In This Issue • May 1, 2016

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Veterinarians have a fragmented collection of mental health and addiction treatment options, a shortcoming some veterinary association executives are trying to correct. In other news, a pilot program in several states is inviting pet adopters to choose a private practitioner who will provide a free examination of a new pet.

See page 966

Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

See pages 995, 999

ECG of the Month

See page 1004

Pathology in Practice

See page 1009


How can veterinarians report animal abuse if they don't know who to report it to?

The processes for receiving and investigating reports of animal cruelty vary, often substantially, among states, counties, and even cities. This variation not only inhibits the ease with which veterinarians and other community members can file animal cruelty reports, but also hinders the possibility of gauging whether animal cruelty and mandated reporting laws are achieving the goals expected of them.

See page 992

Small Animals & Exotic

Magnetic resonance imaging for differentiation of acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and ischemic myelopathy in dogs

Dogs with ANNPE or ischemic myelopathy often have similar clinical signs; however, the etiopathogenesis of these 2 conditions differs substantially. Although MRI is the modality of choice for diagnosing ANNPE and ischemic myelopathy, little information is available on MRI findings that can be used to differentiate between them. In a study involving 20 dogs with clinical signs compatible with ANNPE (n = 14) or ischemic myelopathy (6), directional pattern and length of intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI images and enhancement patterns on postcontrast T1-weighted fat saturation sequences appeared to provide important contributions to differentiating ANNPE from ischemic myelopathy.

See page 1013

Prolonged intermittent virus shedding during an outbreak of canine influenza A H3N2 virus infection in dogs in three Chicago area shelters

Outbreaks of respiratory disease in dogs associated with the canine influenza A H3N2 virus have been reported in the United States since 2015. A 7-day isolation period has been recommended for dogs infected with the related canine influenza A H3N8 virus. However, evaluation of nasal swab specimens from 16 dogs naturally infected with the H3N2 virus revealed that the interval from first reported clinical signs to last positive assay results ranged from 15 to 26 days, and the virus could be isolated for 18 to 20 days after the first clinical signs. The authors recommend that dogs infected with H3N2 virus be isolated for a period of ≥ 21 days following onset of illness, even if clinical signs resolve before 21 days.

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Surgical management of maxillary and premaxillary osteomyelitis in a reticulated python

A 1-year-old reticulated python (Python reticulatus) was evaluated because of a 2-week history of wheezing and hissing. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral, focal, rostral maxillary osteomyelitis. Antimicrobial treatment and improved husbandry resulted in some improvement, but radiographic evaluation revealed progressive maxillary osteomyelitis. Bilateral partial maxillectomies were performed, followed by treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Four months later, follow-up radiography revealed premaxillary osteomyelitis, and premaxillectomy was subsequently performed. Resolution of osteomyelitis was confirmed by CT 11 months after the initial surgery.

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Heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, and cardiac biomarker values in horses during recovery after a long-distance endurance ride

For horses, endurance riding is a strenuous discipline resulting in known systemic effects. However, studies are lacking on heart rate variability and arrhythmia frequency during recovery after an endurance ride. A cross-sectional study of 28 Arabian horses competing in a 120- or 160-km endurance ride found that heart rate was significantly increased and the SD of normal R-R intervals was decreased during recovery, compared with the preride period. The frequency of ventricular premature complexes increased during recovery, albeit not significantly, whereas the frequency of supraventricular premature complexes did not. Additional studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings.

See page 1034


Humoral responses in sheep vaccinated with a killed-virus or modified-live virus vaccine against bluetongue virus serotype 17

Bluetongue virus serotype 17 periodically causes disease outbreaks in wildlife and sheep in Wyoming. A modified-live virus vaccine against BTV-17 is available, but is licensed for use only in California. Custom-made autogenous killed-virus vaccines can be used, but these vaccines can only be used in specified regions and new vaccines must be made every 2 years. In a randomized clinical trial in which humoral responses to MLV and KV vaccines were evaluated in 30 yearling crossbred ewes and 344 sheep from 7 Wyoming farms, both vaccines induced antibodies against BTV-17 that persisted for at least 1 year and provided passive immunity for lambs. Thus, either may be a viable option to protect sheep against disease.

See page 1043

Zoo Animals

Salmonella infection and carriage in reptiles in a zoological collection

A survey of reptiles housed at the Bronx Zoo found differences in the distribution of Salmonella serovars on the basis of sample type, reptile phylogenetic family, and reptile origin and health. Salmonella enterica subsp enterica was the most common subspecies and was identified across all reptilian taxa. Salmonella enterica subsp diarizonae was recovered almost exclusively from snakes, many of which had been clinically ill. Factors associated with an increased risk of illness in reptiles with a positive culture result were carnivorous diet and prior confiscation. Snakes had a higher risk of illness than other reptile groups, whereas lizards had a lower risk. Bony changes, dermatitis, and anorexia were the most common clinical signs.

See page 1050

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