Volume 77, No. 7 July 2016 www.avma.org
ANESTHESIA - ANALGESIA
The effects of lidocaine or a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture administered into the infraorbital canal in dogs
Peter J. Pascoe et al 682
Local anesthesia, as performed in this study, successfully blocked innervation of maxillary canine teeth, but results for the maxillary fourth premolar and second molar teeth were inconsistent. This specific technique should not be used during tooth extractions caudal to the MC teeth.
Safety and toxicokinetic profiles associated with daily oral administration of grapiprant, a selective antagonist of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor, to cats
Lesley C. Rausch-Derra and Linda Rhodes 688
Results suggested the safety of daily oral administration of grapiprant to cats. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of grapiprant for treatment of cats with osteoarthritis.
Use of RNA-seq to identify cardiac genes and gene pathways differentially expressed between dogs with and without dilated cardiomyopathy
Steven G. Friedenberg et al 693
Results suggested that RNA sequencing may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of DCM in dogs and highlight pathways that should be explored to identify causative mutations and develop novel therapeutic interventions.
Assessment of the effects of dalteparin on coagulation variables and determination of a treatment schedule for use in cats
Jette C. Schönig and Reinhard H. Mischke 700
Results of this study indicated that this treatment protocol resulted in reproducible anti–activated coagulation factor X activity in cats that was mostly within the targeted peak range of anti-Xa activity recommended for humans. Treatment in accordance with this protocol may not require routine coagulation monitoring of cats, but this must be confirmed in feline patients.
Effect of infusion of equine plasma or 6% hydroxyethyl starch (600/0.75) solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in healthy horses
Erica C. McKenzie et al 708
Overall, the hetastarch and plasma infusions comparably increased pCOP in healthy horses for up to 48 hours. Hetastarch induced greater, more persistent perturbations in clinicopathologic variables.
Repeatability and reproducibility of right ventricular Tei index values derived from three echocardiographic methods for evaluation of cardiac function in dogs
Tomoya Morita et al 715
Measurement of right ventricular Tei index derived from dual pulse-waved Doppler was a repeatable and reproducible method of cardiac evaluation in healthy dogs. Tei index values derived from tissue Doppler echocardiography were significantly higher than the RTXDPD and values derived from conventional pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography; therefore, RTX values derived from different echocardiographic methods should be interpreted with caution.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - NUTRITION
Comparison of the expression, activity, and fecal concentration of intestinal alkaline phosphatase between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathy
Kaori Ide et al 721
Results indicated that dogs with CE had impaired IAP expression and activity. Additional research is necessary to elucidate the role of IAP in the pathogenesis of CE.
Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses
James L. Carmalt et al 730
Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood.
Effects of withholding feed on thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test results and effects of combined testing on oral sugar test and thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test results in horses
Melissa M. Restifo et al 738
Combined testing in the manner described impacted ACTH concentrations during TRH stimulation tests and is not recommended at this time.
The mission of the American Journal of Veterinary Research is to publish, in a timely manner, peer-reviewed reports of the highest-quality research that has the clear potential to enhance the health, welfare, and performance of animals and humans. The journal will maintain the highest ethical standards of scientific journalism and promote such standards among its contributors. In addition, the journal will foster global interdisciplinary cooperation in veterinary medical research.
Assessment of novel digital and smartphone goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles
Kristin A. Freund et al 749
None of the devices accurately represented radiographically measured stifle joint angles. Additional veterinary studies are indicated prior to the use of novel goniometers in dogs.
Effects of repetition within trials and frequency of trial sessions on quantitative parameters of vertical force peak in horses with naturally occurring lameness
Mari Kaido et al 756
Lameness profiles obtained through kinetic gait analysis of horses with naturally occurring lameness were most accurate when valid repetitions were limited to 3 and the interval between sessions within a trial was > 3 hours. Findings suggested that naturally occurring lameness may be as suitable as experimentally induced lameness for lameness research involving horses.
Potential usefulness of epiduroscopy for detection of vertebral canal and spinal cord lesions in dogs
Fernando L. Garcia-Pereira et al 766
A 2.8-mm videoscope was successfully used to perform epiduroscopy through the lumbosacral space in canine cadavers. Additional refinement and evaluation of the technique in live dogs are necessary before its use can be recommended for clinical situations.
Temporary percutaneous T-fastener gastropexy and continuous decompressive gastrostomy in dogs with experimentally induced gastric dilatation
W. Alexander Fox-Alvarez et al. 771
The described technique was performed rapidly and provided continuous gastric decompression with no evidence of postoperative leakage in healthy dogs. Investigation is warranted to evaluate its effectiveness in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.
TISSUE REGENERATION - HEALING
Assessment of regeneration in meniscal lesions by use of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine bone marrow and adipose tissue
Maria L. González-Fernández et al 779
Results indicated that MSCs derived from AT could be a good alternative to MSCs derived from BM for use in regenerative treatments. Results also were promising for a stem cell–based implant for use in regeneration in meniscal lesions.