough to prevent animal emergencies,” he explained.

Groups seek combined oversight of research animals

Four organizations in research and human medicine support combining federal oversight over research animals.

In an Oct. 23 report, “Reforming animal regulations: workshop recommendations to reduce regulatory burden,” the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Association of American Medical Colleges, and Council on Governmental Relations—with support from the National Association for Biomedical Research—propose combining and editing federal regulations, policies, and guidelines in ways they claim will reduce stress on organizations conducting research yet maintain animal welfare.

“Researchers take their commitment to the humane care and use of research animals very seriously, but there are numerous conflicting, outdated, or ineffective regulations that do not improve animal welfare,” the document states.

A provision in the 21st Century Cures Act, signed into law Dec. 13, 2016, states that the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health “must review and revise policies, including policies on conflicts of interest and laboratory animals, to reduce the administrative burden on researchers while maintaining the integrity and credibility of research findings.” The proposal published in October indicates that law provides an opportunity to pursue changes.

The Department of Agriculture enforces standards for treatment of certain animals by dealers, research facilities, and exhibitors. The NIH, through the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, oversees care of vertebrates in research, teaching, and testing activities funded by the Public Health Service.

October's report indicates regulations from the agencies are inconsistent or duplicative. Complying with all oversight requirements in federally funded research requires vast administrative effort, it states.

The organizations propose clarifying that guidance documents lack legal and regulatory force as well as reducing the reporting requirements for times when practices deviate from guidance. They also suggest considering the risks to animals and past regulatory compliance when determining what protocol reviews and inspections are needed.

The proposal is available as a PDF document at http://jav.ma/researchanimals.

Clarke promoted at Virginia Tech

Virginia Tech President Tim Sands, PhD, named Dr. Cyril R. Clarke to be interim executive vice president and provost, effective Nov. 1.

Dr. Clarke had served as dean of the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech since 2013.

“In Cyril, we have a dedicated and inspirational leader—one with broad knowledge of Virginia Tech. Not only is he deeply committed to our shared vision, but he also has a unique understanding of the environment and culture we must navigate,” Dr. Sands said in an Oct. 30 university press release.

Dr. Clarke has led the veterinary college to achieve several recent successes. The college plans to launch its first undergraduate degree program—in public health—in 2018. Together with the Master of Public Health program, the undergraduate program will be an integral component of the college's one-health initiative, which recognizes the close linkages among animal health, human health, and the environment. This commitment to one health is reflected also in the veterinary college's engagement with the developing health sciences and technology program in Roanoke, Virginia, in partnership with Carilion Clinic.


Dr. Cyril Clarke

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

The program recently revised its DVM degree curriculum, emphasizing integration of courses, team-based learning, and hands-on experience gained in teaching hospitals in Blacksburg and Leesburg, Virginia.

A native of Johannesburg, South Africa, Dr. Clarke earned his veterinary degree from the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in 1981 and a doctorate in veterinary pharmacology from Louisiana State University in 1987. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology, Dr. Clarke was a faculty member at the Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences from 1987–2007.

In 2007, Dr. Clarke became dean of the Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine. He also served as a professor of pharmacology in the veterinary college's Department of Biomedical Sciences.

Dr. Clarke previously served as a member of the board of directors for the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and the AVMA Council on Education as well as president of the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Dr. Gregory B. Daniel was named interim dean of the Virginia-Maryland veterinary college, where he is professor of radiology and head of the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences. He holds a joint appointment as professor in the Department of Basic Science Education at Virginia Tech's Carilion School of Medicine. He is a diplomate and past president of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and represents the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians in the AVMA House of Delegates.

Oklahoma State names Risco as veterinary dean

The Oklahoma State University/A&M Board of Regents on Oct. 20 approved the appointment of Dr. Carlos A. Risco as dean of the Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences. He is expected to assume his position in March, according to a university press release.

Dr. Risco (Florida ‘80) is currently at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, where he serves as a tenured professor and chair of the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences.

“I am excited for the opportunity to serve as dean,” Dr. Risco said in the release. “The strong culture of scholarship, outstanding curriculum and the multidisciplinary approach to improve both animal and human health has led to the excellent reputation of the OSU Center for Veterinary Health Sciences.”


Dr. Carlos Risco

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Dr. Risco is a diplomate of the American College of Theriogenologists. His main research focus pertains to metabolic disorders and reproductive management of dairy cows.

From 1982–90, he was a partner at Chino Valley Veterinary Associates, a nine-veterinarian dairy practice in Ontario, California. In 1990, he joined the faculty at the University of Florida as an assistant professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine.

Dr. Risco will replace interim dean Dr. Chris Ross, who took over from former dean Dr. Jean E. Sander. Dr. Sander left in June 2016 to become senior technical services poultry veterinarian at Zoetis Inc. She served in the position of dean for five years and oversaw the addition of the newly constructed Academic Center to house faculty offices, which opened in 2015.

Veterinarian to head IICA for first time

When Argentine veterinarian Dr. Manuel Otero is sworn in as director general of the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture on Jan. 15, 2018, it will mark the first time a veterinarian has held the position since the IICA's founding in 1942.

The AVMA supported the candidacy of Dr. Otero, who was elected this past October during the 19th Regular Meeting of the Inter-American Board of Agriculture, IICA's highest governing body. He will serve a four-year term as director general.

Headquartered in Costa Rica, the IICA supports and promotes efforts to achieve agricultural development and rural well-being among its 34 member states, which include the United States, Canada, and Mexico.


Dr. Manuel Otero

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Dr. Otero was employed in Argentina's public sector for 10 years, serving as an agricultural attache in Washington, D.C., and subsequently as vice president of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology.

He believes that America can position itself as a key stakeholder in facing the challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability, according to an IICA press release. However, Dr. Otero also acknowledges the urgency of redesigning traditional cooperation strategies to address these monumental challenges.

“IICA has a historical commitment to improve the situation of rural areas, and I will fulfill this mandate,” Dr. Otero said in the release. “I will work with the most under-developed countries to alleviate inequality on our continent.”

American Holistic VMA installs officers

Several new officers were installed during the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association's meeting Oct. 21–24 in San Diego.

Dr. Debbie Decker, of West Lake, Ohio, began a one-year term as president. A 2003 graduate of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Decker is with Synergy Veterinary Care in West Lake. She represents the AHVMA as delegate in the AVMA House of Delegates.

Serving one-year terms with Dr. Decker are Drs. Gary Stuer, of Bethel, Maine, president-elect, and Tricia Stimac of Chicago, immediate past president. Dr. Madeline Yamate, of Davis, California, began a term as treasurer that will end in 2020. Dr. Ann Swartz, of Springfield, Oregon, became secretary in October 2016, and her term will end in 2018.


Dr. Debbie Decker

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Gary Stuer

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

The AHVMA headquarters office is in Abingdon, Maryland, with Dr. Charles H. Emely as executive director and CEO.

Teaching, research awards conferred

The following individuals are winners of the 2017 Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award and the Zoetis Award for Veterinary Research Excellence. The Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award is given to educators in recognition of their character and leadership qualities as well as their outstanding teaching abilities. The Zoetis Award for Veterinary Research Excellence recognizes researchers whose innovative studies have advanced the scientific standing of veterinary medicine.

Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award

Kendon W. Kuo, DVM Auburn University

Clare Yellowley, PhD University of California-Davis

Christine Olver, DVM, PhD Colorado State University

Ricardo de Matos, LMV Cornell University

Stanley E. Kim, BVSc University of Florida

Puliyur S. MohanKumar, BVSc, PhD University of Georgia

Heidi Phillips, VMD University of Illinois

Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy, DVM, PhD, Iowa State University

Kenneth R. Harkin, DVM Kansas State University

Seth E. Chapman, DVM Lincoln Memorial University

Britton Grasperge, DVM, PhD Louisiana State University

Laura Nelson, DVM Michigan State University

Christopher Stauthammer, DVM University of Minnesota

Gretchen Grissett, DVM Mississippi State University

Catherine Vogelweid, DVM, PhD University of Missouri

Lizette Hardie, DVM North Carolina State University

Laurie M. Millward, DVM The Ohio State University

Jerry Ritchey, DVM, PhD Oklahoma State University

Daniel D. Rockey, PhD Oregon State University

Rose D. Nolen-Walston, DVM University of Pennsylvania

John A. Christian, DVM, PhD Purdue University

Saundra Sample, DVM Ross University

Catherine May, BVSc St. George's University

Michael M. Fry, DVM University of Tennessee

Canaan Whitfield, DVM Texas A&M University

Nicholas Frank, DVM, PhD Tufts University

Noriko Aoi, DVM Tuskegee University

David C. Grant, DVM Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine

Jenifer Gold, DVM Washington State University

Hrvoje Smodlaka, DVM, PhD Western University of Health Sciences

Kim Plummer, PhD University of Wisconsin-Madison

Zoetis Award for Veterinary Research Excellence

Helen Raybould, PhD University of California-Davis

Brendan Podell, DVM, PhD Colorado State University

Renata Ivanek, DVM, PhD Cornell University

Mansour Mohamadzadeh, PhD University of Florida

Steeve Giguère, DVM, PhD University of Georgia

CheMyong J. Ko, PhD University of Illinois

Bradley Blitvich, PhD Iowa State University

Ying Fang, PhD Kansas State University

Ashutosh Verma, BVSc, PhD Lincoln Memorial University

Juan J. Martinez, PhD Louisiana State University

Paul C. Bartlett, DVM, PhD Michigan State University

Montserrat Torremorell, DVM, PhD University of Minnesota

George “Trey” Eli Howell III, PhD Mississippi State University

Elizabeth Bryda, PhD University of Missouri

Troy Ghashghaei, PhD North Carolina State University

Chang-Won Lee, DVM, PhD The Ohio State University

Ashish Ranjan, BVSc, PhD Oklahoma State University

Hong Moulton, PhD Oregon State University

Igor E. Brodsky, PhD University of Pennsylvania

Sulma I. Mohammed, DVM, PhD Purdue University

Jennifer K. Ketzis, PhD Ross University

Sonia Cheetham, DVM, PhD St. George's University

Brian K. Whitlock, DVM, PhD University of Tennessee

Guan Zhu, PhD Texas A&M University

Daniela Bedenice, DVM Tufts University

Ayman I. Sayegh, DVM, PhD Tuskegee University

Jennifer G. Barrett, DVM, PhD Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine

Anthony V Nicola, PhD Washington State University

Jijun Hao, PhD Western University of Health Sciences

Lyric Bartholomay, PhD University of Wisconsin-Madison

Veterinary emergency, critical care groups hold symposium


Dr. F.A. “Tony” Mann

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. William W. Muir III

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Kevin Corley

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Corrin Boyd

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Tiffany Jagodich

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Ilana Glasberg

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Liz Fratea

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Jennifer Martinez

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Dr. Sarah Musulin

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Event: 23rd International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium, Sept. 13–17, Nashville, Tennessee

Program: This year's symposium, conducted jointly by the Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care Society, American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, Academy of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Technicians, American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, Academy of Veterinary Technicians in Anesthesia and Analgesia, and International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management, focused on fluid therapy in veterinary emergency and critical care. The symposium served as the venue for the annual meetings of the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Foundation, and, for the first time, the Association of Veterinary Hematology and Transfusion Medicine. Dr. Jean Luis Vincent, Brussels, presented the Knowles Memorial Keynote Lecture, “IV Fluids: How Much is Too Much??”

Awards: Ira M. Zaslow VECCS Distinguished Service Award: Dr. F.A. “Tony” Mann, Columbia, Missouri. A 1982 graduate of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Mann is a professor of small animal surgery and small animal emergency and critical care in the Veterinary Health Center at the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine. He is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and ACVECC. Hill's Dr. Jack Mara ACVECC Achievement Award: Dr. William W. Muir III, Columbus, Ohio, for his work related to anesthesia and analgesia. A 1970 graduate of the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Muir owns Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology Consulting Services in Columbus. He is a diplomate of the ACVAA and ACVECC. T. Douglas Byars Equine Emergency & Critical Care Educator of the Year, sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim: Dr. Kevin Corley, Curragh, Ireland. A 1993 graduate of the University of Edinburgh Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Dr. Corley is an independent consultant in critical care and equine medicine in Ireland. He is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ACVECC, and European College of Equine Internal Medicine, and a member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. VECCS Practice Manager of the Year, sponsored by Nationwide Insurance: Jessica Towley, St. Paul, Minnesota. Towley is a certified veterinary technician and works at Affiliated Emergency Veterinary Service in St. Paul. ACVECC Research Grant Award ($9,931): Drs. Galina Hayes, Robert Goggs, Karol Mathews, and Alexa Bersenas, University of Guelph, for “Associations between adverse care outcomes, staff resources, and workload in the ICU: A multi-center observational study.” VECCF Research Grant Award ($9,920): Dr. Corrin Boyd, Murdoch University, for “The effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 versus Hartmann's solution on biomarkers of acute kidney injury in dogs: A randomized clinical trial.” Small Animal Resident Abstract Award, sponsored by Pathway: A $500 stipend was awarded to Dr. Tiffany Jagodich, University of Guelph, for “Comparison of high flow nasal cannula oxygen administration to traditional nasal cannula oxygen therapy in healthy dogs.” Large Animal Resident Abstract Award, sponsored by Mila International: A $500 stipend was awarded to Dr. Ilana Glasberg, University of Illinois, for “Preliminary investigation of urinary I-lactate in clinically normal adult horses.” ACVAA Resident Abstract Award, sponsored by Smiths Medical and Surgivet: First place, small animal—Dr. Melissa Smith, University of Georgia, for “The effect of propofol and ketamine-diazepam on intraocular pressure in healthy pre-medicated dogs”; large animal—Dr. Keely Wilson, Murdoch University, for “Agreement between invasive blood pressure measured in three peripheral arteries in anesthetized horses under clinical conditions.” Case Report Award: A stipend of $300 was awarded to Dr. Kristen Zersen, Colorado State University, for “Pneumomediastinum!” Technician Case Report Award, sponsored by Animal Blood Resources International: A stipend of $300 was awarded to Liz Fratea, Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners, Clearwater, Florida, for “Baby got Baclofen.” Poster Abstract Award, sponsored by Abaxis: A stipend of $500 was awarded to Dr. Jennifer Martinez, University of Florida, for “Acute kidney injury in dogs with pit viper envenomation: 50 cases (2008–2017).”

Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society Business: It was announced that membership numbers have increased, and finances have been strong. The impact factor of the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care has gone up. The society now certifies 38 level 1, 24 level 2, and seven level 3 facilities, with several beginning the recertification phase. Online continuing education offerings to membership have risen and will continue to expand. Participation in social media has increased visibility and exposure for the society. The board of directors will form a task force with the ACVECC to address issues relating to the shortage of emergency room veterinarians and technicians.

Officials: Dr. Robert Messenger, Charlotte, North Carolina, president; Dr. Linda Martin, Pullman, Washington, president-elect; Dr. Chris Gray, East Lansing, Michigan, treasurer; Kenichiro Yagi, Los Altos, California, recording secretary; Dr. Scott Johnson, Austin, Texas, immediate past president; Dr. Gary Stamp, San Antonio, executive director; and members-at-large—Drs. Julie Dechant, Davis, California, and Steven Epstein, Davis, California

American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

Program: The ACVECC conducted its certification examination and held its annual business meeting.

New diplomates: Forty-nine individuals passed the certification examination. They are as follows:

Ron Achiel, New York

Vibha Asokan, Austin, Texas

Michael D. Becker, Redondo Beach, California

Alexia B. Berg, St. Paul, Minnesota

Luis Bosch Lozano, Barcelona, Spain

Corrin J. Boyd, Murdoch, Australia

Amy Brida, Massapequa, New York

Jesseca M. Bullock, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Simon Cook, London

Rachel B. Davy-Moyle, Austin, Texas

Rebecca S. Flores, Jersey City, New Jersey

Christine M. Fox, Naperville, Illinois

Alison K. Gardner, Columbus, Ohio

Anthony L. Gonzalez, Brentwood, New York

Vicente J. Herreria-Bustillo, Hatfield, England

Sabrina Hoehne, Davis, California

Talli Hogen, Culver City, California

Zaheda Khan, Los Angeles

Roxanna Khorzad, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts

Meredith L. Leary, Milford, Ohio

Amanda E. Lee, San Francisco

Sara H. Lefman, San Francisco

Jo-Annie Letendre, Montreal

Erin Long Mays, Apex, North Carolina

Christina Maglaras, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey

Jennifer R. Mayer, Newcastle, California

Lisa Murphy, Galway, Ireland

Katherine J. Nash, Phoenix

Liron Oron, Mevasseret Zion, Israel

Danielle M. Pollio, Lake Forest Park, Washington

Saya A. Press, Melbourne, Australia

Kathryn Rhue, Houston

Patricia Rosenstein, Brisbane, Australia

Samuel D. Stewart, Medford, Massachusetts

Scott Taylor, Raleigh, North Carolina

Amanda Thomer, Cohoes, New York

Erica Tinson, Melbourne, Australia

Tricia M. Tovar, Chicago

Matthew Turner, Middletown, Connecticut

Meghan E. Vaught, Portsmouth, New Hampshire

Sarah J. Vuolo, Orland Park, Illinois

Andrea M. Walters, Calgary, Alberta

Karie Walton, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

Trevor P.E. Williams, Centerville, Virginia

Amanda Witsil, Chesterfield, Virginia

Christine Wong, San Francisco

Elizabeth Yi, Manhattan Beach, California

Ivayla Yozova, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Ann Marie Zollo, New York

Officials: Drs. Elisa Mazzaferro, Stamford, Connecticut, president; Daniel Fletcher, Ithaca, New York, president-elect; Deborah Silverstein, Philadelphia, vice president; Scott Shaw, Oxford, Massachusetts, treasurer; Armelle de Laforcade, North Grafton, Massachusetts, executive secretary; Elizabeth Rozanski, North Grafton, Massachusetts, immediate past president; and regents—Drs. Daniela Bedenice, North Grafton, Massachusetts; James Barr, College Station, Texas; Marie Kerl, Columbia, Missouri; Karl E. Jandrey, Davis, California; Garret Pachtinger, Levittown, Pennsylvania; and Justine Lee, St. Paul, Minnesota

Academy of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Technicians

Program: The academy conducted its 20th certification examination, and held a pinning ceremony and reception for the class of 2016. The immediate past president of the AVECCT, Trish Farry, Brisbane, Australia, was honored as Technician of the Year.

Business: Committee reports were presented and ratified. Officials: Amy Newfield, Tewksbury, Massachusetts, president; Louise O'Dwyer, Manchester, England, president-elect; Kenichiro Yagi, Los Altos, California, treasurer; Andrea Steele, Guelph, Ontario, executive secretary; Trish Farry, Brisbane, Australia, immediate past president; and members-at-large—Leslie Carter, Fort Collins, Colorado; Jess Kerr, Clifton, New Jersey; and Katy Waddell, College Station, Texas

American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia

Program: Thirty-six abstracts were presented. Dr. Tom Woodcock, Stockbridge, England, presented “Endothelial glycocalyx,” “Plasma volume and tissue edema,” and “Paradigm for rational fluid prescribing.” Tony Yakash, PhD, University of California, delivered “Pain anatomy,” “Pain, secondary to tissue injury and inflammation,” and “Post nerve injury pain.” Dr. Edward Mariano, Stanford University, lectured on “Regional analgesia,” “Adjuncts to local anesthetics,” and “Ultrasound guided regional analgesia.” Dr. William Muir, Columbus, Ohio, lectured on “Esophageal Doppler monitoring for fluid responsiveness”; Dr. Bruno Pypendop, University of California-Davis, presented “MK-467, a novel alpha 2 agonist”; and Dr. Peter Pascoe, University of California-Davis, presented “Jet ventilation.” The 2017 ACVAA Career Achievement Award was given to Dr. Eugene Steffey, Fort Collins, Colorado. A 1967 graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Steffey is professor emeritus of anesthesiology in the Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences at the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. He is a charter diplomate of the ACVAA, a founding diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, and an honorary member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Dr. Lydia Donaldson, Middleburg, Virginia, was the first recipient of the ACVAA Award for Meritorious Service. A 1975 graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Donaldson worked at the Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center in Leesburg, Virginia, from 1984–2004, later working part time for Iams Pet Imaging/Animal Scan. She served as executive secretary for the ACVAA from 2007–16. Dr. Kathryn Zatroch, Cornell University, was awarded the ACVAA Foundation Research Grant for “Evaluation of atipamezole as treatment for dexmedetomidine-induced cardiovascular depression in anesthetized cats.” Memorial tributes were given to the late Dr. John C. Thurmon (see JAVMA obituary, July 1, 2017, page 25), Dr. Peter Gray, and Edmund Eger, MD.

New diplomates: Seventeen new diplomates were welcomed into the ACVAA. They are as follows:

Isla Arcaro, Pittsburgh

Ryan S. Bailey, Chicago

Ciara Barr, Elkton, Maryland

Carrie Davis, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Stephanie Dooley, Columbus, Ohio

Stephanie Fissekas, Manhattan, Kansas

Elizabeth Goudie-DeAngelis, White Plains, New York

Rachel Hector, La Port, Colorado

Melanie Jarrett, Raleigh, North Carolina

Kerrie Lewis, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

Penting Liao, Guelph, Ontario

Heidi Lehmann, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Marta Romano, Gainesville, Florida

Andrea Sanchez, West View, Pennsylvania

Allan Williamson, Madison, Wisconsin

Gareth Zeiler, Pretoria, South Africa

Aurora Zoff, London

Business: Discussions were held on changes to the 2018 certifying examination and bylaw amendments that needed to be voted on by the membership. Also discussed was the financial status of the college and the newly incorporated North American Veterinary Anesthesia Society. Nominees for the 2018 president-elect, at-large, and Region 4 director positions were announced, with additional nominations welcomed.

Officials: Drs. Lesley Smith, Madison, Wisconsin, president; Chris Egger, Knoxville, Tennessee, president-elect; Lynne Kushner, Portsmouth, Rhode Island, executive secretary; and Khursheed Mama, Fort Collins, Colorado, immediate past president

Academy of Veterinary Technicians in Anesthesia and Analgesia

Program: The certification examination was conducted.

Business: The academy discussed issues facing the AVTAA and presented ideas and plans for changes in the coming year. Also discussed was the launch of the NAVAS.

Officials: Kim Spelts, Colorado Springs, Colorado, president; Katy Waddell, College Station, Texas, president-elect; Lynette DeGouff, Cortland, New York, treasurer; Darci Palmer, Auburn, Alabama, executive secretary; Kristin Cooley, Madison, Wisconsin, immediate past president; and members-at-large—Brenda Feller, Fort Myers, Florida; Jody Nugent-Deal, Davis, California; and Brynn Schmidt, Los Angeles

Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Foundation Program: The foundation partnered with The Street Dog Coalition (www.thestreetdogcoalition.org) and Southern Alliance for People and Animal Welfare (www.safpaw.org) to provide basic veterinary care to the pets of homeless people in downtown Nashville. A team of more than 15 volunteers conducted physical examinations and heartworm testing, administered vaccines, provided treatment for minor skin conditions and parasites, and distributed parasite preventives and vouchers for free spay-neuter services at a local hospital. The foundation hosted its fourth annual K9 ER Care and CPR Course. More than 60 first responders attended the all-day course, which included hands-on instruction and lectures on anatomy, bandaging and wound management, CPR in the field, exposure to toxins, and common traumas. The foundation raised almost $35,000, most of which will be directed toward the Dougie Fund for Disaster Relief, to help veterinary practices and animal caregivers impacted by hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Some of the funds will go to SAFPAW, future Street Dog events, and training for first responders.

Officials: Alyce D'Amato, Appleton, Wisconsin, president; Dr. Deborah Silverstein, Philadelphia, secretary; Dr. Gary Stamp, San Antonio, treasurer-administrator; and Dr. Bill Smith, Seale, Alabama, immediate past president

International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management

Program: The academy coordinated several pain management sessions. Dr. Peter Pascoe, Davis, California, presented “Opioids: Things They Don't Teach You in Vet School”; Dr. Bonnie Wright, Fort Collins, Colorado, presented “Natural ‘Drugs' for Your Pain Management Toolbox”; and Dr. Bernie Hansen, Raleigh, North Carolina, presented “Sick of Pain: Options for Pain Management in Hospitalized Patients.”

Business: The academy reviewed current initiatives, provided progress updates, and identified future projects and goals.

Officials: Nancy Shaffran, Erwinna, Pennsylvania, president; Dr. James Berry, Fredericton, New Brunswick, president-elect; Dr. Douglas Stramel, Carrollton, Texas, treasurer; Mary Ellen Goldberg, Boynton Beach, Florida, executive secretary; and Dr. Bonnie Wright, Fort Collins, Colorado, immediate past president

Association of Veterinary Hematology and Transfusion Medicine

Program: Two three-hour sessions were held on blood banking and transfusion medicine. The AVHTM president, Dr. Sarah Musulin, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, presented “Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion” and “Controversies in Blood Banking.” These lectures were followed by a panel discussion on “Controversies in Blood Banking,” led by Drs. Musulin; Kenichiro Yagi, Los Altos, California; Stephanie Istvan, San Diego; and Ann Hale, Rockville, Maryland. Dr. Alex Lynch, North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine, lectured on “Alternatives to Allogenic Transfusion.” Dr. Karen Humm, Royal Veterinary College, England, presented “Autotransfusion and Red Blood Cell Salvage.” Drs. Marie Holowaychuk, Critical Care Vet Consulting, Calgary, Alberta, and Julie Walker, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, led an interactive lecture on “Controversies in Plasma Use: Case Based Discussion.”

Officials: Dr. Sarah Musulin, Raleigh, North Carolina, president; Dr. Dana LeVine, Ames, Iowa, vice president; Dr. Claire Sharp, Murdoch, Australia, secretary; Rebecca Nusbaum, Colorado Springs, Colorado, treasurer; and Rick Johnson, Sahuarita, Arizona, executive director

Colorado VMA

Event: Annual meeting, Sept. 21–24, Loveland

Awards: Veterinarian of the Year: Dr. Randa MacMillan, Littleton. A 1981 graduate of the Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Dr. MacMillan owned Arapahoe Veterinary Hospital in Littleton until 2008. She is a past president of the Colorado VMA and Denver Area VMS, and, in 2013, co-chaired a dog protection task force that was established to assist police officers better understand dog behavior. Dr. MacMillan is active with Vidas, an international veterinary group that holds spay-neuter clinics in Yucatan, Mexico. Distinguished Service Award: Robert D. Rohde, Centennial. A certified animal welfare administrator, Rohde is chief executive officer of Dumb Friends League. Under his leadership, the league has grown from its origins as a small local animal shelter to a large community-based animal welfare organization. Rohde collaborates and partners with local and national organizations, working toward animal welfare. President's Award: The staff members of the CVMA won this award, in recognition of their courteous, professional, and heartfelt dedication to CVMA members and leadership, and for their unwavering service to and support of the veterinary profession in Colorado. Also honored at the meeting was the chief executive officer of the CVMA, Ralph Johnson, of Denver, for his service to the association. Johnson has led the association since 2000, first as executive director, and, later, as CEO. He will retire at the end of 2017.

Officials: Dr. William French, Sedalia, president; Dr. Joy Furhman, Fort Collins, president-elect; Dr. Stacee Santi, Durango, secretary-treasurer; Dr. Jackie Christakos, Centennial, secretary-treasurer–elect; Dr. Sam Romano, Arvada, immediate past president; Ralph Johnson, Denver, chief executive officer; Diane C. Matt, Denver, chief executive officer–designate; and AVMA delegate and alternate delegate—Drs. Melanie Marsden, Colorado Springs, and Rebecca Ruch-Gallie, LaPorte


Dr. Randa MacMillan

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Robert D. Rohde

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354


Ralph Johnson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251, 12; 10.2460/javma.251.12.1354

Obituaries AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember

Charles D. Baird

Dr. Baird (Auburn ‘60), 80, Birmingham, Alabama, died Sept. 25, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Baird Animal Clinic in Bessemer, Alabama, and, later, Graysville Animal Clinic in Graysville, Alabama. Dr. Baird retired in 2015.

He was a member of the Jefferson County VMA and Rotary Club, and a veteran of the Air Force. Dr. Baird is survived by his son and four grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the Alzheimer's Association, 2151 Highland Ave. S., Suite 210, Birmingham, AL 35205, www.alz.org.

Irene B. Collins

Dr. Collins (California-Davis ‘65), 95, Turlock, California, died Aug. 10, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, she owned a mobile practice based in Turlock from 1992–2012. Earlier in her career, Dr. Collins practiced at Veterinary Medical Center in Turlock with her late husband, Dr. I.N. Bohlender (Colorado State ‘42), and, subsequently, at Community Veterinary Hospital, also in Turlock. She was a Women's Army Corps veteran of World War II.

Dr. Collins is survived by her son, daughter, five stepchildren, and several grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Robert J. Eberhart

Dr. Eberhart (Pennsylvania ‘59), 86, Pittsburgh, died Aug. 12, 2017. He served as a professor of veterinary medicine at Pennsylvania State University for 25 years. Dr. Eberhart was a member of the Halfmoon Township Planning Commission. A veteran of the Korean War, he served as a lieutenant in the Navy.

Dr. Eberhart's wife, Jeannette; two daughters and two sons; 11 grandchildren; and a brother and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to ClearWater Conservancy, 2555 N. Atherton St., State College, PA 16803, www.clearwaterconservancy.org.

Rodney S. Graves

Dr. Graves (Cornell ‘56), 84, Stuart, Florida, died April 25, 2017. A retired small animal veterinarian, he was the founder of Orchard Park Veterinary Medical Center in Orchard Park, New York. Dr. Graves was a member of the New York State VMS and Western New York VMA. In 1974, the NYSVMS honored him with a Merit Award.

W. Eugene Lloyd

Dr. Lloyd (Iowa State ‘49), 92, Shenandoah, Iowa, died April 25, 2017. He was the founder of Vet-a-Mix, later renamed Lloyd Inc., a company that developed and sold veterinary pharmaceuticals and nutritional supplies.

Dr. Lloyd began his career practicing mixed animal medicine in Essex, Iowa. In 1958, while still in practice, he established Vet-a-Mix. Dr. Lloyd sold his practice in 1965 and returned to Iowa State, where he earned his doctorate in veterinary pathology in 1970. During that time, he also taught veterinary toxicology at the College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Lloyd subsequently left academia to focus on Lloyd Inc. In 1990, the Small Business Administration named Dr. Lloyd Exporter of the Year.

A past president of the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology and American Academy of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology, he served on the board of directors of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology and Animal Health Institute and was a member of the Iowa VMA. He received an Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine Stange Award in 1993. That same year, Dr. Lloyd and his wife, Linda, created an endowed professorship in veterinary toxicology and related disciplines at the veterinary college. In 1999, he was honored with the ABVT Service Award, and, the ISU CVM dedicated the Dr. W. Eugene and Linda Lloyd Veterinary Medical Center in 2008.

Dr. Lloyd was a veteran of the Navy and a member of the American Legion. He was active with the Rotary Club, Shenandoah Chamber and Industry Association, and Greater Shenandoah Foundation.

Dr. Lloyd is survived by his wife, Linda; a son; and two grandchildren. Memorials may be made to First Presbyterian Church, 200 W. Clarinda Ave., Shenandoah, IA 51601, or Shenandoah Food Pantry, 411 W. Clarinda Ave., Shenandoah, IA 51601.

John R. Matson

Dr. Matson (Kansas State ‘59), 86, Des Moines, Iowa, died Sept. 23, 2017. A small animal veterinarian, he owned South Des Moines Animal Hospital for 40 years. Dr. Matson was a veteran of the Army. His wife, Linda; four daughters, a stepdaughter, and a stepson; eight grandchildren; five great-grandchildren; and a sister survive him.

Memorials may be made to AHeinz57 Pet Rescue and Transport, P.O. Box 188, DeSoto, IA 50069.

Lyle G. Nicholson

Dr. Nicholson (Washington State ‘37), 102, Hood River, Oregon, died Aug. 9, 2017. In 1948, he moved to Portland, Oregon, where he established Willamette Dog and Cat Hospital, retiring from practice in 1970. Earlier, Dr. Nicholson conducted poultry research in Puyallup, Washington, and practiced large animal medicine in Snohomish, Washington.

His two sons and a daughter, three grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren survive him.

Steven P. Sanford

Dr. Sanford (Cornell ‘79), 64, Greensboro, Vermont, died June 8, 2017. A mixed animal veterinarian, he began his career at Sequist Animal Hospital in Morrisville, Vermont, where he focused on bovine medicine. In 1991, Dr. Sanford established Derby Pond Animal Hospital in Derby, Vermont, and, later, Greensboro Animal Hospital in Greensboro.

He is survived by his life partner, Paula Lawrence; a daughter; and his mother. Memorials, with the memo line of the check notated to the CTE Neuropathology Fund, may be made to Boston University CTE Center, Attn: Jason Miller, CTE Center, 72 E. Concord St., Robinson B/7800, Boston, MA 02118, www.bu.edu/cte/financial-support.

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