AVMA launches database of clinical studies
Website will help researchers, animals, animal owners, practitioners
By Katie Burns
The AVMA launched the AVMA Animal Health Studies Database in June as a resource for researchers seeking animals to participate in clinical studies and for veterinarians and animal owners exploring options for treatment.
Until now, there really haven't been any national databases for veterinary studies, other than the Veterinary Cancer Trials website focusing on cancer in cats and dogs, said Dr. Ed Murphey, an assistant director in the AVMA Education and Research Division. The new AVMA website encompasses all fields of veterinary medicine and all species of animals and will extend beyond the United States to Canada and the United Kingdom.
“There are a lot of AVMA members that are involved in the conduct of clinical studies, and so, having the database helps them enroll animals into their studies,” Dr. Murphey said. “And there's a direct benefit to practitioners who are looking for all avenues to help some of their owners and patients.”
He continued, “Then there is an indirect benefit, too, and that's the advancement of evidence for the practice of veterinary medicine. Clinical studies, in particular clinical trials, are really the most informative and most scientifically accepted evidence for whether things work or don't work in clinical practice.”
The new database is the brainchild of the AVMA Council on Research. In April 2014, the AVMA Executive Board, later renamed the AVMA Board of Directors, approved a recommendation from the council to form a working group to study the feasibility and development of a national registry of veterinary clinical trials.
Dr. Murphey said the group members looked at whether a clinical trials database was needed and whether it would be of value to AVMA members, then hammered out what it would look like and how it would function.
The working group recommended in July 2015 that the AVMA should forge ahead, and the Board agreed. Along the way, the group expanded the concept from a clinical trials database into a clinical studies database. The database covers not only randomized controlled clinical trials but also prospective clinical studies and survey and epidemiological studies.
Dr. Murphey said investigators might want to study a drug, surgical technique, or other treatment for a certain condition in animals. It could be as simple as wanting to collect samples from animals with a certain condition for DNA analysis. The investigators develop criteria for the animals, such as condition, age, or breed. Then the investigators put out a call for participation.
“There have, to this point, been limited opportunities for them to do so,” Dr. Murphey said. “A lot of the universities have a website, and they may put that on the website, but that's highly dependent upon animal owners going to that university's website and discovering it, so that's not a very effective method. The AVMA Animal Health Studies Database will be a centralized collection where it will be one-stop shopping for people with animals with certain conditions who may be interested in trying to find out if there are any studies that may either help their animal or may at least help direct the advancement of knowledge for the condition.”
Animal owners, veterinarians, and anyone else can search the database. Because of a concern about owners contacting an investigator while leaving their veterinarian out of the loop, the website emphasizes that owners interested in a study should discuss with their veterinarian whether the animal is eligible.
Ahead of the launch, the Veterinary Cancer Society transferred all the studies from its Veterinary Cancer Trials website—about 100—into the AVMA database. The AVMA also has been soliciting studies by reaching out to veterinary colleges.
Dr. Kim A. Selting is the creator of the Veterinary Cancer Trials website as well as a member of the AVMA working group and an associate teaching professor at the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine. She started working on the cancer trials website more than a decade ago.
“To do good-quality clinical trials, we need to have the right candidates. So if we pick the cases that we are most interested in, that will give us the information that we need, then we can have more powerful conclusions and make recommendations,” Dr. Selting said. “And sometimes it's hard to find those cases. We know they're out there. We know that dogs get a particular kind of tumor or cats get a particular kind of tumor. But either the owners aren't aware of the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial, or they have some trepidation or uncertainty about participating in a trial, or they don't understand what all is involved in that with regards to money and time.”
The purpose of the cancer trials website was to help researchers connect with cases and to help veterinarians understand what trials were available while offering options and sometimes cost offsets for animal owners.
“People will enroll in clinical trials for any one or a combination of these reasons: One is that they are seeking novel therapy because everything else has failed, and their pet still feels OK, and they want to keep trying. Two, they need subsidized care,” Dr. Selting said. “Some people just really want to contribute to the greater good. I have people that come in, and they know there are other treatment options, and cost really isn't a particular constraint or concern for them, but they really feel good about contributing to the big picture.”
Dr. Selting believes the new AVMA database will be helpful for practitioners. Having been in private practice, she knows that a practitioner might have 15 minutes for an appointment. So the practitioner offers options A, B, and C to the client. Now the practitioner can offer options A, B, C, and D, with D being to look for a clinical trial.
Another potential benefit of the AVMA database is completing studies more quickly.
Dr. Selting added that the working group tried to be inclusive so that the database includes every aspect of veterinary medicine, even wildlife studies that are not clinical trials but do involve and benefit animal health.
Dr. Theresa “Terry” Fossum is chair of the AVMA working group, vice president for research and strategic initiatives at Midwestern University, and a professor of surgery at Midwestern's College of Veterinary Medicine in Glendale, Arizona.
“Clinical trials have long been an interest of mine,” she said. “I am a huge proponent of the use of naturally occurring animal disease.”
Unlike research animals, Dr. Fossum said, pets develop diseases naturally for the same reasons that people do, such as natural genetic variation and environmental factors. She believes enrolling pets in clinical trials will reduce the speed and cost of developing cutting-edge treatments and sophisticated diagnostic procedures for people and pets.
“Increasingly, our clients want the best of care,” Dr. Fossum said. “They expect what they would get if they had that particular disease, and sometimes that does involve enrolling in a clinical trial.”
To find clinical trials, a veterinarian has had to go to multiple websites and might have had no way to see what was available at private practices. “So having one site where it's easy for veterinarians and for pet owners to go in and see what clinical trials are available is just a huge move forward,” she said.
Like Dr. Selting, Dr. Fossum has noticed the extent to which pet owners will go to treat an animal, often for reasons beyond hope for a successful treatment. She said, “They are going to have other pets, and they want to facilitate research that will reduce diseases; oftentimes, they are going to have a pet of the same breed. And then the other reason they will often state is that they do want to help humans.”
Dr. Fossum said the AVMA database also serves as an educational tool with information about what a clinical trial is, what participation means, and what some of the terminology means.
As studies listed in the database are completed, the working group is hopeful that researchers will return to their listing to post the results of the study—in formats such as a summary, abstract, or manuscript. Part of the idea is to provide information about whether results are negative or positive, and therefore, whether an intervention is worth pursuing. Dr. Fossum said, “Very few people publish negative results on the whole, but sometimes those negative results are as informative as positive ones.”
Submitting and finding studies
Investigators who want to call for study participants via the AVMA database should submit studies through the website. Members of the AVMA can log in with their identification number and password, and others can create a user account. A dashboard page allows investigators to add or edit studies.
After an investigator submits a study, AVMA staff will scan it and forward it to a curator. The curator will help the investigator clarify information as necessary, then will mark the study for publication on the website.
Visitors to the website can view all available studies or search in the following categories: diagnosis or keywords, primary field of veterinary medicine, country, and species. Details about the studies include a project description, study type, intervention, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, potential medical benefits to enrolled animals, potential medical risks to enrolled animals, and financial incentives for study participants.
‘No higher honor’
Stacy Pritt anticipates serving as AVMA vice president
Interview by R. Scott Nolen
The AVMA House of Delegates will elect a new Association vice president as part of its regular annual session this August in San Antonio.
Dr. Stacy Pritt of Rowlett, Texas, is the sole candidate for the office—a two-year position as the Association's liaison to the Student AVMA and student chapters and a voting member of the AVMA Board of Directors. Delegates are expected to elect Dr. Pritt by unanimous consent.
Dr. Pritt is director of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in the Research Administration Department at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. In addition, she is the American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners delegate to the HOD, president of the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative, and a member of the AVMA Political Action Committee Board.
Here, Dr. Pritt explains her reasons for running for the vice presidency and what she hopes to accomplish with veterinary students.
Why do you want to be AVMA vice president?
Today's veterinary students are the future of our profession. I can think of no higher honor than to serve in an elected position that represents the profession to those individuals.
What skills and experiences do you bring to the office?
I have had a unique set of experiences in my career, which provides me with a wonderful background from which to speak to students as they just start their own careers. After working in private practice for 3 1/2 years, I have held several positions at medical schools and research institutions. This has given me considerable practical experience in giving presentations, establishing strategies and policies, and collaborating with veterinarians and nonveterinarians alike. With graduate degrees in business and management and diplomate status in the American College of Animal Welfare, I have a deep understanding of the issues facing our profession. I have also maintained a significant level of involvement with the AVMA, the American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners, state veterinary medical associations, and several other professional associations for over a decade.
During my career, I have worked with veterinary students in a variety of capacities. From collaborating with students on committees and projects to being a mentor, giving career-based presentations, and delivering guest lectures, I have tremendously enjoyed all of my interactions with them.
Are there any particular areas you'd focus on as the AVMA's liaison to veterinary students?
The veterinary profession is full of opportunities. There are many opportunities for career choice, places to live, and participation in organized veterinary medicine. As the AVMA liaison to students, I will focus on those opportunities, what factors should play into career decisions, and how the AVMA is the association ready to assist and partner with them through all stages of their career.
As I discussed during my speech at the Candidates' Introductory Breakfast at the 2015 AVMA Annual Convention in Boston, the specific areas where I will be connecting with students are advocacy, educational quality, career opportunities, leadership development, economic issues, animal welfare, student loan debt, and wellness. These are all areas where the AVMA provides support for its members and students, and they directly feed into the choices of what work to pursue, where to live, and how to participate in organized veterinary medicine.
What would you do as AVMA vice president to increase the Association's value to veterinary students and new graduates?
Recently, the AVMA's mission statement changed to emphasize its value to its members. The mission of the AVMA is (in part) to “lead the profession by advocating for its members.” That sentiment needs to be the cornerstone of all communication with veterinary students and early-career veterinarians. The AVMA is here to help, support, and partner with its members and veterinary students.
Rather than presenting veterinary students with a portfolio of AVMA services and products, we need to approach students with the mechanisms employed by the AVMA that strengthen each member's career as well as the profession as a whole. I will emphasize the relevance of the AVMA to students during their times in school and then postgraduate career. All of the previously mentioned areas for connection are vitally important to every student, and they need to know what the AVMA is doing in each.
What are your thoughts on the continuing expansion of veterinary schools?
Veterinary medical education is changing. Since many of the changes are very recent, it is hard to gauge the impact right now. As a veterinarian who is profoundly interested in the health of our profession and the development of veterinary students into wonderful veterinarians, I see where the expansion can lead to increased career opportunities for veterinarians as well as practice readiness for new graduates. Time will tell how the expansion and adjustments made to the existing educational models will affect veterinary medicine as a whole, but the AVMA must be prepared to adjust and remain relevant.
What, if anything, can the AVMA do to alleviate the debt-to-income ratio for recent veterinary graduates?
The AVMA has made tremendous strides in quantitatively evaluating the economic state of affairs for the profession, practice owners, new graduates, and veterinary students. However, that evaluation only spans a short period of time, and longer-term data are needed in order to continue to project the influence student loan debt will have on veterinary medicine in the United States. And gathering data is only one component of the AVMA's undertakings on this topic. AVMA staff and leaders have dedicated themselves to educating the profession and veterinary students about how to make better financial decisions. The AVMA also staunchly supports government programs that provide student loan debt assistance or relief. Most recently, the AVMA was a major contributor to a summit on educational debt. As a participant in that summit, I again saw AVMA staff and leaders contributing ideas and actions to strategies that could help decrease the debt-to-income ratio. I would like to see more creativity from all interested parties when tackling this issue, such as encouraging the exploration of lucrative career paths and working with veterinary college faculty to improve processes in order to decrease costs.
Considering that approximately 80 percent of all U.S. veterinary college graduates are female, more information about the gender wage gap for women in veterinary medicine must also be created and distributed. Veterinary medicine is not the only occupation to have a gap, but we are a small and intense group of professionals that should be able to dedicate resources to closing and eliminating the gap.
What does a more diverse veterinary profession mean to you, and what should the AVMA's involvement be in that?
Veterinary medicine has been called the “whitest profession.” That should concern anyone worried about the ability of veterinarians to relate to clients and our society. I have a very broad definition of diversity, and I believe that all professions grow and thrive on diversity, whether it is ethnic, geographic, socioeconomic, sexual orientation/identity, educational, or something else. Without diversity, we lose ideas and perspectives that help us overcome challenges and achieve growth. The AVMA needs to be a key player in encouraging and welcoming all individuals from all backgrounds and walks of life into veterinary medicine. Active engagement with nongovernmental organizations interested in increasing diversity in (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields, collaboration with the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' diversity efforts, and increased staff support to provide education and address member concerns as well as student needs are some of the many ways that the AVMA can be involved in creating a more diverse profession.
What advice would you offer the next AVMA CEO in terms of how the Association can demonstrate its value to veterinary students and new graduates?
As I mentioned earlier, relevancy is key, and it is imperative that the next AVMA CEO focus on the relevancy of the AVMA to veterinary students and veterinarians. This means relevancy in the AVMA's strategic plan and activities, products and services, policies and educational materials, governance structure and leadership development activities, and communication channels.
Are there any other issues you want to discuss?
Yes, there are two other items I would like to discuss.
April 19, 2016, marked the first national Biomedical Research Awareness Day. Twenty veterinary schools and hundreds of veterinary students participated in celebrations and lectures, all dedicated to the importance of animal and human health research. Activities such as these serve a vital role in highlighting the importance of animals in society and the role of veterinary medicine. Through programs like BRAD, veterinary schools generate career path ideas for students and support for lifesaving research for animals and humans.
Over the past two years, much has been said about the wellness and mental health status of veterinarians and veterinary students. While the AVMA and other groups are working on providing assistance and solutions to help tackle the concerns, we have a long way to go. I encourage all veterinarians and veterinary students to learn about the research in this area, gather a deeper understanding of wellness and mental health, and talk about these concerns with colleagues. Communication between colleagues and students and the sharing of experiences to provide guidance and encouragement are essential elements for improving the well-being of all members of our profession.
Aug. 15 is Check the Chip Day
The AVMA and the American Animal Hospital Association are marking Check the Chip Day on Aug. 15 to encourage pet owners to have pets microchipped and to keep the registration information up to date with the microchip manufacturer. With support from microchip manufacturer HomeAgain, the associations have developed materials to promote the event.
One resource is a flier that allows a veterinarian to fill in a pet's name, microchip number, and date of check. The flier lists the websites of microchip manufacturers that participate in the AAHA Universal Pet Microchip Lookup Tool as well as the tool's website, www.petmicrochiplookup.org. The tool helps pet owners who do not know where a pet's microchip is registered.
Members of the AVMA also have access to a toolkit for Check the Chip Day. The toolkit offers stressfree ways to observe the event, posts and images for social media, a sample proclamation for a town's mayor or state's governor, and a sample press release.
Information and resources are available at www.avma.org/checkthechip.
Donate books, journals, and supplies
Veterinarians and students in foreign countries can make use of the unused textbooks, journals, instruments, equipment, and other supplies cluttering many veterinary clinics in the United States.
The AVMA maintains a list of individuals and organizations that collect contributions for various countries. The list is available at http://jav.ma/donate-books. Potential donors should call or email contacts on the list directly.
Individuals or organizations that collect contributions may inquire about being added to the list or updating their listing by calling 800-248-2862, ext. 6754, or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
AVMA considers revising policy on free-roaming, owned cats
The AVMA House of Delegates will consider a resolution to revise the AVMA policy “Free-roaming, Owned Cats” during its regular annual session, Aug. 4–5 in San Antonio.
The AVMA Animal Welfare Committee proposed the revisions as part of the five-year policy review cycle, and the AVMA Board of Directors referred the proposal to the House with a recommendation for approval.
The revised policy would expand on the current policy. The proposed policy reads as follows:
“The AVMA encourages veterinarians to educate clients and the public about the risks associated with allowing cats free-roam access to the outdoors. Keeping owned cats confined, such as housing them in an enriched indoor environment, in an outdoor enclosure, or exercising leash-acclimated cats, can minimize the risks to the cat, wildlife, humans, and the environment.
“Free-roaming cats may have a reduced life span and be exposed to injury, suffering, and death from vehicles; attacks from other animals; euthanasia; human cruelty; poisons; traps; and weather extremes.
“The natural hunting behavior of free-roaming cats results in wildlife species being pursued, injured, and killed. This behavior negatively impacts the prey animal's welfare, and may have a negative effect on native wildlife populations and contribute to ecosystem disruption. Free-roaming increases the cat's exposure to infectious, parasitic, and zoonotic disease.
“Microchipping facilitates the return of a lost cat to its owner. In addition, owners allowing their cats to roam freely may be in violation of local laws if the cat is not confined to its yard or walked with harness and leash.”
The statement about the resolution reads as follows:
“The policy was revised with consideration given to impacts on the welfare of freely roaming, owned cats, as well as the potential impact of these cats on wildlife and ecosystems.
“Acknowledging the history of this policy and revisions to it that have occurred over time, the revision is intended to respect concerns previously expressed about the policy's impact on the keeping of ‘barn cats.’ The proposed revisions support the policy's long-time focus on veterinarians educating clients and the public about the risks associated with allowing cats free-roam access to the outdoors, with the addition of potential risk mitigation strategies.
“Great effort was made to avoid being prescriptive. Instead options for management are provided, which veterinarians can choose to recommend based on their patients and communities. The suggested revisions address the importance of education related to the welfare of the cats themselves (risks associated with indoor and outdoor habitats and mitigation strategies for both), as well as the predator risks posed by freely roaming cats.
“The proposed revised policy represents a consensus statement with significant input from both the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) and the Association of Avian Veterinarians (AAV).”
AVMA persuades Petco to adjust ads' messaging
A recent advertising campaign by Petco raised the hackles of veterinarians after it touted a 7-Point Pet Care Check by groomers. The AVMA, after hearing concerns from members, reached out to the company and since then has come to an agreement that Petco will clarify the message to promote veterinary care.
On May 17, the national pet retailer launched the campaign in support of its wellness and grooming offerings at local stores. The campaign includes a new television spot highlighting the company's 7-Point Pet Care Check. In addition to “pet stylists,” or groomers, asking owners about their pet's age, activity level, diet, any health concerns, current vaccinations, and any medications their pet may be on, “the 7-Point Pet Care Check is designed to assess the pet from nose to tail, making sure every pet appears healthy on the outside and also visually looking to identify any possible issues pet parents may need to address with a veterinarian,” according to a company press release. This involves groomers looking at the pet's eyes, ears, nose, mouth and teeth, paw pads, skin and coat, and underside for odors, irritation, or other “warning signs” that may signal health issues.
Soon after the advertisements debuted online and on television, the American Association of Veterinary State Boards sent a message to its member boards via email to make them aware of the advertisement. James T. Penrod, executive director of the AAVSB, said the association has received several replies that state boards of veterinary medicine would be reviewing the advertisement at their next scheduled meeting.
In addition, the AVMA heard concerns from members about the ads, specifically that anything out of the ordinary discovered during a pet's grooming visit should be assessed by a veterinarian and treated as necessary. AVMA staff and Petco leadership met May 26 to come to a better understanding about the company's messaging.
“Petco has assured us that appropriate and timely referral for veterinary services is a key pillar of training for their grooming staff in implementing Petco's new 7 Point Pet Care Check. Unfortunately, that message did not come through clearly in Petco's advertising campaign. Petco and the AVMA agree that grooming visits are not a substitute for routine checkups and preventive care provided by veterinarians. Petco recognizes there is an opportunity to clarify the message and is working with the AVMA on how best to accomplish that,” according to a May 27 post on the AVMA@Work blog at http://atwork.avma.org.
Already, Petco has adjusted information on its website and the campaign's YouTube videos with the disclaimer “The 7-Point Pet Care Check is not a substitute for regular examinations and care from a licensed veterinarian.”
The AVMA was also told that the pet retailer will incorporate appropriate messaging for its television commercials, but because of complexities associated with that format, it may take longer to accomplish.
“In addition to addressing current concerns, Petco has expressed interest in working with the AVMA to collaboratively promote the importance of veterinary care, both therapeutic and preventive, to the pet service-consuming public. Accordingly, our conversation appears to have not only raised awareness and resulted in steps to address current concerns, but has opened the door to future opportunities to protect the good health of our veterinary patients,” the blog post reads.
Notifications available for equine disease outbreaks
Horse owners, veterinarians, and other equine industry stakeholders can be alerted to infectious disease outbreaks and updates through an email notification system recently implemented by the Equine Disease Communication Center. So far, the site has posted about 195 alerts since going live in 2014; 90 of those alerts were since the first of this year. The aim is to mitigate the health, welfare, and economic implications of these events for U.S. horses and the industry as a whole.
The center's Outbreak Alert email service, which began in earnest earlier this year, advises subscribers when an infectious disease outbreak is confirmed or there is an update, such as when a quarantine has been lifted. About 900 subscribers had signed up as of the end of May.
The EDCC website, located at www.equinediseasecc.org, aims to get information out as soon as an outbreak has been confirmed by diagnostic testing or, in the case of reportable diseases, has been reported. “The state animal health officials and (Department of Agriculture) animal health officials have been fantastic about reporting to us as soon as they have the information, so we can often post an alert the same day as diagnostic confirmation,” said Bailey McCallum, the center's communication manager.
The website also includes comprehensive information concerning diseases, vaccinations, and biosecurity as well as contact information for state veterinarians' offices. Alerts and other information are also posted on the EDCC's Facebook and Twitter accounts. The EDCC is based in Lexington, Kentucky, at the American Association of Equine Practitioners' headquarters, with website and call center hosting provided by the United States Equestrian Federation.
“Creation of the Equine Disease Communication Center has been a true partnership of all segments of the equine industry,” said Dr. Nathaniel A. White II, a former AAEP president who has worked on the project from its beginning in 2012. “EDCC operations have increased as support has steadily grown with needed funding from all parts of the horse community.”
Donors and volunteers representing all areas of the equine community support the Equine Disease Communication Center activities and functions, which are facilitated through the AAEP Foundation.
Research distinguishes between injuries from accidents, abuse
In dogs and cats, blunt force trauma causes different types of injuries depending on whether the trauma is accidental, according to research from Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
The findings may help veterinarians distinguish accidental injuries from animal abuse because owners of abused animals often report a cause that differs from the actual cause. Motor vehicle accidents, for instance, are often falsely cited when it's abuse that caused skeletal injuries. The study compared records from 50 criminal cases of abuse provided by the ASPCA with records of 426 cases of motor vehicle accidents from the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at the Cummings school.
Abused animals generally had more head injuries and rib fractures as well as tooth fractures and claw damage. Pets involved in motor vehicle accidents tended to suffer skin abrasions or injuries involving tearing of the skin from underlying tissue, lung collapse and bruising, and hind end injury, the last possibly as a result of running away from a moving vehicle.
A clear difference in rib fracture patterns was found, with abuse injuries generally causing fractures on both sides of the body, while rib fractures caused by motor vehicle accidents tended to appear on only one side of the body, with the ribs closer to the head more likely to be fractured. Evidence of older fractures was more likely to be found in victims of nonaccidental injury.
The Journal of Forensic Science published “Characterization and comparison of injuries caused by accidental and non-accidental blunt force trauma in dogs and cats” online ahead of the September print edition. The study is available at http://jav.ma/dogcattrauma.
Nov. 3 is One Health Day
Day aims to raise awareness about multidisciplinary concept
Three international one-health organizations have partnered to make this Nov. 3 the first One Health Day.
The One Health Commission, One Health Initiative team, and One Health Platform encourage individuals and groups worldwide to mark Nov. 3 by implementing one-health projects and hosting special events under the auspices of One Health Day. Projects should highlight the benefits of using transdisciplinary approaches to complex challenges involving animals, people, and planetary ecosystems.
Participants should register their event at www.onehealthday.org and use the guidelines on the site to plan their event. Student groups from all disciplines are encouraged to participate and will have the option of competing for cash prizes and global recognition.
“It is anticipated that emerging projects will focus on many of the arenas under the One Health umbrella including worldwide public health issues such as emerging/reemerging zoonotic infectious diseases, comparative medicine research including cancer, heart disease, orthopedic diseases and the inextricable interactions between animal, environmental and human health,” said Dr. Cheryl Stroud, executive director of the One Health Commission, in an announcement.
One health is a movement to forge collaborations in research and applied sciences among human and veterinary health care providers, social scientists, dentists, nurses, agriculturalists and food producers, wildlife and environmental health specialists, and those in other related disciplines.
In 2010, the World Bank recognized the benefits of a one-health approach in disease prevention, public health, and global security.
“Many prominent scientists, physicians, veterinarians, and other significant health professionals are endorsing the One Health concept,” explained Laura Kahn, MD, co-founder of the One Health Initiative team, in the announcement.
“The One Health approach is being increasingly accepted by numerous major international health oriented organizations such as the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, the World Veterinary Association, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, the World Organization for Animal Health, and many others. An outstanding group of One Health textbooks and international professional One Health journals have emerged,” Dr. Kahn said.
Its proponents say one health, with its transdisciplinary collaborations, can accelerate biomedical research in fields at the interface of many disciplines, improving medical education and clinical care. Properly implemented, one health can help sustain biodiversity, protect the planet, and save millions of lives. “Recent global disease events, like the outbreaks of Ebola, MERS and Zika, have underpinned the increasing impacts of zoonotic diseases on human and animal health. It has also become clear that changes in the environment, like population growth and climate change, are drivers for the emergence of such zoonoses,” said Dr. Ab Osterhaus, chair of the One Health Platform.
Additional information about the first One Health Day is available at www.onehealthday.org.
Disease cost data may improve disease control
By Greg Cima
Global animal health authorities will try to help countries improve their accounting of the costs of animal diseases and their prevention.
Such economic data could be used to justify spending on animal health and welfare, despite pressure on government budgets.
Lack of data is an important barrier to these types of economic analyses, and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) will advocate for methods to better measure the scale of losses. That will include recommending that veterinarians' initial training incorporate understanding of the economic aspects of animal health and welfare, establishing pilot projects for estimating the economic impacts of animal diseases and the costs of operating national veterinary services, and investing in countries' animal disease reporting systems.
Delegates to the OIE General Session, May 22–27 in Paris, voted to endorse those policies on the basis of findings in the report “The economics of animal health: direct and indirect costs of animal disease outbreaks,” which includes results of surveys of veterinary services from 118 of the OIE's 180 member countries.
The two authors from the Royal Veterinary College in London, Jonathan Rushton, PhD, and Will Gilbert, wrote that animal diseases cause major economic losses, and data on production losses and the costs of interventions could pave the way for letting economics guide decisions on improving animal health and welfare. The report notes that discussions on the economic impacts of diseases had increased in part because of the effects of foot-and-mouth disease, highly pathogenic avian influenza, and classical swine fever, among other diseases, as well as rising pressure on public-sector budgets and the need to present “business cases” for animal health investments.
The report describes a lack of data despite participation from almost two-thirds of OIE member countries.
For example, countries provided cost information on 128 of 358 major animal disease outbreaks since 2000, but the total cost of $12 billion was skewed by a single transmissible spongiform encephalopathy outbreak costing $7 billion. The authors also noted a lack of responses from countries with known avian influenza outbreaks.
Attempts to quantify the impacts of endemic transboundary diseases yielded no useful data, according to the report.
The survey also yielded limited data quantifying the effects of animal diseases on trade and national economies.
The survey responses indicated many areas of the world have limited access to individuals with formal education in managing animal disease, the report states. Half of countries provided the costs of veterinary services, and they showed wide variation on investment per animal.
“Both these items of data indicate a general weakness that animal health professionals and economists need to explore further in order to provide guidance on the numbers of animal health professionals and financial investments required per livestock unit,” the report states.
OIE to develop global standards on antimicrobial use
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) officials want standardized controls on antimicrobial sales and use, with use supervised by animal health officials.
Delegates from the organization adopted those principles in late May as part of a strategy to reduce the threats posed by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. The delegates met in Paris for the organization's 84th General Session.
A report presented at the meeting, “Combatting antimicrobial resistance through a One Health approach: actions and OIE strategy,” indicates OIE officials plan to continue efforts to harmonize standards on legislation, guidance, and surveillance on antimicrobial use as well as continue efforts to train and educate animal health professionals, collect information on antimicrobial use and resistance, and maintain antimicrobial availability in veterinary medicine.
The report indicates antimicrobial resistance is a “whole-of-society” problem that requires equal engagement as a primary concern in human and animal health.
OIE officials hope to overcome challenges such as lack of veterinary service capacities in some countries, poor implementation of antimicrobial use standards, and lack of access to safe and effective antimicrobials.
Accreditation status remains uncertain for Arizona
New target date for opening is fall 2017
By Malinda Larkin
The University of Arizona Marley Foundation Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Program announced May 31 that it would postpone its plans to open its doors until fall 2017. The move comes as the AVMA Council on Education, the accreditor of veterinary colleges, reviews the report from a COE site team that visited Arizona. The university's proposed School of Veterinary Medicine cannot admit students without a letter of reasonable assurance of accreditation.
This is the second time the program has delayed its anticipated timeline since its creation in 2012. At that time, the institution anticipated opening in fall 2015. The first setbacks came when the Arizona state legislature twice denied funding for the program after requests by the university's board of regents in 2012 and 2013. Regardless, UA started the process to seek COE accreditation when the School of Veterinary Medicine conducted a feasibility study in 2013 and asked that year for a consultative site visit from the COE; the visit took place Jan. 13–15, 2014. Arizona then filed a letter of application with the COE in 2014, seeking a letter of reasonable assurance of accreditation. Also that year, the Kemper and Ethel Marley Foundation stepped in with a $9 million gift to get the program off the ground, creating the Marley Foundation Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Program. In 2015, with the COE's schedule for site visits already at capacity, the veterinary school delayed its projected opening until fall 2016.
A council site team traveled to Tucson, Arizona, for a comprehensive site visit Jan. 24–28 of this year. That visit is the final step before the council makes an accreditation decision, which could have happened for UA at the March 20–22 COE meeting. However, the council has a policy that decisions arising from site visits that occur less than 90 days prior to the next scheduled COE meeting will usually be deferred to the following meeting. The council next meets Sept. 25–27.
After its spring meeting, the COE released the following statement: “The report of the site team is under review by the Council and in accordance with the Accreditation Policies and Procedures of the AVMA Council on Education, the Council's decision on a Letter of Reasonable Assurance will be posted on the public section of the AVMA website within 30 days of the final decision,” likely at http://jav.ma/coepublicnotice.
Then the veterinary school announced in the May 31 email that instead of opening the program this fall, it would wait until it has a definitive decision from the COE, with the new target to open the program's doors in fall 2017. Information on tuition and fees is expected to be available in spring 2017.
“We have proposed a major paradigm shift in how future veterinary medical practitioners will learn and we expect the AVMA Council on Education will be diligent in review, in part because of the innovations we propose,” according to the letter by Dr. Shane C. Burgess, interim dean of the veterinary school.
Reasonable assurance does not confer accreditation but is a first step toward earning provisional accreditation and, ultimately, accreditation. The classification means the developing college has demonstrated that it has a realistic plan for complying with COE standards. A college granted reasonable assurance must offer admission to its first class of students and matriculate them within three years.
The plan for the UA program—a sort of hybrid between the European and Caribbean veterinary college models—is to allow students who have met the prerequisites and have a sufficiently high GPA to directly enter a two-semester pre-professional program at the main campus without needing an undergraduate degree.
From there, students would apply for acceptance into the three-year, year-round School of Veterinary Medicine. Those who are not selected on their first application for the DVM professional program could pursue an undergraduate degree at UA or reapply the following year. Students who have an undergraduate degree and at least a 3.0 GPA could earn a master's in animal and biomedical industries and also could reapply.
On the basis of UA preveterinary enrollment, the university anticipates 500 students will be qualified to enter the pre-professional, first-year curriculum. It plans to select up to 100 of those students for the remaining three-year veterinary curriculum.
Six of the nine semesters of the veterinary school would be taken at the university's Oro Valley campus, about 6 miles north of Tucson. Following the six-semester preclinical program, students would spend 48 weeks of distributive clinical rotations at satellite facilities, private practices, and related industries around the state.
The Arizona state legislature recently approved, in its fiscal year 2017 budget, $8 million for renovations at the Oro Valley facility. Work is anticipated to begin in July and to be finished in time for the first veterinary students to occupy it in 2018. The site also will support UA's one-health efforts.
In the May 31 letter about the veterinary school's postponement, Dr. Burgess wrote, “Thanks to funding from the state of Arizona, we can use the time and the funding to create a spectacular One Health facility for the education of next-generation veterinarians and the research and prevention of human and animal diseases.”
Calgary selects its second dean
Dr. Baljit Singh has been named as dean of the University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, effective Sept. 1. The announcement was made in an April 20 letter by Provost Dru Marshall, who called Dr. Singh “an innovative and well-respected leader.”
Prior to joining Calgary, Dr. Singh had served as associate dean of research at the University of Saskatchewan since 2011.
He received his master's of veterinary science from Punjab Agricultural University in Punjab, India; a doctorate from the University of Guelph; and postdoctoral training at Texas A&M University and at Columbia University in New York City.
Dr. Singh's research has focused on cell and molecular biology of lung inflammation. In 2013, he was named a fellow of the American Association of Anatomists.
Dr. Singh succeeds Dr. Alastair E. Cribb, who completed his term as the veterinary school's inaugural dean June 30.
Dr. Cribb earned his DVM degree in 1984 from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Following an internship and two years in mixed practice in the Canadian Maritimes, he obtained his doctorate in pharma-cogenetics/clinical pharmacology at the University of Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1991. Dr. Cribb followed this with a Medical Research Council postdoctoral fellowship at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 1996, he joined the University of Prince Edward Island Atlantic Veterinary College as a professor of clinical pharmacology. He accepted the position of Calgary's dean in May 2006.
Calgary's veterinary school was established in 2005, and in 2008, 34 students entered its inaugural class. In October 2012, the institution was awarded full accreditation for seven years by the AVMA Council on Education, becoming the fifth and most recent Canadian veterinary program with that designation.
Calgary was one of the first in North America to use the distributed model of education in veterinary education. Students engage in off-campus learning activities in all semesters, with most of their fourth year spent working with veterinarians from the province of Alberta and the Distributed Veterinary Learning Community, comprising private and public practices as well as federal and provincial agencies.
The school also has research programs across the range of veterinary and comparative biomedical sciences. Areas of strength include cattle health, disease ecology, infectious diseases, pain and animal welfare, equine health, reproduction and regenerative medicine, and veterinary education.
In 2015, the veterinary school had approximately 70 faculty members, 125 veterinary students, 12 advanced clinical trainees, and 100 graduate students.
Obituaries: AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember
Gordon A. Andrews
Dr. Andrews (Oklahoma State ′84), 62, Manhattan, Kansas, died Jan. 17, 2016. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, he was a professor and anatomical pathologist at the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine for more than 20 years. Early in his career, Dr. Andrews practiced small animal medicine in Stratford, New Jersey. He was active with the Midwest Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians.
Dr. Andrews' wife, Mary Anne, and two daughters survive him. Memorials toward KTWU (Kansas Public Television) or Habitat for Humanity may be made c/o Yorgensen-Meloan-Londeen Funeral Home, 1616 Poyntz Ave., Manhattan, KS 66502.
David W. Baxter
Dr. Baxter (Texas A&M ′75), 63, Tyler, Texas, died March 15, 2016. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Holt Veterinary Clinic in Dallas from 1983 until retirement in 2012. Earlier, Dr. Baxter served as an associate veterinarian at the clinic. He was a board member of the Dallas Emergency Animal Clinic. Dr. Baxter is survived by his wife, Dr. Karen F. Stallman-Baxter (Texas A&M ′76), and three daughters. One daughter, Dr. Victoria K. Baxter (Texas A&M ′10), is a veterinarian in Baltimore. Memorials toward the Holt Veterinary Clinic Scholarship honoring David W. Baxter, DVM, may be made to the Texas A&M Foundation, Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, c/o Dr. O.J. Woytek, Director of Development, 4461 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843.
Carl D. Bird Jr.
Dr. Bird (Georgia ′58), 87, Covington, Virginia, died March 8, 2016. He practiced in Petersburg, Virginia, for 30 years. Dr. Bird was a member of the Virginia VMA and Rotary Club. His wife, Laura; two sons and two daughters; and eight grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the American Veterinary Medical Foundation, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Schaumburg, IL 60173, or Ritch Patch Union Church, c/o Colleen Young, 1401 Woodlawn St., Clifton Forge, VA 24422.
Edwin E. Blaisdell
Dr. Blaisdell (Cornell ′52), 88, North Haverhill, New Hampshire, died Dec. 23, 2015. He practiced mixed and exotic animal medicine in North Haverhill and surrounding areas for 56 years prior to retirement in 2008. Dr. Blaisdell was a past president of the North Haverhill Fair and was active with the North Haverhill Fire Department and Haverhill Historical Society. In 2008, the New Hampshire Farm and Forest Exposition honored him with the Andrew L. Felker Award for promoting and advancing agriculture in the state. Dr. Blaisdell was a veteran of the Navy. He is survived by six children, 23 grandchildren, and several great-grandchildren.
Charles M. Cocanougher
Dr. Cocanougher (Texas A&M ′55), 84, Decatur, Texas, died March 25, 2016. A mixed animal veterinarian, he established a practice in Decatur following graduation. Dr. Cocanougher subsequently served as a captain in the Air Force before returning to veterinary practice. He also established a mobile home park and a self-storage business that he continued to manage after retiring from veterinary medicine.
Dr. Cocanougher served on the Texas VMA board of directors and the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences Development Council. In 2010, the college recognized him with the Outstanding Alumnus Award. He was a past president and rodeo secretary of the Wise County Sheriff's Posse, helped establish the Decatur Public Library, and served as a city councilman for Decatur. He was also a past president of the Decatur Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Decatur Rotary Club. In 1985, Dr. Cocanougher was named Decatur Citizen of the Year. He is survived by his wife, Jo Ann; two sons and three daughters; 11 grandchildren; and a great-grandchild.
Matthew R. Ellis
Dr. Ellis (Virginia-Maryland ′01), 43, Blacksburg, Virginia, died Feb. 8, 2016. He was veterinarian-in-charge at Mountain View Humane in Roanoke, Virginia. Dr. Ellis is survived by his partner, Erin Ross, and two children. Memorials may be made to the Waldron-Ricci Spay Neuter Clinic, 53 B W. Main St., Christiansburg, VA 24073.
Terrance D. Funke
Dr. Funke (Kansas State ′75), 64, Osborne, Kansas, died Dec. 21, 2015. He practiced mixed animal medicine in Osborne for 35 years. Dr. Funke's two sons, two daughters, and six grandchildren survive him. Memorials toward the Osborne County 4-H Council or Solomon Valley Transportation may be sent c/o Domoney Funeral Home, P.O. Box 127, Downs, KS 67437.
Nathan H. Gabbert
Dr. Gabbert (Washington State ′63), 79, Green Valley, Arizona, died March 21, 2016. He was an associate professor of veterinary medicine at the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine prior to retirement. Dr. Gabbert was known for his expertise in Greyhound sports medicine and was involved with several research projects sponsored by the Kansas Racing Commission. Early in his career, he served in the Air Force for four years and practiced in Orange County, California. Dr. Gabbert was a diplomate of the American Board of Veterinary Practitioners. His wife, Helen; two sons; and four grandchildren survive him.
Jorg H. Hoogeweg
Dr. Hoogeweg (Illinois ′58), 95, Hazel Crest, Illinois, died April 13, 2016. He began his career working as an associate veterinarian in Chicago and Chicago Heights, Illinois. In 1965, Dr. Hoogeweg established Markham Animal Clinic in Markham, Illinois, where he practiced small animal medicine for more than 30 years. A life member of the Chicago VMA, he served on its Judicial Committee for several years. Dr. Hoogeweg was a member of the Lions Club and received the Good Neighbor Award from the village of Hazel Crest in 1993. His wife, Carolyn; a son and two daughters; and nine grandchildren survive him. Dr. Hoogeweg's son, Dr. Frank Hoogeweg (Illinois ′81), owns Cedar Way Veterinary Clinic in New Lenox, Illinois. His daughter Dr. Heidi Hoogeweg-Mirusky (Illinois ′83) owns Markham Animal Clinic.
Memorials toward the College of Veterinary Medicine may be made to the University of Illinois Foundation, Harker Hall, 1305 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, or Faith Lutheran Church, 18645 Dixie Highway, Homewood, IL 60430.
Anthony H. Kiesler
Dr. Kiesler (Ohio State ′59), 87, Clarksville, Indiana, died April 8, 2016. In 1968, he established Kiesler Animal Clinic in Edwardsville, Indiana, where he practiced mixed animal medicine until retirement in 2002. Earlier in his career, Dr. Kiesler worked in Illinois for several years. He was a member of the Indiana VMA and a veteran of the Army.
Dr. Kiesler is survived by his wife, Judith; seven children; 18 grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren. Memorials may be made to St. Anthony of Padua Catholic Church, 316 N. Sherwood Ave., Clarksville, IN 47129, or New Albany-Floyd County Animal Shelter, 215 W. Market St., New Albany, IN 47150.
Merle P. Lockwood
Dr. Lockwood (Iowa State ′59), 87, Charles City, Iowa, died March 23, 2016. He was attending veterinarian at Solvay Animal Health in Charles City prior to retirement in the mid-1990s. In retirement, Dr. Lockwood became a master forester and managed a tree farm in Iowa's Allamakee County. Earlier in his career, he owned a mixed animal practice in Winfield, Iowa, for six years and co-owned Skyline Harvestore in Charles City for several years. Dr. Lockwood was an Army veteran of the Korean War and a member of the American Legion. He was also a member of the Elks Lodge.
Dr. Lockwood's wife, Helen; two daughters and a son; seven grandchildren; and seven great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Floyd County Izaak Walton League, P.O. Box 41, Charles City, IA 50616.
Allen Y. Miyahara
Dr. Miyahara (Iowa State ′54), 88, Honolulu, died April 2, 2016. Vice president of the AVMA from 1995–1997, he did consulting for several veterinary pharmaceutical companies, including The Upjohn Company, Norden Laboratories, and Fort Dodge Laboratories, during the latter part of his career. Following graduation, Dr. Miyahara served in the Army Veterinary Corps for two years. He then practiced small animal medicine at Blue Cross Animal Hospital in Honolulu for a year and worked for the Hawaii Department of Agriculture in meat inspection and veterinary pathology from 1957–1969. Dr. Miyahara subsequently joined the University of Hawaii-Manoa, where he remained until retirement in 1982. During his tenure at the university, he was a professor in the College of Agriculture and served as extension veterinarian, also helping to establish the preveterinary student program.
Active in organized veterinary medicine, Dr. Miyahara was instrumental in organizing the Honolulu Veterinary Society and served as president in 1965. He was also a past president of the Hawaii VMA, having served as its delegate to the AVMA House of Delegates for several years, and was a past vice chair of the Hawaii Board of Veterinary Examiners.
Dr. Miyahara spent the better part of his career forging ties with veterinarians worldwide to strengthen the veterinary profession and in 1999 was named the AVMA ambassador for Pacific Rim development for the 2006 AVMA Annual Convention in Hawaii. He was active with the Federation of Asian Veterinary Associations and helped introduce the concept of the human-animal bond in several Asian countries. Dr. Miyahara was a recipient of the AVMA President's Award in 2004, and, in 2006, he was awarded the AVMA Award for distinguished contributions to the advancement of veterinary organizations.
Dr. Miyahara was a member of the American Association of Avian Pathologists, American Association of Extension Veterinarians, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, and American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners. In 1974, the AAEV honored him with an award for excellence in communication.
He is survived by his wife, Sue.
Robert L. Poulson
Dr. Poulson (Colorado State ′46), 95, Bountiful, Utah, died Feb. 16, 2016. Following graduation, he owned a mixed animal practice in Tremonton, Utah, for 20 years. Dr. Poulson then served as assistant state veterinarian and livestock brand inspector until retirement. His wife, Barbara; three children; two grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren survive him.
Dean H. Smith
Dr. Smith (Washington State ′49), 93, Walla Walla, Washington, died May 3, 2016. He was Washington state veterinarian prior to retirement. Earlier, Dr. Smith served in the Army Veterinary Corps, was a member of the veterinary faculty at Oregon State University, farmed and ranched, was in private practice, and supervised programs in the animal health division of the Oregon Department of Agriculture. During his tenure at Oregon State University, he served as a Fulbright lecturer at Egypt's Cairo University. Dr. Smith is survived by two sons, two grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren.
Memorials toward the Dean H. Smith Excellence Fund at Washington State University or Alzheimer's Association may be made c/o Mountain View-Colonial DeWitt Cremations and Funeral Services, 1551 Dalles Military Road, Walla Walla, WA 99362.
Robert D. Snyder
Dr. Snyder (Colorado State ′54), 86, Grand Forks, North Dakota, died Nov. 25, 2015. He owned a large animal practice in Groton, South Dakota, prior to retirement. A past president of the Society for Theriogenology and South Dakota VMA, Dr. Snyder served on the AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents from 1988–1994. He was a member of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, American Association of Swine Veterinarians, and American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners. In 1987, Dr. Snyder was named South Dakota Veterinarian of the Year.
Active in the community, he was a past president of the Groton City Council, school board, and Kiwanis and a member of the Masonic Lodge. He was honored by the Groton Area Chamber of Commerce and Junior Chamber of Commerce in the 1960s. Dr. Snyder was an Army veteran of the Korean War, attaining the rank of first lieutenant. He was also a member of the American Legion. Dr. Snyder is survived by his wife, Carolyn; two sons and three daughters; and 16 grandchildren.
Roger N. Wiggins
Dr. Wiggins (Colorado State ′61), 78, Lafayette, California, died Jan. 23, 2016. He was the co-founder of Mount Diablo Veterinary Medical Center, a small animal practice in Lafayette. Dr. Wiggins served in the Army during the Vietnam War. His wife, Kathleen; five sons; and 10 grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the National Parkinson's Foundation, 200 SE 1st St., Suite 800, Miami, FL 33131, or St. Perpetua Catholic Church Building Fund, 3454 Hamlin Road, Lafayette, CA 94549.
Edward A. Williams
Dr. Williams (Michigan State ′61), 80, Lebanon, Connecticut, died March 9, 2016. He founded Manchester Animal Clinic in Manchester, Connecticut, in 1962. Dr. Williams also served as a consultant with the State of Connecticut Division of Special Revenue on the development of regulatory standards for the protection of racing Greyhounds. In 1989, he sold his practice and began a career consulting for and marketing veterinary practices with Professional Practice Sales. Dr. Williams was a past president of the Hartford County VMA, a past chair of the Connecticut VMA Ethics Committee, and a member of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. He served in the Connecticut National Guard and the Army Reserve and was a member of the finance and education boards in Hebron, Connecticut.
Dr. Williams is survived by his wife, Cheryl; two daughters and three sons; and a grandchild. Memorials may be made to Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Spartan Way, 535 Chestnut Road, Room 300, East Lansing, MI 48824, or American Cancer Society, P.O. Box 22478, Oklahoma City, OK 73123.
Raymond D. Wise
Dr. Wise (Purdue ′71), 68, Johnsburg, Illinois, died Feb. 9, 2016. A small animal veterinarian, he practiced at Scottsdale Animal Clinic in Chicago from 1975–1997 and worked in Burbank, Illinois, until 2007. Dr. Wise was a diplomate of the American Board of Veterinary Practitioners, a past president of the Chicago VMA, and a member of the Illinois State VMA. Dr. Wise's wife, Nancy, and two daughters survive him. Memorials may be made to Lewy Body Dementia Association, 912 Killian Hill Road SW #Can 103, Lilburn, GA 30047, or Journey Care Hospice, 405 Lake Zurich Road, Barrington, IL 60010.