Pathology in Practice

Kevin Le Boedec Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Heidi Phillips Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Helia Zamprogno Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Stephen Joslyn Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Robert T. O'Brien Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Stephane Lezmi Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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History

A 3-year-old 40.5-kg (89.1-lb) castrated male Labrador Retriever–mixed breed dog was admitted to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of a 10-day history of stridor and inspiratory obstructive dyspnea. The clinical signs were intermittent and paroxysmal (5 minutes’ duration/episode) and sometimes related to exercise.

Clinical and Gross Findings

At admission, findings of a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, and coagulation profile were unremarkable. The dog was breathing normally in the examination room. Tracheal radiography identified an intratracheal circular 1.7-cm-diameter soft tissue mass at the level of the fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae. The mass occupied 80% of the internal diameter of the trachea on the lateral view. Tracheoscopy revealed a rounded, mildly irregular, and pedunculated mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane (Figure 1) at approximately 35 cm from the tip of the nose. The mass was obstructing approximately 90% of the tracheal lumen. No other lesions were found caudally. The mass was removed by tracheal resection and anastomosis and submitted to the University of Illinois Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic examination.

Figure 1—
Figure 1—

Tracheoscopic image of a tracheal mass in a 3-year old dog with a history of intermittent and paroxysmal episodes of stridor and inspiratory obstructive dyspnea during the preceding 10 days. Notice the smooth and pedunculated aspect of the mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane. The mass was estimated to be obstructing approximately 90% of the tracheal lumen.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 250, 9; 10.2460/javma.250.9.993

Formulate differential diagnoses from the history, clinical findings, and Figure 1—then turn the page→

Histopathologic Findings

Histologic evaluation of the excised intraluminal mass revealed a neoplastic population of round cells tightly packed in a thin fibrovascular stroma (Figure 2). The cytoplasm of the cells was eosinophilic and granular, and contained a pale paranuclear halo (Golgi zone). Nuclei were round and eccentrically located, with finely stippled chromatin. Frequent giant bi- or multinucleated cells (as many as 6/hpf [40X objective]) were observed. Anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were moderate, and the mean number of mitotic figures per 10 hpf was 3. Neoplastic tissue did not extend to the margins of the resected mass. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the neoplastic cells were negative for chromogranin A (a neuroendocrine marker) and positive for multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1; a plasma cell marker). Immunohistochemical staining for MUM1 had a nuclear location and was of moderate to high intensity; MUM1 expression was evident in approximately 75% of the cells, including the multinucleated cells.

Figure 2—
Figure 2—

Photomicrographs of sections of the tracheal mass excised from the dog in Figure 1. A—Notice the neoplastic population of round cells tightly packed in a thin fbrovascular stroma. H&E stain; bar = 50 μm. B—The neoplastic cells are positive for multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 [brown staining]). MUM1-specific immunohistochemical reaction; bar = 50 μm.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 250, 9; 10.2460/javma.250.9.993

Morphologic Diagnosis and Case Summary

Morphologic diagnosis and case summary: tracheal plasmacytoma in a 3-year-old dog.

Comments

The case described in the present report involved a young dog with a tracheal plasmacytoma. Canine primary tracheal tumors are often associated with a bimodal age distribution; osteochondroma, ecchondroma, and chondrosarcoma develop in younger dogs, whereas other tumor types develop in dogs > 6 years of age.1 Plasmacytomas are an extremely rare type of tracheal neoplasm in dogs; to our knowledge, there are only 5 reported cases2–6 in the veterinary medical literature, and all of those dogs were > 6 years of age. Among those 5 case reports, 4 had a thorough morphologic and histologic description of the tumor.2–5 As in the dog of the present report, the previously described tumors were pedunculated masses arising from the dorsal tracheal membrane.2–5 Osteochondromas and ecchondromas originate not from the dorsal tracheal membrane but from the cartilaginous rings7; therefore, these tumor types were not considered differential diagnoses in this case. Four of the 5 previously described tracheal plasmacytomas developed in male dogs, which might suggest a sex predisposition.3–6 These features regarding tumor origin and sex of an affected dog might increase the index of suspicion for tracheal plasmacytoma, even in young individuals.

For the dog of the present report, a histologic diagnosis of plasmacytoma was confirmed on the basis of immunohistochemical analysis for MUM1. Multiple myeloma oncogene 1, also called interferon regulatory factor-4, is involved in lymphoid cell differentiation.8 It is required for immunoglobulin light-chain rearrangement at the pre-B stage of lymphocyte maturation.9 Immunohistochemical staining for MUM1 has been shown to have high sensitivity (93.5%) and specificity (92.1%) for diagnosis of plasmacytomas in dogs.10 Ideally, bone marrow aspirate specimens should have been collected for cytologic evaluation to definitively exclude multiple myeloma11 in the dog of the present report. However, a diagnosis of multiple myeloma was unlikely given the absence of notable abnormalities revealed by physical examination, routine blood analyses, and urinalysis; the absence of radiographic lytic bone lesions; and the similarity of findings to previously reported gross and histologic descriptions of tracheal plasmacytoma.

For dogs, prognosis associated with tracheal plasmacytoma seems to be favorable, with surgical excision being curative for 4 of the 5 previously described cases.2–4,6 The dog in the present report underwent a CT examination 9 months after surgery. No tumor regrowth was observed at that time, and the owner had not noticed any respiratory tract signs since surgery.

References

  • 1. Brown MR, Rogers KS. Primary tracheal tumors in dogs and cats. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2003; 25: 854860.

  • 2. Chaffin K, Cross AR, Allen SW, et al. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the trachea of a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 15791581.

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  • 3. Palacios D, Font A, Closa JM, et al. Intratracheal plasmacytoma in a dog: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Vet Pequenos Anim 2010; 30: 2529.

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  • 4. Weigt AK, McCracken MD, Krahwinkel DJ. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the canine trachea: case report and literature review. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2001; 23: 143152.

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  • 5. Besancon MF, Stacy BA, Kyles AE, et al. Nodular immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis in the trachea of a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224: 13021306.

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  • 6. Schwartz P. What is your diagnosis? J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226: 12991300.

  • 7. Withrow SJ. Cancer of the larynx and trachea. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2007; 515516.

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  • 8. Gaidano G, Carbone A. MUM1: a step ahead toward the understanding of lymphoma histogenesis. Leukemia 2000; 14: 563566.

  • 9. Lu R, Medina KL, Lancki DW, et al. IRF-4,8 orchestrate the pre-B-to-B transition in lymphocyte development. Genes Dev 2003; 17: 17031708.

  • 10. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA, Valli VEO. Immunohistochemical detection of multiple myeloma 1/interferon regulatory factor 4 (MUM1/IRF-4) in canine plasmacytoma: comparison with CD79a and CD20. Vet Pathol 2007; 44: 875884.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Vail DM. Plasma cell neoplasms. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2007; 769784.

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  • Figure 1—

    Tracheoscopic image of a tracheal mass in a 3-year old dog with a history of intermittent and paroxysmal episodes of stridor and inspiratory obstructive dyspnea during the preceding 10 days. Notice the smooth and pedunculated aspect of the mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane. The mass was estimated to be obstructing approximately 90% of the tracheal lumen.

  • Figure 2—

    Photomicrographs of sections of the tracheal mass excised from the dog in Figure 1. A—Notice the neoplastic population of round cells tightly packed in a thin fbrovascular stroma. H&E stain; bar = 50 μm. B—The neoplastic cells are positive for multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 [brown staining]). MUM1-specific immunohistochemical reaction; bar = 50 μm.

  • 1. Brown MR, Rogers KS. Primary tracheal tumors in dogs and cats. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2003; 25: 854860.

  • 2. Chaffin K, Cross AR, Allen SW, et al. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the trachea of a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 15791581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Palacios D, Font A, Closa JM, et al. Intratracheal plasmacytoma in a dog: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Vet Pequenos Anim 2010; 30: 2529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Weigt AK, McCracken MD, Krahwinkel DJ. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the canine trachea: case report and literature review. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2001; 23: 143152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Besancon MF, Stacy BA, Kyles AE, et al. Nodular immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis in the trachea of a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224: 13021306.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Schwartz P. What is your diagnosis? J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226: 12991300.

  • 7. Withrow SJ. Cancer of the larynx and trachea. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2007; 515516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Gaidano G, Carbone A. MUM1: a step ahead toward the understanding of lymphoma histogenesis. Leukemia 2000; 14: 563566.

  • 9. Lu R, Medina KL, Lancki DW, et al. IRF-4,8 orchestrate the pre-B-to-B transition in lymphocyte development. Genes Dev 2003; 17: 17031708.

  • 10. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA, Valli VEO. Immunohistochemical detection of multiple myeloma 1/interferon regulatory factor 4 (MUM1/IRF-4) in canine plasmacytoma: comparison with CD79a and CD20. Vet Pathol 2007; 44: 875884.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Vail DM. Plasma cell neoplasms. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2007; 769784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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