In This Issue • May 1, 2017

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JAVMA News

Homeopathy is, depending on whom you ask, a gentler and more natural alternative to traditional medicine or an unproven and useless modality, at best. Regardless, it recently has drawn renewed attention from federal regulatory agencies. In other news, wildfires killed thousands of cattle and pigs in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis?

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Anesthesia Case of the Month

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Pathology in Practice

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review article

Bovine colostral cells—the often forgotten component of colostrum

In addition to maternally derived antibodies, colostrum contains immunologically important cytokines and a large number of maternally derived leukocytes, which collectively contribute to the immunoprotection of neonatal calves. Although the role of colostral antibodies in the protection of neonates against disease has been well documented, the role of colostral cellular components in passive immunity is less well understood.

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Small Animals

Microscopic examination versus bacterial culture of bile for detection of bactibilia in dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease

Identification of bactibilia in dogs and cats suspected to have bacterial cholangitis can affect clinical decision making, but bacterial culture of bile requires 3 to 5 days, whereas results of microscopic examination can be available on the day of sample collection. In a cross-sectional study involving 31 dogs and 21 cats, there was substantial agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples, with almost perfect agreement when only those animals that had not received any antimicrobials in the 24 hours prior to sample collection were considered. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.

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Effects of topically applied heterologous serum in dogs with superficial chronic corneal epithelial defects

Definitive treatment of superficial chronic corneal epithelial defects in dogs is controversial. In humans, serum has been used as an adjunctive topical treatment for many ocular surface diseases, especially ulcerative corneal disease. However, in a randomized controlled trial involving 41 dogs with SCCEDs, topical application of undiluted heterologous serum, as an adjunct to standard treatment, did not reduce time to corneal re-epithelialization. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive topically applied undiluted heterologous serum (n = 22) or isotonic saline solution (19) along with tobramycin and atropine. Epithelial debridement and grid keratotomy were performed. All SCCEDs in both groups healed by 4 weeks after treatment began.

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Cardiac arrest in an American Cocker Spaniel during a deep ear flush procedure

A 14-year-old American Cocker Spaniel with bilateral otitis media was anesthetized to allow deep ear flushing. Otoscopic examination of the ears revealed evidence of chronic inflammation, including a ruptured right tympanum. The ears were flushed with sterile saline solution, and several drops of otic medication were instilled in the right ear. During infusion of saline solution, cardiac arrest occurred. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful, and the dog recovered without further complications. Cardiac arrest was presumed to have been a result of stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. Veterinarians should be prepared for and warn clients about the possibility of this complication before performing otic flushing.

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Equine

Cardiovascular findings in ponies with equine metabolic syndrome

Equine metabolic syndrome is characterized by regionalized and generalized obesity, insulin dysregulation, and an increased risk of laminitis. In humans, metabolic syndrome is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular abnormalities. In a case-control study involving 19 ponies with EMS and 20 healthy control ponies, the ponies with EMS had a higher mean heart rate and median left ventricular wall thickness than did the control ponies. No differences were identified between groups in blood pressure, splenic volume, heart rate variability, or number of premature complexes. In the ponies with EMS, myocardial hypertrophy was correlated with insulin concentration, sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, and arterial blood pressure.

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Camelids

Treatment of complete bilateral membranous choanal atresia in an alpaca cria

A 4-hour-old alpaca cria was evaluated because of severe respiratory distress and difficulty nursing since birth. The cria had open-mouth breathing and cyanotic membranes, with no airflow evident from either nostril; CT confirmed bilateral membranous obstruction of the nasal cavities, consistent with complete bilateral choanal atresia. A temporary tracheostomy was performed, and the choanal atresia was treated with an endoscopically assisted balloon-dilation technique. Stenosis recurred, requiring revision of the repair and intranasal stent placement 3 days after the first surgery. The stents were removed 2 weeks after admission, and the cria was discharged 3 days later. The owner was advised that the animal should not be bred.

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