In This Issue • January 15, 2017


A third of homes with dogs and a fifth of those with cats use supplements, but many of these products are unregulated or lack evidence of efficacy. In other news, AVMA leaders hope discussion will help address the risks of miscommunication and misunderstanding between veterinarians and pharmacies and the erroneous modification of veterinary prescriptions.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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ECG of the Month

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Anesthesia Case of the Month

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Pathology in Practice

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Assessing the potential for Burkholderia pseudomallei in the southeastern United States

Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an underreported zoonosis common to many tropical areas, with a case fatality rate in humans potentially as high as 50%. An analysis of environmental conditions in the southeastern United States suggests that there is a potential for the organism to become established in this region.

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farad digest

Avoiding violative flunixin meglumine residues in cattle and swine

Extralabel use of flunixin in food-producing animals has frequently resulted in violative residues in the tissues of treated animals. An understanding of the pharmacokinetics and tissue residue data for flunixin can help when trying to establish appropriate withdrawal intervals following extralabel use of flunixin in cattle and swine.

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Small Animals

Evaluation of eicosanoid concentrations in stored units of canine packed RBCs

The accumulation of bioactive molecules in blood products is believed to substantially increase the risk of transfusion reactions. However, information is lacking on how management of stored canine blood products can influence production of bioactive molecules such as eicosanoids. In a study involving 25 units of canine packed RBCs tested at the time of blood donation and before and after transfusion, concentrations of several proinflammatory eicosanoids increased during storage, transfusion, or both. Because these products could potentially contribute to adverse transfusion reactions, additional study of possible associations between eicosanoid concentrations in packed RBCs and the incidence of transfusion reactions in dogs is warranted.

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Stereotactic body radiation therapy for treatment of heart base tumors in four dogs

Four dogs with heart base tumors underwent treatment by means of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Dogs were anesthetized, and neuromuscular blockade was achieved with atracurium or vecuronium. A circle rebreathing system with 15 m (50 feet) of anesthetic tubing coursing through the vault wall was used to connect the patient to the anesthesia machine, which was located in the control room. After a brief period of hyperventilation, an inspiratory breath was held at 20 cm H2O for the duration of beam delivery. Immediately following the breath hold, assisted ventilation was resumed. All patients recovered without complications. There was no evidence of hemoglobin desaturation or hypercapnia during the anesthetic procedure.

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Povidone iodine sclerotherapy for treatment of idiopathic renal hematuria in two dogs

Two dogs were evaluated because of gross hematuria of 5 and 2 months' duration, and a diagnosis of unilateral idiopathic renal hematuria was made in both dogs. Both dogs underwent retrograde ureteropyelography, unilateral povidone iodine sclerotherapy, and ureteral stent placement. The ureter was occluded with a ureteropelvic junction balloon catheter, and a 5% povidone iodine solution was infused into the renal pelvis 3 times. A double-pigtail ureteral stent was then placed. Both dogs recovered without complications, with cessation of gross hematuria within 12 hours. Cystoscopic removal of the ureteral stent was performed in 1 dog after 4 months. In the other dog, the owners declined removal of the stent.

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Upper eyelid reconstruction following radical tumor resection in a cat

A 15-year-old cat was examined for treatment of a recurrent neoplastic mass involving the left upper eyelid that had been excised 6 months earlier by the referring veterinarian. Approximately one-third of the left upper lip was used as a subdermal plexus (lip-to-lid) flap to cover the defect created by en bloc excision of the eyelid mass. A bridge incision between the donor and recipient sites was used so that the eyelid could be reconstructed in 1 procedure. Histologic evaluation confirmed that the mass had been completely excised. Both the donor and recipient flap sites healed well without complications. The procedure resulted in excellent functional and cosmetic results with no recurrence of the mass 14 months after surgery.

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Special Report

The learning curve for veterinary surgery residents performing hemilaminectomy surgeries in dogs

Evaluation of the learning curve for 13 individuals who completed a 3-year surgery residency program at a university teaching hospital and who had no prior experience performing hemilaminectomies suggested that for early exposures to the hemilaminectomy procedure, instruction in the form of direct supervision provided substantial benefit, but that by the tenth exposure, the benefit of instruction diminished and ongoing improvement was primarily a result of refinement. Overall, increasing patient body weight and increasing surgical complexity (graded on the basis of number and contiguity of hemilaminectomy sites) were associated with longer operative times and increasing exposure number was associated with shorter operative times.

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