• 1. Johnson KAPowers BEWithrow SJ, et al. Splenomegaly in dogs. Predictors of neoplasia and survival after splenectomy. J Vet Intern Med 1989;3:160166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Spangler WLKass PH. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:166171.

  • 3. Spangler WLCulbertson MR. Prevalence, type, and importance of splenic diseases in dogs: 1,480 cases (1985–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;200:829834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Day MJLucke VMPearson H. A review of pathological diagnoses made from 87 canine splenic biopsies. J Small Anim Pract 1995;36:426433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Mallinckrodt MJGottfried SD. Mass-to-splenic volume ratio and splenic weight as a percentage of body weight in dogs with malignant and benign splenic masses: 65 cases (2007–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:13251327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Hammond TNPesillo-Crosby SA. Prevalence of hemangiosarcoma in anemic dogs with a splenic mass and hemoperitoneum requiring a transfusion: 71 cases (2003–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232:553558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Wood CAMoore ASGilatto JM, et al. Prognosis for dogs with stage I or II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy alone: 32 cases (1991–1993). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998;34:417421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Aronsohn MGDubiel BRoberts B. Prognosis for acute nontraumatic hemoperitoneum in the dog: a retrospective analysis of 60 cases (2003–2006). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2009;45:7277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Rossi FLeone VFBignoli M, et al. Use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of focal splenic lesions. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2008;49:154164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. O'Keefe DACouto CG. Fine-needle aspiration of the spleen as an aid in the diagnosis of splenomegaly. J Vet Intern Med 1987;1:102109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Fife WDSamii VFDrost WT, et al. Comparison between malignant and nonmalignant splenic masses in dogs using contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2004;45:289297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Owen LN. TNM classification of tumors in domestic animals. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1980.

  • 13. Prymak CMcKee LJGoldschmidt MH, et al. Epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and prognostic characteristics of splenic hemangiosarcoma and splenic hematoma in dogs: 217 cases (1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988;193:706712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Cole PA. Association of canine splenic hemangiosarcomas and hematomas with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia or siderotic nodules. J Vet Diagn Invest 2012;24:759762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Kahn SAMullin CMLorimier LP, et al. Doxorubicin and deracoxib adjuvant therapy for canine splenic hemangiosarcoma: a pilot study. Can Vet J 2013;54:237242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Khalaj ABakhtiari JNiasari-Naslaji A. Comparison between single and three portal laparoscopic splenectomy in dogs. BMC Vet Res 2012;8:161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Brunt LMLanger JCQuasebarth MA, et al. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic versus open splenectomy. Am J Surg 1996;172:596601.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Collard FNadeau MECarmel EN. Laparoscopic splenectomy for treatment of splenic hemangiosarcoma in a dog. Vet Surg 2010;39:870872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Christensen NCanfield PJMartin PA, et al. Cytopathological and histopathological diagnosis of canine splenic disorders. Aust Vet J 2009;87:175181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Incidence of malignancy and outcomes for dogs undergoing splenectomy for incidentally detected nonruptured splenic nodules or masses: 105 cases (2009–2013)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Surgery, Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02130.
  • | 2 Department of Surgery, Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02130.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of malignancy and survival rates of dogs that underwent splenectomy for incidentally detected nonruptured splenic masses or nodules.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 105 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent splenectomy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2009 and 2013 were examined to identify patients with incidentally detected nonruptured splenic masses or nodules without associated hemoperitoneum. Only dogs with histologically confirmed diagnoses were included. Information regarding signalment, preoperative diagnostic tests, perioperative blood product transfusions, splenic mass diameter, histologic findings, adjunctive treatments, and survival time was collected and analyzed.

RESULTS 74 of 105 (70.5%) patients had benign splenic lesions and 31 (29.5%) had malignant neoplasia, most commonly hemangiosarcoma (18/31 [58%]). The hazard of death decreased as preoperative PCV increased; histopathologic diagnosis of malignant neoplasia was significantly associated with an increased hazard of death. Median life expectancy of dogs with benign and malignant lesions was 436 and 110 days, respectively; 41 of 74 patients with benign lesions and 3 of 31 patients with malignant neoplasia were still alive at study conclusion. Median life expectancy of dogs with hemangiosarcoma was 132 days; only 7 of these 18 dogs received any adjunctive chemotherapeutic treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Incidentally found, nonruptured splenic masses or nodules without associated hemoperitoneum were most commonly benign. Results suggested that life expectancy for these dogs with incidentally detected benign or malignant splenic lesions that received prompt intervention was better than has previously been reported for other studied populations.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of malignancy and survival rates of dogs that underwent splenectomy for incidentally detected nonruptured splenic masses or nodules.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 105 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent splenectomy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2009 and 2013 were examined to identify patients with incidentally detected nonruptured splenic masses or nodules without associated hemoperitoneum. Only dogs with histologically confirmed diagnoses were included. Information regarding signalment, preoperative diagnostic tests, perioperative blood product transfusions, splenic mass diameter, histologic findings, adjunctive treatments, and survival time was collected and analyzed.

RESULTS 74 of 105 (70.5%) patients had benign splenic lesions and 31 (29.5%) had malignant neoplasia, most commonly hemangiosarcoma (18/31 [58%]). The hazard of death decreased as preoperative PCV increased; histopathologic diagnosis of malignant neoplasia was significantly associated with an increased hazard of death. Median life expectancy of dogs with benign and malignant lesions was 436 and 110 days, respectively; 41 of 74 patients with benign lesions and 3 of 31 patients with malignant neoplasia were still alive at study conclusion. Median life expectancy of dogs with hemangiosarcoma was 132 days; only 7 of these 18 dogs received any adjunctive chemotherapeutic treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Incidentally found, nonruptured splenic masses or nodules without associated hemoperitoneum were most commonly benign. Results suggested that life expectancy for these dogs with incidentally detected benign or malignant splenic lesions that received prompt intervention was better than has previously been reported for other studied populations.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Cleveland's present address is Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, 10435 Sorrento Valley Rd, San Diego, CA 92121.

Address correspondence to Dr. Cleveland (dr.mcleveland@gmail.com).