Promoting the science and art of veterinary medicine

JAVMA aims to cover the broad scope of the veterinary profession

By Dr. Kurt J. Matushek


(Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

When the AVMA became incorporated in 1917, it listed as the object of the Association, “to protect and promote professional interests of the veterinarian; to elevate the standard of veterinary education; to procure the enactment and the enforcement of uniform laws and regulations relative to veterinary practice and the control of animal disease; to disseminate knowledge and to direct public opinion regarding the problems of animal hygiene; [and] to promote good fellowship in the profession.” Further, the AVMA indicated it would accomplish these objects by, among other things, publishing “a journal devoted to the purposes of said association and to the promotion of the science of veterinary medicine and surgery, which journal shall be called the ‘Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.’ “

As we celebrate the 100th anniversary of JAVMA, therefore, we see that the roots of the AVMA and JAVMA are inextricably intertwined. In fact, the American Veterinary Review, the predecessor of JAVMA, was originally established for the purpose of publishing scientific papers presented during the Association's semiannual meetings. When the AVMA acquired the Review in 1915, renaming it the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Association did so, at least in part, so that it would no longer have to publish its own separate volume of the proceedings of the AVMA meetings.


JAVMA's first issue came out in October 1915, which is why we are dedicating two issues to the Journal's 100th anniversary. The Oct. 1 issue focused on our coverage of veterinary news. The scientific side is showcased in this issue.

Finding purpose

The early years of JAVMA were somewhat bleak. Although the Journal did contain many more scientific reports than the Review had in its later years, much of each issue was taken up with installments of the AVMA proceedings, including reports from various AVMA committees and transcripts of the business sessions and the president's address. There was at least some sentiment that JAVMA was not being used to its full potential. Possibly, this may have been due to the rotating editorship during the Journal's early years. Dr. Pierre A. Fish was appointed the Journal's first editor in 1915 but left in 1918 to enter military service. Dr. William H. Dalrymple succeeded Dr. Fish but left after little more than a year because of failing health, and Dr. John Mohler took over the position. In 1920, AVMA President Charles Cary remarked that “Our frequent and sudden changes of Secretary and Editor have given us no stability or definitiveness of purpose.”

Finally, in 1923, the offices of AVMA executive secretary and editor were combined, with Dr. H. Preston Hoskins chosen to fill the combined position, and JAVMA entered a lengthy phase of growth and innovation. Dr. Hoskins was succeeded in 1939 by Dr. Louis A. Merillat, one of the most honored figures in American veterinary history and co-author (with Dr. Delwin M. Campbell) of the two-volume “Veterinary Military History.” In 1940, Dr. Merillat resigned as AVMA executive secretary so that he could focus on his duties as editor of the Journal, once again separating the offices of executive secretary and editor.

Diverse interests

From its beginning, the Journal focused on the most important scientific topics of the day, from hog cholera, tuberculosis, and infectious abortion during the early part of the 20th century to injection-site sarcomas, new anesthetic drugs and techniques, and advanced diagnostic imaging more recently. Early on, the editors recognized the difficulties associated with publishing a single journal devoted to the entire scope of the veterinary profession. An April 1939 editorial, for instance, lamented that “Since our profession is composed of a number of branches somewhat unrelated in their application, covering the entire scope to the pleasure of all concerned is a baffling undertaking.”

One way the editors worked to overcome this difficulty was by establishing sections of the Journal devoted to particular segments of the profession. In 1917, for instance, the Journal began publishing a section called “Army Veterinary Service,” which contained articles, reports, and letters specifically related to military service. More important, as indicated in a 1963 editorial, the editors made a commitment to “select articles so that each issue contains at least one article of interest and value to every member” and to “publish a balanced Association journal for a membership characterized by widely diverse skills and interests.”

Clinically relevant

Of great concern to the editors was publishing reports that reflected the latest scientific advances in the profession while still providing information of interest to practicing veterinarians. As the editors pointed out in 1940, “The so-called scientific article of today may and often is the practical one of tomorrow.” Still, calls have been heard throughout the years for more practical information. In the March 1940 issue, the Journal began publishing a new column titled “With the Editors,” which was intended to help readers understand how the scientific material in the Journal pertained to the everyday work of practicing veterinarians. Similarly, today's “In This Issue” feature is meant to summarize the contents of the Journal by providing, for each scientific article, information on what is currently known about the topic being discussed and what new material of clinical importance the article adds.

In a further nod to enhancing the practical value of the Journal, the editors have, over the years, developed a number of features meant to present information clinically relevant to various aspects of practice or to provide an opportunity to evaluate and interpret clinical findings for specific cases. The most iconic of these is surely the “What Is Your Diagnosis?” feature, which debuted in the December 1954 issue and which, although originally intended to run for only a few months, has appeared in the Journal ever since.

Next chapter

Throughout the 100 years of its existence, the Journal has provided a continuous record of the achievements and progress of the veterinary profession, and it is the editorial staff's intention to continue to do so for the next 100. In February 1940, following a reorganization of the Journal, the editors wrote that they received “a host of flattering inscriptions … in numbers sufficient to turn the heads of the editorial staff to an extent characteristic of the species.” They went on to say, however, that “the editorial staff of the Association is not permitting itself to believe that room for improvement is not still vast and necessary,” and while thanking the members for their complimentary remarks, commented that all they could provide in return “is the will to do better.”


The Journal has reported extensively over the years on scientific developments that impact practitioners. Pictured is a pit dug for the burial of cattle and hogs killed after being found to be infected with foot-and-mouth disease in late 1914 in Champaign County, Ohio.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


A March 1, 1956, article showed techniques for holding a dog to be given an epidural anesthetic.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


The staff of the 1939 AVMA Secretariat included Drs. H. Preston Hoskins (front left) and L.A. Merillat (front center). Dr. Merillat succeeded Dr. Hoskins as editor that year.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

That sentiment lives on. As the head of the editorial staff for the JAVMA, I am proud of all that the Journal has accomplished in the past 100 years. While pausing a bit to celebrate those accomplishments, however, I know that more can be done, and I look forward to the next chapter in the Journal's existence.

1915 – 1925

By Dr. Kurt J. Matushek

The earliest issues of JAVMA saw little difference from its predecessor, the American Veterinary Review. Most of the pages of these early issues were taken up with records of the AVMA's annual meeting, including speech transcripts, committee reports, lists of attendees, and lists of new members, or with reports of papers presented at the meeting. In a November 1915 editorial, however, Dr. Pierre A. Fish wrote that even though the new journal would publish proceedings of the Association's meeting, “there must be space for contributions if the periodical is to be a Journal in fact as well as name” and went on to state that “It will be our aim to strike a happy medium in this respect, to omit no item of importance of the association's affairs, and yet have a sufficient variety of articles of timely interest to appeal to the progressive practitioner, who, after all, is the bulwark of the profession.”

The Journal was true to the vision of Dr. Fish, its first editor, and in 1922, then–editor-in-chief Dr. John R. Mohler proudly announced in his report to the AVMA Executive Board that from October 1920 to September 1921, the Journal published “the proceedings of the fifty-seventh annual meeting of the Association, 125 original papers, 37 clinical and case reports, 66 abstracts of research papers (practically all foreign), 8 book reviews, 92 reports and notices of meetings of veterinary associations and other gatherings, 42 editorials, and numerous miscellaneous articles and items.”

Not surprisingly, original papers published during these first years of the Journal overwhelmingly related to food animals or horses, most often focusing on infectious diseases such as hog cholera, anthrax, glanders, foot-and-mouth disease, tuberculosis, infectious abortion, and rinderpest. However, articles on companion animals made their appearance, along with occasional articles about poultry and even foxes. Articles on parasites, including parasites of horses, swine, sheep, and dogs, were also quite prominent.

Two special sections that appeared during these first years of the Journal are of note. The first, “European Chronicles,” was written by Dr. Alexandre F. Liautard, the first editor-in-chief for the American Veterinary Review, and consisted of summaries and abstracts of articles published in various foreign journals that Dr. Liautard felt would be of interest to American readers. It continued until Dr. Liautard's death in 1918. The other was the “Army Veterinary Service” section, which was started in September 1917, the year after the establishment of the Army Veterinary Corps in June 1916, and continued through the late 1930s, providing articles, letters, and reports related to military service.


The first separately plated images, titled “Paralysis of Pigs,” appeared in the May 1916 issue.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

An excerpt from the first (October 1915) issue of JAVMA:

Important announcement

Review becomes official organ of American Veterinary Medical Association.

Exercising the power vested in it at the Oakland meeting of the American Veterinary Medical Association, to establish an official organ of the association—either by the creation of a new journal or the acquirement of an already established one—the Committee on Journal, through its sub-committee, has purchased the American Veterinary Review, and has selected as editor of the official organ Pierre A. Fish, of Ithaca, N.Y., who is preparing to assume the duties of this important position at the earliest moment consistent with the many details incident to such a step.

Articles of particular interest include an October 1918 piece by Dr. Fish titled “Vitamines and nutrition,” which discussed the important role vitamins play in health and disease, apparently a relatively new idea at the time. Education—particularly educational standards—was also an important topic, with William Berg publishing the article “How to raise standards in veterinary education” in 1919 and the Journal devoting the April 1924 issue to a series of articles on educational matters.

During the same time, the Journal published an editorial advocating for more veterinary students, writing that “It is true at the present time to many within the ranks, the future of the profession is not alluring, and they would hesitate to recommend it to anyone as a vocation. The present conditions by which many are judging the future are, however, only temporary and will adjust themselves.”

Editorials published in April 1918 by Dr. Pierre Fish (“Horseflesh”) and AVMA Executive Board member Dr. W. Horace Hoskins (“Eight reasons for equine meat as food”) advocating to allow the consumption of horse meat in the United States are of interest in light of efforts in the early part of the 21st century to ban the slaughter of horses in this country for food.

Finally, an editorial in the April 1922 issue, “Motorized vs. horse-drawn fire apparatus,” talked about the inadvisability of changing to all motorized fire trucks, noting that “It may be that motorized apparatus capable of quickly reaching fires through snow drifts, in spite of high winds, low temperatures, and high hills, may some day be developed, but such apparatus does not exist today.”


“Army Veterinary Service” was one of JAVMA's earliest special sections. It first appeared in the September 1917 issue and continued through the late 1930s, providing articles, letters, and reports related to military service.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

1925 – 1935

By Dr. Craig A. Smith

During this decade, reports on food animals predominated in JAVMA. Especially prevalent were reports on diseases affecting cattle. Tuberculosis in cattle and related developments, including the Calmette-Guerin method for vaccination of animals against TB, received attention. Bovine infectious abortion became more appropriately referred to as Bang's disease because “swine are not bovines and bulls do not abort,” according to a January 1926 JAVMA paper. The first use of the Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine and first vaccination of calves were reported.

Numerous reports focused on fertility and infertility in cows and bulls. These included information on physiologic function of the corpus luteum of cattle, breeding and inherited diseases, and retained fetal membranes. This period also saw the first reports of trichomoniasis in U.S. cattle. Foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis were of concern, as was paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Laboratories were overwhelmed, however, with the need to produce tuberculin for testing, so production of johnin for use in testing programs was relegated to a minor role. Initial reports on milk fever indicated it to be a problem of hypoglycemia in cattle, but subsequent studies identified the role of calcium in the condition. A vaccine against rinderpest was developed, and there were massive efforts for tick eradication, especially in Texas, to prevent losses caused by cattle fever (babesiosis).

Information on diseases of birds, primarily chickens, was common. Extensive information was published on Salmonella pullorum (bacillary white diarrhea) in chickens as well as fowl pox, fowl plague, and laryngotracheitis.

Swine also had a prominent place in JAVMA. In 1933, veterinarians commemorated the 100th anniversary of their battle against hog cholera. The 1930s also saw an increase in the incidence of erysipelas in U.S. swine. Several reports provided information on anemia of swine, especially baby pigs, and hematologic indexes of swine. In the April 1928 issue, JAVMA published its first color images in an article on infectious enteritis in swine.

Information on horses was also plentiful. Reports often featured normal physiology (cardiac physiology and blood pressure) and anatomy. Equine encephalomyelitis was a major problem. Mosquitoes were identified as vectors for equine encephalomyelitis, and it was reported that administration of a formol-killed vaccine would protect horses against experimental infection. This decade also saw the first identification of Corynebacterium equi pneumonia in foals.

There was a heavy emphasis on nutrition (especially use of vitamins and minerals) and sanitation, which were primary weapons for veterinarians in those years. Numerous reports on plant toxicoses, especially in sheep, were published. Pregnancy toxemia and infestation with Oestrus ovis were other conditions affecting sheep. In 1934, it was reported that sore mouth in lambs (orf) was caused by a virus and was transmissible to humans.

Parasites were a problem in all species. It was hoped, however, that a new anthelmintic, tetrachlorethylene, would prove safe and efficacious.

For dogs, distemper and rabies were topics of concern. Several articles were published on salmon disease in dogs of the Pacific Northwest. Radiography as a diagnostic tool was in its infancy. Surgery and postoperative care of small animals were addressed in several articles, which included a description of lumbar anesthesia and the use of chloroform and ether for inhalation anesthesia of dogs.


During the 1928 AVMA Annual Meeting, six sections featuring live demonstrations were held at University Farm at the University of Minnesota. The sections covered horses, cattle, small animals, sheep, swine, and poultry. “Leaders in these different fields of practice … were on hand to give demonstrations, perform operations and explain the latest methods of diagnosis and treatment,” according to a September 1928 article.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Information was published on conditions and diseases affecting foxes and other fur-bearing animals. Information about diseases in rabbits also was common.

Public health efforts were reflected in food hygiene focused on meat and milk inspection and the prevention of tuberculosis and undulant fever (brucellosis) in humans. Sanitation was stressed for preventing disease and maintaining animal health.

Articles were published on veterinary education and training, veterinary practice, and career management. Some articles provided building designs for animal hospitals that included accommodations for small animals.


In the April 1928 issue, JAVMA published its first color images with an article on infectious enteritis in swine.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

1935 – 1945

By Dr. Craig A. Smith

Information on food-producing animals was a mainstay of JAVMA during this decade. Tuberculosis and brucellosis were primary concerns. A major step in the eradication of bovine tuberculosis, which began in 1917, was celebrated on Nov. 1, 1940, when it was reported that the incidence had decreased and less than 0.5 percent of U.S. cattle were currently infected.

Information on mastitis in cattle and treatment of affected animals proliferated. The use of sulfanilamide for treatment of mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae appeared encouraging. Other mastitis treatments included gramicidin and tyrothricin. Sulfanilamide and other sulfonamides were also used to treat other infectious conditions in cattle and numerous other species.

Several articles discussed dehorning in cattle, with emphasis on control of hemorrhage and the transmission of anaplasmosis. Actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) in cattle was treated by IV administration of sodium iodide. Fertility, infertility, and reproduction in cattle and the use of reproductive hormones were described, and semen collection and artificial insemination of cattle—as well as mares and ewes—garnered attention.

Diseases in chickens such as laryngotracheitis and bumblefoot were described. Numerous articles reported on Salmonella pullorum infections. The incidence of S pullorum infections in chickens was declining.


According to a November 1937 issue of JAVMA, “The amount of radiation absorbed in a single examination would rarely be dangerous, but since the effects are associated with cumulative absorption, every precaution to avoid the unnecessary exposure should be taken. … It may be truthfully said that the operator should be more concerned with his own protection than with that of his patient.”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Hog cholera continued to be a major concern for swine veterinarians. Vaccination with crystal violet was investigated to prevent the disease. The incidence of hog cholera in the United States was declining.

Transmission of equine encephalomyelitis and effects of vaccination to prevent spread of the disease were described in several articles. Scopolamine, bulbocapnine, and morphine were assessed for their ability to control pain in horses.

Nutrition for all species was a main focus. Numerous investigations focused on the role of vitamins and minerals in maintaining health and preventing or treating disease.

Parasites were a problem in all species. Phenothiazine was used to treat intestinal parasites in cattle as well as parasites in numerous other species.

Articles on dogs became more prevalent during this decade. Distemper and rabies were still a major concern, and vaccination was recommended. Dogs with distemper were treated by IV administration of hydrochloric acid. Information was published on numerous facets of canine medicine, including treatment of mammary gland neoplasia, dentistry, blood transfusions, and ophthalmology. Antimony salts were used in the treatment of heartworm disease. Also, commercial dog foods and the dog food industry came under scrutiny, mainly because of the assumption that many humans in the throes of the Great Depression were buying and consuming dog food.

Efforts were ongoing to protect humans from diseases such as brucellosis. Brucella spp (primarily B abortus) were found in 50 percent of milk samples in Illinois; it was reported that pasteurization appeared to destroy the bacteria.

The public health role of veterinarians changed with the onset of World War II. Inspection of meat, dairy, and eggs shifted from foods for public consumption to foods for America's armed forces. Veterinarians also played a role in food production through the Food for Freedom program. Veterinarians cared for animals involved in the war effort, from the dogs, “our four-footed soldiers,” to horses and mules to signal carrier pigeons. Planning for postwar animal populations was discussed.

The January 1942 issue of JAVMA contained the first mention of the new wonder drug penicillin. Supplies were initially limited, and treatment of humans was given priority, but mass production soon provided opportunities for the treatment of numerous conditions in domestic animals.

Another major advancement during the war years was the widespread use of DDT. Because DDT was extremely effective against the mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, and lice that affected humans and domestic animals, it was believed “that insect life is about to suffer ignominious defeat at the hands of man.” A pyrethrin product was also developed as an insecticide, with mass production awaiting the arrival of V-Day.


Nutrition for all species was a main focus in this decade. In this March 1941 article on nutritional disease of chickens, one is shown with rickets (left) and two others with riboflavin deficiency (center and right).

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

1945 – 1955

By Dr. Roxanne B. Pillars

With the end of World War II, “Thousands of people, particularly those in the medical profession, are returning to civil life aware for the first time of the wide and important role the veterinarian can and does play in their community life,” Col. James A. McCallum wrote in the September 1946 issue of JAVMA. In addition to working to ensure animal health, veterinarians were now recognized as playing an integral role in food safety and human health. During the early part of this decade, multiple articles in JAVMA discussed the role of veterinarians in rebuilding the animal and public health infrastructures in Europe and Japan and maintaining them in the United States. Other reports described ongoing research in biological warfare and the effects of radiation exposure on animals that survived the atomic bombings in Japan.

Food animal reports still predominated in JAVMA. Particularly prominent were reports on rabies, tuberculosis, and brucellosis. Many reports focused on differentiating antibody titers against Brucella induced by vaccination from those induced by natural infection. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Mexico in 1946 and Canada in 1952 resulted in renewed interest in the disease and multiple reports. Newcastle disease virus in poultry also garnered numerous reports, as did mastitis in cattle and hog cholera.

Reproductive management of livestock remained a popular topic, with reports focusing on hormonal management of fertility and artificial insemination in various species. As the decade progressed, reports focusing on ketosis and periparturient disease (milk fever) in dairy cattle, shipping fever in beef cattle, pregnancy toxemia and bluetongue (initially called soremuzzle) in sheep, and transmissible gastroenteritis, atrophic rhinitis, and erysipelas in pigs began to appear frequently.

Parasite control was a popular topic for all species. Multiple articles were published about the efficacy of phenothiazine for the treatment of endoparasites and DDT for the treatment of ectoparasites. As the decade progressed, however, the reports on DDT began focusing on its toxicologic effects.

During this decade, diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats was first described in JAVMA. In dogs, other popular topics included histoplasmosis and distemper.

Advances in small animal surgery were reported and included correction of entropion, use of conjunctival flaps for treatment of corneal ulcers, and orthopedic procedures such as permanent intramedullary pins for repairing long bone fractures and methods for repairing luxated patellas and femoral neck and olecranon fractures. Advances in anesthesia and analgesia for both large and small animals were likewise described, such as the use of intratracheal insufflation for more efficient administration of ether, pentobarbital sodium for general anesthesia and obstetrical procedures, and the use of corneal nerve blocks for eye surgery in cattle. New analgesics introduced included methadone, hexylcaine, and xylocaine.

Radiography was becoming more widely available. Various contrast agents and methods were described for gastrography and myelography, and use of intravenous pyelography was described for assessing renal function in dogs. There were also numerous reports on the dangers of excessive X-ray exposure for both animals and veterinarians.

Other notable highlights described in JAVMA during this decade were isolation of the tetanus toxin; the first report on acquired resistance to antimicrobials; introduction of nitrofurazone, chlortetracycline, and tetracycline; embryo transfer in cattle; use of arsenamide for the treatment of heartworm disease in dogs; and the identification of chlorinated naphthalenes as the cause of disease X (bovine hyperkeratosis). Even the benefits of mobile telephones in ambulatory practice were reported in JAVMA in 1950.


An article on the urinary tract and small animal radiography in September 1953 read, “Working together, physiologists and chemists have developed a range of dyes that make it possible to render visible most of the organs and vessels which, because of their structure or position, would not otherwise be seen in sufficient contrast.” Shown are examples of normal variation of the renal pelvis in dogs.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


From the December 1954 issue of JAVMA, the debut of “What Is Your Diagnosis?”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

1955 – 1965

By Dr. Rosemarie E. Seymour


Pictures that ran with a May 1, 1956, article on portable equipment for veterinary practice show the open trunk of a ‘55 Packard 400 hardtop, converted for use as a mobile medical and surgical supply.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

The late 1950s and early 1960s saw a flurry of technological and sociological changes in the United States. In 1955, the polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was licensed, and rock ‘n’ roll music entered the mainstream. Passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, and 1964 was followed in 1965 by enactment of the Voting Rights and Higher Education acts and the institution of Medicare and Medicaid. This era also saw the addition of Alaska and Hawaii to the union, the start of the race to explore space, the beginning of the Vietnam War, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

As reflected in the pages of JAVMA, the veterinary profession was evolving during this time. Subjects of social and economic importance and the direction of the veterinary profession were addressed in reports and editorials pertinent to the geographic distribution, workloads, and salaries of veterinarians; the important role of veterinarians in public health, natural disasters, meat and poultry inspection, the feed industry, and research; and the vertical integration of the agriculture and livestock industries. Issues discussed in editorials included ethical concerns related to advertising, promotion of drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, veterinarian ownership of biological and pharmaceutical supply firms, and how practice specialization would impact the profession.

Also of interest were changes in veterinary school curricula reflecting the expansion of medical knowledge; changes in student demographics and the question of whether an urban background might be an impediment to success compared with the previously traditional rural experience; and the development of objective, multiple-choice examinations by the National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners and the Professional Examination Service and their implementation by veterinary state boards.

JAVMA became a twice-monthly publication in January 1956. The Journal at that time covered an array of topics in large and small animal medicine and surgery, most commonly on cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, horses, dogs, and cats. Reports involving laboratory animals, farmed mink, pet birds, and wild animals were also found. An “Organization” section reported on AVMA leadership and meeting activities, AVMA annual convention programs and highlights, information from meetings of groups such as the U.S. Livestock Sanitary Association, selected abstracts from other journals, and news stories. In addition, veterinarians contributed articles describing the layout, functionality, and case capacity of their clinics; business advice; and even modification of vehicles used for farm calls.

“The practitioner is intrusted with the prevention of disease and the care and treatment of the sick and anything he can do to improve that service and to conserve time is worthwhile. He is in the front line in serving the public and maintaining the reputation of the profession. In his hands must be the finest equipment in the finest condition if he is to do his part properly.”

“Portable equipment for general veterinary practice” in the May 1, 1956, issue


The August 1955 article “The physical examination of rhesus monkeys” chronicled researchers’ problems with how the monkeys were to be caught and held while being examined. The researchers found the “only satisfactory method of holding was by hand, with the attendant grasping the monkey's arms and pinning them behind its back with one hand and holding the animal's head or hindlegs with the other” (as shown in this picture).

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Advances in radiology and anesthesia, particularly controlled use of inhalant anesthetics, led to improvements in diagnostic testing and surgical techniques, including orthopedic surgery and cesarotomy in large animals. The discovery of new anthelmintics as well as insecticides and acaricides, notably those including organophosphates, gave rise to studies of their effectiveness and toxic effects in various species. Reports abounded on epizootiology, identification, management, and prevention of infectious diseases—including hog cholera, leptospirosis, brucellosis, erysipelas, shipping fever, and rabies—and on concentrated efforts toward the eradication of hog cholera and brucellosis in the United States. Vesicular exanthema of swine was declared eradicated in 1959.

With the development and widespread use of drugs for treatment of disease and enhancement of growth came increased understanding of and concern over drug residues in foods and antimicrobial resistance of infectious organisms. In 1956, a study was published that assessed antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of organisms isolated from cattle with mastitis and found a disparity between in vivo and in vitro effectiveness of commonly used antimicrobials. That same year, the Journal published its first article describing practical use of a previously characterized disk method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microbes.

Other notable reports of the time included the description of experiments and observations leading to development of the California mastitis test in March 1957; a February 1959 article on the first institute on veterinary public health practice, held at the University of Michigan School of Public Health; and a January 1963 report from the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia, the first of its kind.


Alexandre F. Liautard 1877–1915

Dr. A.F. Liautard was the only one of the AVMA founding fathers to hold elective office for more than 20 years in succession. But it is for his work on the American Veterinary Review that he is best known. He held the senior editorship of the Review from 1877–1915, when it became the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Despite his title, he played no role in the daily operations of the Journal after returning to France in 1900; however, he did still write for the publication until his death in 1918.

Pierre Augustine Fish 1915–1918

In 1915, Dr. P.A. Fish was named the first editor of the newly renamed JAVMA. Just three years later, Dr. Fish relinquished his post to join the military; however, he remained a frequent and valued contributor to the JAVMA.

William Haddock Dalrymple 1918–1919

Dr. W.H. Dalrymple, president of the Association in 1907, had to relinquish his later post as editor within a year because of ongoing health issues.

John Robbins Mohler 1919–1923

Dr. J.R. Mohler had a distinguished career with the Bureau of Animal Industry and was elected AVMA president at a young age. He also did excellent work on the AVMA's journals for many years as an associate editor, but his tour as editor of JAVMA was over shortly after it began, and it doesn't appear that many developments of note occurred on his watch.

In 1923, the offices of editor and secretary were combined, and Dr. H. Preston Hoskins took up the job in Dr. Mohler's place. Dr. Mohler subsequently became an associate editor and continued to work with the Association journals for many years.

Horace Preston Hoskins 1923–1939

During Dr. H.P. Hoskins’ lengthy tenure, he oversaw such innovations as the use of full-color illustrations and the addition to JAVMA of a section of abstracts.

The circulation of the Journal began to grow in earnest, and his steady leadership was a calming influence on a publication that in preceding years had seemed to be casting about.

Louis A. Merillat 1939–1950

In 1939, Dr. L.A. Merillat stepped into the role of editor-in-chief. Perhaps the most notable development under Dr. Merillat's watch was the introduction in 1940 of the AJVR. That year also saw the separation of the editorship from the executive secretary position when Dr. Merillat stepped down from his role of executive secretary to focus on his work with the publications. And that work bore fruit, as circulation for both journals continued to grow under his leadership. By 1941, JAVMA subscriptions exceeded 7,000, while the subscription base for the AJVR was already approaching 2,000.

In 1950, he retired, and at that time, he was named editor-in-chief emeritus, a title he retained until his death in 1956.

Raymond C. Klussendorf 1950–1951

In 1950, the AVMA promoted associate editor and assistant executive secretary Dr. R.C. Klussendorf to the editor-in-chief position. But early the next year, he announced that he would be leaving the AVMA to pursue other opportunities. During his time with AVMA's publications, he was highly regarded for his energy, enthusiasm, and appreciation of the problems facing the veterinary profession.

C.R. Donham 1951–1952

In the wake of Dr. Klussendorf's exit, the AVMA named Dr. C.R. Donham editor-in-chief on an interim basis in 1951. He had just retired from his career as a professor in Purdue University's Department of Veterinary Science and was free to edit JAVMA and AJVR until a suitable replacement came aboard.

William A. Aitken 1952–1959

In 1952, Dr. W.A. Aitken accepted the editor-in-chief position. His main motivation in assuming the editorship was his desire to help the veterinary profession better understand and control such diseases as shipping fever, erysipelas, and hog cholera. Dr. Aitken did just that through a steady campaign of editorials, editor's notes, shrewd manuscript selection, preparation of abstracts, and interactions with authors.

His term as editor-in-chief saw JAVMA grow from 12 issues per year to 24, while the AJVR went from just four issues per year to six.

Donald A. Price 1959–1971

Dr. D.A. Price joined the AVMA staff in 1958 as an associate editor and was appointed editor-in-chief in 1959 on Dr. Aitken's retirement.

In addition to the special reports and editorials Dr. Price published in JAVMA, he was the author or co-author of numerous scientific reports published in other professional journals. In turn, he was the first veterinarian elected a fellow of the American Medical Writers Association. On Jan. 1, 1972, Dr. Price moved on to become AVMA executive vice president.

Arthur Freeman 1972–1984

Dr. A. Freeman first joined the AVMA staff in 1959 as an assistant editor responsible for helping produce JAVMA. At that time, Drs. Price and Freeman were the only two scientific editors on the AVMA journals’ staff. The two helped institute a system whereby all submitted manuscripts were sent to reviewers outside the AVMA office.

Dr. Freeman was promoted to editor-in-chief in 1972, and over the next 13 years, he introduced important innovations to the journals, such as popular features that, in some cases, still run in JAVMA today. Under Dr. Freeman's direction, the JAVMA also started regularly publishing artwork on its cover and adopted a larger (8-by-11–inch) format.

Between 1972 and 1985, when Dr. Freeman moved on to become the next AVMA executive vice president, the Publications Division's budget tripled, advertising income quadrupled, subscription income unrelated to dues increased 75 percent, and the division grew to be the AVMA's largest, with 21 staff members.

Albert J. Koltveit 1985–1995

Dr. A.J. Koltveit came to the AVMA as an assistant editor in 1969 and became editor-in-chief and director of the Publications Division on Jan. 1, 1985. He innovated in a number of ways over the years, including reorganizing the table of contents and introducing several well-liked features such as “Reflections” and the still-popular “Animal Behavior Case of the Month.” He was known as an editor who was especially sensitive to the needs of his readers, someone who was willing to change the presentation and offerings of the journals to provide clarity and the type of information his readers sought. Dr. Koltveit retired from the AVMA in 1995.

Michele Morin, AVMA production designer, created the Oct. 1 and 15 JAVMA centennial issues. Diane Fagen, AVMA librarian, assisted in the historical research, and Malinda Larkin, senior news reporter, was the coordinator.

Janis H. Audin 1995–2009

In 1985, Dr. J.H. Audin began her career with the AVMA Publications Division as an assistant editor. And in 1995, she began her tenure as editor-in-chief. In addition to successfully overseeing the conversion to desktop publishing and seeing that all the AVMA journals’ content from each issue appeared online, Dr. Audin adapted that content for an increasingly specialized readership by initiating practice-relevant features in areas such as dentistry and anesthesiology. She also saw to it that the Publications Division adopted new technologies to speed up manuscript processing and improve JAVMA News.

Dr. Audin's interest in art history was manifest in the way she used her art background to help transform the JAVMA and AJVR to the more visually appealing volumes readers see today.

Dr. Audin's time at the AVMA ended far too soon, as she died in 2009. In her final months, she was named editor-in-chief emeritus.

Kurt J. Matushek 2009-present

In 2009, Dr. K.J. Matushek, who had been acting as interim editor-in-chief, was named the 14th editor-in-chief. A former practitioner and board-certified surgeon who joined the AVMA Publications Division in 1992 as an assistant editor, Dr. Matushek quickly became an authority on the AVMA journals’ policies and style. As an associate editor, he was responsible for developing and implementing the structured format for abstracts published in the JAVMA and AJVR, and he oversaw the writing of the original version of the JAVMA style manual.

Dr. Matushek further made his mark in 2010 when he led the move for the AVMA Executive Board to adopt a policy on editorial independence for the AVMA journals, reinforcing their editorial autonomy and granting the editor-in-chief full authority over their editorial content. In addition, Dr. Matushek oversaw redesigns of the JAVMA News section and the AJVR cover.

1965 – 1975

By Dr. Sandra L. Lefebvre

The period of 1965–1975 could be characterized as a time when part of the foundation for the present-day one-health initiative was laid, as new possibilities and opportunities in animal health were explored.

Although the first JAVMA report on antimicrobial resistance was published in 1955 (“Antibiotic-resistant micrococci in sub-clinical mastitis”), it wasn't until the late 1960s that reports began to emerge on the concept of multidrug resistance, the potential for transfer of resistance among bacteria, and the implications of antimicrobial resistance and use in veterinary species for public health. This attention was contemporary with the 1969 release of the U.K. government's Swann Report, which recommended that antibiotics used to treat humans and other animals not be incorporated in animal feeds.

In a 1970 JAVMA editorial on the report, Dr. Arthur Freeman, then editor-in-chief, wrote, “Right now the Swann Committee Report will not change anything veterinarians are doing in this country. As veterinarians, we are still obligated, as members of the nation's health team, to do our part in helping to protect the public from drug-resistant bacteria and from drug residues.” He went on to say, “We can learn from the Swann Committee Report and from the comments made about it that the public health significance of both transferable drug resistance and persistence of drug residues is not fully understood. The differences between the phenomena and the problems are yet to be determined.”


Dr. Allen W. Hahn (center) was researching the “development of a power cell or battery that will be able to power electrical devices like a cardiac pacemaker or telemeter within the body for long periods of time,” according to a July 1, 1970, JAVMA article.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

The notion of wildlife as sentinels for environmental health also began to garner attention during this period, as did the health implications of environmental contamination on humans and other animals.

With respect to infectious diseases, readers in 1966 saw a flare-up of reports that existing inactivated canine distemper vaccines might be ineffective, and researchers investigated whether the human measles vaccine might prevent distemper in dogs. In addition, the first widespread U.S. outbreak of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease was reported in Southern California, a situation that prompted declaration of a national emergency and depopulation of more than 11 million birds, most of which were commercial layer hens. Infected birds that escaped from an exotic aviary were identified as the probable source, prompting discussion of the need for regulation of imported birds and the adoption in 1974 of quarantine measures by the Department of Agriculture.

Also important during this period was hog cholera, which was devastating the swine industry at the time. An eradication campaign was reflected in the increase in reports of new diagnostic tests and combinations of test results to confirm the disease and contributed to the United States being declared cholera free in 1978.

Other topics that received new or increased research attention included the influence of diet on health and disease in everything from pet birds and monkeys to iguanas and foxes as well as dental treatment and diagnostic techniques for cats and dogs. Boris Levinson, PhD, introduced readers in 1970 to the concept of pets as therapy for people in his often-cited study titled “Pets, child development, and mental illness.”

Reports on diseases of, diagnostic techniques for, and treatments for reptiles and marine mammals, particularly dolphins, secured a regular spot among the journals’ pages during this period, and researchers sought to answer the question “Do dolphins drink water?” (They do.)

Technological advances received attention as reports on clinical use of encephalography in veterinary species began to appear in 1966, electroretinography in 1967, and electrocardiography by radiotelemetry in 1968. The first report of a pacemaker used to treat heart disease in a horse appeared in 1967 and in a dog in 1968.

Finally, the number of clinical reports and original studies involving cats published from 1965–1975 was more than twice that of all prior years combined, coinciding with foundation of the American Association of Feline Practitioners in 1970.


Researchers sought to answer the question “Do dolphins drink water?” in this Sept. 1, 1970, study that appeared in the Journal. They do, it turns out.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

1975 – 1985

By Dr. Helen L. Simons

In the decade that saw the glitter fade from disco, JAVMA carried articles that were of practical value—reports of new techniques and procedures, drug and vaccine uses, and hitherto unknown hereditary components of various diseases. Much of what was published was of immediate clinical relevance and could be used or applied in clinics or in the field. Some of the reports broadened knowledge of wildlife or exotic species, whereas others provided information regarding hands-on medical practices for more familiar domestic species. Many of the articles were case reports from which it was obvious that clinicians were energetically engaged in veterinary medical exploration and keen to better the standard of care for their patients. Although there were no noticeable trends among the articles published, certain areas of investigation garnered widespread interest. Moreover, it was evident how the lines of research and progress were intertwined across species.

One of these clusters of knowledge centered on avian species, with topics such as avian adenovirus infection, tuberculosis in captive exotic birds, and the use of ketamine and diazepam for anesthesia of raptors. Other advances in anesthesia included reports of new combinations of sedatives and anesthetic agents for a wide range of exotic animals, and research into the effectiveness of yohimbine to reverse xylazine-induced CNS depression in a variety of species. In exotic carnivores, clinical trials with canine distemper vaccines were conducted. The focus on wildlife also took in reports of eastern white-tailed deer as a vehicle for ruminant paratuberculosis; the hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to terrestrial mammals including humans; and investigation of wildlife reservoirs of Chlamydia psittaci in an acute, highly fatal epornitic of chlamydiosis in domestic turkeys.


Secretary of Agriculture Bob Bergland (center) signs a document Jan. 31, 1978, officially declaring the U.S. free of hog cholera.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Many advances in procedures were reported in JAVMA during this decade. These diverse techniques included occlusion of the internal carotid artery in horses by means of a balloon-tipped catheter to prevent epistaxis caused by guttural pouch mycosis and the implantation of flexible carbon fiber constructs to provide functional replacements of damaged tendons or cosmetically acceptable restoration of facial contour in horses. Of particular note were two reports by Dr. Barclay Slocum and Theresa Devine. In the first, cranial tibial thrust was identified as a primary force in the canine stifle joint; this report became one of the seminal papers in our understanding of cranial cruciate rupture in dogs. Their subsequent report on cranial tibial wedge osteotomy was their first attempt to use this biomechanical knowledge of the joint to treat cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Eventually, this led to the development of the tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, now one of the most common surgical methods for treating cranial cruciate ligament rupture.


In this photo, tag lined “Veterinarians Teach the Laity During Livestock Symposium,” Dr. D.E. Bailey (center) delivers a lamb by cesarean section at the 1977 California Livestock Symposium. The photo ran in the Aug. 1, 1977, issue of JAVMA.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

“In many veterinarian practices, vaccination-fee income is used to subsidize other important health care services which veterinarians provide at little more than cost because many animal owners are reluctant to pay for these services. Is that kind of fee structuring really sound, or should all procedures be made to pay their own way?”

“Mobile vaccination clinics” in the July 15, 1983, issue

Reports ranged the gamut from aardwolves to zoonoses. There was determination of the efficacy of an inactivated vaccine for the prevention of feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus disease, and panleukopenia in cats as well as the successful use of a modified live-virus intranasal vaccine or killed-virus adjuvanted parenteral vaccine in kittens with residual, maternally derived anti-feline viral rhinotracheitis antibodies. And there was the finding that a condition characterized by cerebellar cortical and extrapyramidal nuclear abiotrophy—first detected in Kerry Blue Terriers and subsequently in other dog breeds—had an autosomal recessive form of inheritance.

In addition, this decade brought forth numerous cautionary tales. They ranged from fatal toxicosis in pet birds caused by an overheated polytetrafluoroethylene-lined cooking pan to the association of stray voltage with an increased number of dairy cows with abnormal behavior in milking facilities and increased prevalence of clinical mastitis.

Furthermore, a daily dietary supplement of brewer's yeast given to dogs does not repel fleas. Good to know, don't you think?

1985 – 1995

By Dr. Gussie J. Tessier

The scientific section of JAVMA underwent a complete makeover toward the end of this decade, truly transforming its look.

At the beginning of 1986, scientific articles seemed to be loosely arranged on the basis of depth of scientific investigation, without regard to categorization by species. Although a “Special Commentary” or “Special Report” may have led the Journal's scientific section, the section typically opened with reports of original research studies. “Original Studies” were followed by “Clinical Reports,” and the scientific section closed with various features such as “Economic Note,” “Topics In Drug Therapy,” “What Is Your Diagnosis?” and “New Veterinary Biological Product.” Small articles under the title of “Short Items” were used as fillers throughout the scientific section. These were often summaries of relevant veterinary research studies that had been published elsewhere, including, but certainly not limited to, the AVMA's American Journal of Veterinary Research. “Book Reviews” also appeared as fillers throughout the scientific section. By today's standards, the look and design of the scientific section was plain.

Fast-forward to the end of 1995, and the scientific section had been rearranged to almost the reverse of the way it had been organized in 1986. The scientific section was now divided under three distinct, sequential section headings: “Views,” “Veterinary Medicine Today,” and “Scientific Reports.” These newly created sections respectively housed opinion pieces such as “Letters to the Editor,” feature articles such as “What Is Your Diagnosis?,” and original research articles and clinical reports. Articles within the “Scientific Reports” section were categorized by species with bar tabs for easy identification. Individual “Book Reviews” continued to be used as fillers throughout the scientific section, but gone were the “Short Items.” The feel and look of the JAVMA had been transformed into a fresher, friendlier journal.

It is noteworthy that this decade included the publication of the 1986 and 1993 editions of the Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. The AVMA had taken the lead on this issue since the first report in 1963, which carried information on euthanasia of dogs, cats, and small mammals. The 1986 and 1993 reports expanded the scope of recommendations by including information for poikilothermic and aquatic animals, wildlife, and horses.

During this period, many articles appeared in JAVMA on animal rights, animal liberation, and animal welfare, as veterinarians were contemplating their role in these areas in terms of ethics and the well-being of animals and society. A distinction was being formed between animal rights and animal welfare. On Nov. 5, 1990, the first AVMA Animal Welfare Forum, titled “Enhancing Wellness in Animals and People,” was held, and the proceedings were published in the April 15, 1991, issue of JAVMA. During this decade, animal welfare articles ranged from issues concerning the welfare of laboratory animals and farm animals to that of dogs and cats. In 1994, JAVMA published an article by Temple Grandin, PhD, titled “Farm animal welfare during handling, transport, and slaughter.” This would be the first of many articles in the Journal authored by Dr. Grandin concerning the welfare of food animals and horses.

“Behavioral methods are as sensitive as, and in some cases more sensitive than, physiologic measurements in evaluating the well-being of animals. Quantification of behavior patterns, choice tests, and operant conditioning can all be used to construct the optimal physical and social environment for domestic animals.”

Dr. Katherine A. Houpt, “Animal behavior and animal welfare,” April 15, 1991, issue


A Dec. 1, 1992, JAVMA news story about the importance of nonhuman primates in research toward developing an AIDS vaccine was accompanied by this photo of one of the chimpanzees being raised “in a healthy man-made environment” at the National Center for Research Resources in Bethesda, Maryland.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

As the prominence of animal welfare articles was expanding in JAVMA, so were articles on animal behavior. These fields were considered linked, as reflected in the article published in JAVMA in 1991 by Dr. Katherine Houpt titled “Animal behavior and animal welfare.” During this decade, the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists was added to the roster of AVMA-recognized veterinary specialty organizations. With this growing enthusiasm for and recognition of the science of animal behavior came the debut of the popular “Animal Behavior Case of the Month” feature in the Journal, which continues to this day.

The advances in veterinary medicine from 1986 through 1995 in the important areas of euthanasia, animal welfare, and animal behavior were building. The decade was one of scientific enlightenment and expansion into the well-being of all animals. And perhaps the transformed feel and look of the JAVMA during the same period was just a mirror of these exciting advances.


A horse places its head in a manger, turning the lights on for one minute in an otherwise dark barn, in a study of its preference for a light versus dark environment. The photo appeared as part of the Animal Welfare Forum proceedings, published in the April 15, 1991, issue of JAVMA.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

1995 – 2005

By Dr. Alexandra L. Winter

This decade was a time of relatively high caseloads, allowing for continued accumulation of case experience. Although prospective studies were relatively uncommon, JAVMA published many retrospective case series, most notably for horses, and these provided important observational data for clinicians. Articles included the outcome of check ligament desmotomy in Standardbreds; treatment of dorsal displacement of the soft palate with sternothyrohyoideus myectomy and staphylectomy, a procedure now largely replaced by the laryngeal tie-forward procedure; and the outcome of epiglottic augmentation. Other case series contributed to the methods used currently to manage orthopedic injuries in horses. Among these were reports describing arthroscopic findings in the carpal joints of lame horses without radiographic abnormalities and reports of treatment of axial osteochondral fragments of the proximal phalanx, condylar fractures, and horses with noncomminuted mid-sagittal proximal phalanx fractures. In 2000, two papers by Dr. William Saville and co-workers reported results of a large epidemiologic study of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a disease first described in 1993. The authors identified several risk factors, including young age. Sports medicine and performance evaluation were the subjects of a number of articles, including a retrospective study by Dr. Benson Martin Jr. et al reporting results of comprehensive performance evaluations of 348 horses and a study by Dr. John Stick et al comparing results of presale endoscopic examination with subsequent racing performance in Thoroughbred yearlings. Similarly, in small animal patients, articles published in this decade reflected increased application of a variety of progressively sophisticated treatments and modalities.


A patient visit in the James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University. Training in effective and empathetic communication was increasingly being incorporated as a core component of veterinary professional education, as noted by Dr. Jane Shaw et al in a report in the March 1, 2004, issue. (Courtesy of John Eisele/Colorado State University)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

“Appreciating the impact of animal companionship on the health and well-being of humans creates a new dimension for veterinarians in public health. Veterinarians’ responsibilities have expanded to include the mental health and well-being of their clients. … Respect for the client's perspective and interests and recognition of the role the animal plays in the life of the client are incorporated into all aspects of care.”

“What can veterinarians learn from studies of physician-patient communication about veterinarian-client-patient communication?” in the March 1, 2004, issue


A horse recovers from general anesthesia and surgery in the C. Mahlon Kline Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Center's indoor anesthetic recovery pool at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine's New Bolton Center. The first peer-reviewed article detailing the use of this system appeared in the Oct. 1, 2002, issue of JAVMA. (Courtesy of Penn Vet New Bolton Center)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Anesthesia and perioperative care were the focus of many articles in JAVMA throughout this decade. Such advances were integral to the increasingly advanced care of patients being provided by surgeons and other specialists. In 1996, Drs. John Hubbell and William Muir reported results of a survey of 200 diplomates of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine that found that opioids were the most frequently selected agents used to induce analgesia in animals used in biomedical research. A survey published in 2000 by Drs. Ann Wagner and Peter Hellyer evaluated anesthesia techniques and concerns of clinicians in private small animal practice in Colorado, with a 2003 article by the same authors presenting myths and misconceptions related to the practice of small animal anesthesia. In 2002, Dr. Eileen Sullivan and co-authors published the first report describing the use of a pool raft system at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine's New Bolton Center for 393 horses recovering from general anesthesia.

This era also saw reports on laparoscopic procedures, as the use of minimally invasive surgery began to emerge and become more common in veterinary medicine. In 2000, Dr. Troy Trumble et al reported successful laparoscopic intra-abdominal ligation of the testicular artery in a stallion with post-castration hemorrhage; other articles included prospective evaluation of the usefulness and outcome of laparoscopic gastropexy in 25 large-breed, client-owned dogs prone to gastric dilatation volvulus in 2002 and an evaluation of the feasibility of laparoscopic-assisted jejunostomy tube placement in dogs in 2004. In 1996, Dr. David Anderson et al described the laparoscopic anatomy and three laparoscopic approaches to the abdomen in adult llamas, with laparoscopic ovariectomy in two llamas described in 1998 and crytorchidectomy in two alpacas reported in 2002. Food animal reports were also common throughout this decade. Examples included a 1995 report of facilitated ankylosis for treatment of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattle and the outcome of unilateral castration in breeding bulls in 2002.

Emphasizing the human aspects of veterinary medicine, Dr. Cindy Adams et al in a study published in 2000 evaluated predictors of grief and client needs relating to death of a pet. In 2004, two articles by Dr. Jane Shaw et al explored aspects of veterinarian-client-patient communication, including the application of knowledge from research in physician-patient communication to the veterinary profession and evaluation of the usefulness of a quantitative communication tool in companion animal practice, in an effort to explore how outcomes for patients might be improved. Another study evaluated nontechnical competencies that contribute to career success. Together, these articles emphasized that the practice of veterinary medicine is not limited to acquisition and refinement of diagnostic and clinical skills, and JAVMA served as an important venue for communication in the profession, underscoring the essential role of veterinarians in society and the value of the human-animal bond.

2005 – 2015

By Dr. Alexandra L. Winter

The past 100 years have seen a marked shift in the role of animals in society, with most Americans now regarding their pets as family members. Client expectations have evolved, and pet owners are increasingly demanding the same sophisticated treatment options for their animals as they expect for themselves. One example of this trend is the growing interest in minimally invasive procedures in veterinary medicine, reflected in the publication during this decade of numerous single and multicenter case series and clinical reports describing a variety of promising laparoscopic, thoracoscopic, and endoscopic interventional procedures, particularly in small animal patients. Examples include reports describing the outcome for cats with benign ureteral obstructions treated with endoscopic ureteral stenting by Dr. Allyson Berent et al, the results of endovascular treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs by Dr. Chick Weisse et al, and the results of thoracoscopic-assisted lung lobectomy in dogs by Dr. Chloe Wormser et al, all published in 2014.

Nonetheless, definitive benefits of minimally invasive procedures described for human patients, such as decreased signs of pain and rapid return to usual activities, are not yet evident for veterinary patients, and challenges remain in efforts to accumulate robust evidence in support of these newer procedures. As such, JAVMA has also published studies comparing laparoscopic or laparoscopic-assisted techniques with more traditional open techniques, such as for adrenalectomy in dogs, cystotomy in dogs, and cryptorchidectomy in horses, with mixed results to date. Dr. Richard Hartman et al updated a 1978 JAVMA article on cryptorchidectomy, including laparoscopic cases, providing an important historical perspective, with the two articles now comprising the largest series of cases published for this common procedure in horses. As clinicians continually refine their technical skills, specific training in minimally invasive techniques and procedures has been an essential foundation, and JAVMA has published articles evaluating various aspects of this training. Notable papers by Dr. Boel Fransson et al were published in 2010 and 2012 evaluating how various aspects of physician laparoscopic simulation training may contribute to the acquisition of laparoscopic skills by veterinarians. Dr. Heather Towle-Millard et al evaluated the relationship between video gaming proficiency and laparoscopic skills, while Dr. Jeffrey Runge et al evaluated the surgical learning curve for laparoendoscopic ovariectomy with a skill acquisition model.

“We did not evaluate the success of treatment of tendonitis, but rather the effect of injury and treatment on the horse's ability to perform. … In our clinical practice, this is the information the owner wants to know when assessing prognosis prior to treatment.”

“Racing performance of Thoroughbreds with superficial digital flexor tendonitis treated with desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon: 332 cases (1989–2003)” in the June 15, 2014, issue

In 2006, the catastrophic breakdown injury suffered by the Thoroughbred colt Barbaro during the Preakness Stakes captured international attention. The care and treatment of this patient was an exemplary illustration of a multidisciplinary approach to the management of complex cases in the current era. Clinicians in comparable treatment settings continue to work to measure outcomes for similar patients, with studies published in JAVMA in 2013 and 2014 evaluating the long-term prognosis for neonatal foals treated at a referral center for colic and the ability of Thoroughbreds to return to racing after colic surgery. Dr. Ashley Hill et al evaluated risk factors for and outcome of noncatastrophic suspensory apparatus injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in a 2001 study, with additional articles in 2012 by Dr. Tiffany Sarrafian et al and in 2014 by Dr. Scott McClure et al evaluating characteristics of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses. A 2014 study by Drs. Alaine Hu and Larry Bramlage examined medical and performance records to evaluate the likelihood of return to racing and career longevity for 332 Thoroughbreds with superficial digital flexor tendinitis treated with superior check ligament desmotomy. Reports of biologic treatments such as the use of platelet-rich plasma for soft tissue injuries in horses were also published, as treatment interventions progressed beyond traditional surgery.

The financial crisis of the late 2000s particularly affected food animal practice. Although JAVMA continued to regularly publish high-quality articles covering all aspects of food animal medicine, commentaries and special reports highlighted important issues and challenges in terms of attracting veterinary students interested in food animal practice as well the challenges of adapting to meet changing needs.


Dr. Larry Bramlage performs desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (superior check ligament desmotomy). In the June 15, 2014, issue, Drs. Alaine Hu and Bramlage reported that for 332 Thoroughbred racehorses treated with check ligament desmotomy over a 15-year period, 69 percent successfully returned to racing when outcome was evaluated with objective, third-party racing data. (Courtesy of Rood & Riddle Equine Hospital)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Drs. Boel Fransson and Claude Ragle work in the Veterinary Applied Laparoscopic Training Laboratory at Washington State University. JAVMA published multiple articles on laparoscopic simulation training from 2005–2015 as veterinarians worked to acquire new skills. (Courtesy of Henry Moore/Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Reflecting the increasing emphasis in biomedical research on quality and transparency of reporting, JAVMA published several important articles addressing the design of published veterinary clinical trials. Dr. Dorothy Brown evaluated control of selection bias in 2006, and Dr. Michelle Giuffrida et al evaluated the use of blinding terminology in 2012 and type II error and statistical power in 2014. Several commentaries also addressed evidence-based medicine and clinical decision making.

As we look toward the next decade, our ability to accumulate high-quality evidence and effectively evaluate outcomes remains an ongoing challenge. Nonetheless, JAVMA will continue to serve as a vehicle for the veterinary profession's collective efforts toward improving patient care.

Wild horse, burro population still out of control

New, collaborative research aims to curb wild horse and burro populations

By Rashmi Shivni

Overpopulation of wild horses and burros has been a major focus for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management as grazing land begins to deteriorate because of enduring droughts and animal health becomes increasingly at risk.

The BLM announced July 7 that it is overseeing 21 research projects for its Wild Horse and Burro Program designed to identify ways to maintain populations at manageable levels, decreasing the need to remove herds from publicly owned land.

Paul Griffin, PhD, research coordinator for the program, said at the National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board meeting Sept. 3 that the new research will focus heavily on contraception, ecology, and population modeling.

According to the BLM, wild horses and burros essentially have no natural predators in these areas, and current adoption rates are decreasing steadily each year. With the dropping rates and minimal to no interventions, the herd population is expected to double every four years.

“It's at crisis stage,” said Dr. Sue McDonnell, a member of the advisory board representing research and an adjunct professor of equine reproductive behavior at the University of Pennsylvania, in an interview with JAVMA.

“One of the big problems at BLM is that most of their money has to be spent on looking after those horses that are off the range and in holding.”

In collaboration with scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and prospective university collaborators, the BLM will work on tools to create safe on-range management techniques and lessen time in corrals or on off-range pastures. These projects, BLM announced, will receive approximately $11 million of funding over a five-year period.

This year, the BLM's maximum appropriate management level—the number of wild horses and burros that can thrive in balance with other public land resources—for public lands in 10 Western states has been estimated to be about 27,000 animals. The actual number of animals present as of March 1 was almost 59,000.

Some projects that the BLM will conduct are socioeconomic surveys for communities in or near the equine populations to address any public concerns for the animals and the demand for adoption or purchase of wild horses. Dr. Griffin said eight projects are also being done with various universities for potential development of new or improved sterilization methods, mostly for mares. Only four proposals so far—one each from the University of Kentucky and Louisiana State University and two from Colorado State University—have been finalized and funded.

The USGS has both ongoing projects and proposals for future studies, Dr. Griffin explained at the advisory board meeting. These studies include topics such as fecal DNA analysis, trials of porcine zona pellucida contraceptive vaccines, collar and radio marking, aerial surveying, herd management area demography for horses and burros, population model testing, and even potential use of silicone rubber intrauterine devices in mares.

The ultimate goal is to lower the population to match the carrying capacity of the land, and Dr. McDonnell said the best way to do this is to control fertility.

“Most of the research has to do with developing effective and humane methods for population growth suppression,” Dr. McDonnell said, “(for example), spaying mares and other ways to permanently render an animal unable to reproduce. The main tool that (the BLM) has are porcine zona pellucida vaccines.”

The PZP vaccines come in two forms, which have durations of one to two years.

“The current problem with that is they need to get more than one application for it to be effective,” Dr. McDonnell said. “It's a huge expense, and the welfare of the animal is a public concern every time those animals are gathered up.”

One university-led study that has not yet been funded would work toward upgrading PZP, Dr. Griffin said. “(This study aims to) deliver PZP in a different kind of time-release vehicle that hopefully could last several years,” he said.

But even longer-lasting PZP vaccines can only do so much given the extreme population growth that has been seen recently. According to reports by the BLM, for example, in the past year alone there was an increase of 9,000 animals, but only 384 animals were vaccinated through hand injection or darting.

Given current difficulties in population suppression, the BLM is aiming over the next five years to bring forth multifaceted methods for population control and set national standards for proper treatment of the ecosystems under the agency's control.


Mustangs graze at the Pryor Mountains Wild Horse Range near Lovell, Wyoming.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

“We are also interested in habitat use effects,” Dr. Griffin said. “We would like to continue improving the inventory methods, and we also want to improve our understanding of the perceptions of the public at large about the program and about wild horses and burros.”

Rashmi Shivni is a fourth-year journalism major at Columbia College in Chicago and was the 2015 summe intern with JAVMA News.

Banned in one name, allowed under another

A supplement maker accused of selling an unapproved kidney disease drug for pets is allowed to continue selling the product as a supplement with a new product name and different marketing.

Nevada-based Bio Health Solutions and company co-founder Mark Garrison consented, without admission of guilt, to a federal court order prohibiting sales of RenAvast in the U.S. as well as requiring a recall of stock sold and submission to unannounced inspections by the Food and Drug Administration. Department of Justice spokeswoman Nicole Navas said that, under the court order, RenAvast still can be made in the U.S. if it is sold overseas, and the same product can be made and sold in the U.S. under a different name and with different marketing.

A DOJ complaint filed on behalf of the Food and Drug Administration states that Bio Health and Garrison had claimed RenAvast could treat or prevent kidney disease in cats and dogs, despite two warnings from the FDA in 2012.

In the complaint, the agencies said Bio Health responded to the warnings by removing some product claims from public portions of the RenAvast website. But the complaint states that the company was marketing RenAvast to veterinarians for prevention and treatment of chronic renal failure, hosting websites discussing chronic renal failure in dogs and cats and linking to the RenAvast site, and making kidney disease–related claims in a password-protected area of the RenAvast site.

The complaint also indicates FDA agents confirmed while buying the product that the company was making drug claims.

Bio Health Solutions’ website and those of its distributors provide indications RenAvast, listed by the company as available in eight countries in Europe and Asia, is at least related to another product, AminAvast, sold in the U.S. Company officials confirmed in a message that RenAvast is unavailable in the U.S. but did not respond to a question about the relationship between RenAvast and AminAvast.

In addition to sharing similar logos and identical tag lines of “promotes healthy kidney function,” the two appear to be based on the same ingredient: “AB070597,” described by Bio Health as a “patent pending ingredient created through a proprietary process using amino acids and a peptide.”

Patterson Veterinary Supply, for example, lists the substance in connection with RenAvast in a 2013 material safety data sheet and in a sales listing for AminAvast. The MSDS indicates the product contains L-aspartic acid, L-carnosine, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, glycine, L-arginine, and L-histidine as well as maltodextrin, gelatin from capsules, magnesium stearate, and stearic acid.

Patches could deliver drugs when stretched

Elastic patches embedded with small capsules could deliver pharmaceuticals when stretched, according to a scientific article.

By adding arrays of tiny needles, researchers showed the patches also could be used for transcutaneous delivery.

When the patches are stretched, the capsules on the skinside surface deform and release the drugs within, according to the article, “Stretch-triggered drug delivery from wearable elastomers containing therapeutic depots,” which was published online in ACS Nano.

The article is based on work by researchers from the University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University who embedded patches with the cancer treatment drug doxorubicin hydrochloride and the antimicrobial ciprofloxacin and showed that the patches dispersed the drugs when stretched in solution, the article states. And they used patches with arrays of “microneedles” to deliver insulin and regulate blood glucose concentrations in mice with chemically induced type 1 diabetes.

The patches also could be used to deliver antiinflammatory and pain-relieving agents, and those containing needle arrays could deliver drugs, hormones, or vaccines, according to the article. An announcement from NCSU indicates patches placed on the knees of an arthritic person could release painkillers as that person walked.

The article authors note that uses include delivery of pharmaceuticals through daily motions and release of analgesic or emergency drugs through intentional movements. And they suggest the patches could be combined with other technologies that respond to organ motion or integrated with other wearable technologies.

The article is available at http://jav.ma/1NTir2Y.

Vesicular disease found in more swine herds

A virus associated with vesicular disease in pigs has been found in at least 12 U.S. herds in 2015.

Dr. Paul Sundberg, executive director of the pork industry's Swine Health Information Center, said infections with the Seneca Valley virus, or Senecavirus A, has been associated with clinical signs identical to those of foot-and-mouth disease. Those signs include vesicular lesions on snouts and coronary bands, according to information from the American Association of Swine Veterinarians.

In some infected U.S. herds, mortality rates among the neonatal have been double normal rates, reaching 15 to 18 percent for one to two weeks, Dr. Sundberg said.

But Dr. Sundberg said studies so far have not confirmed that the virus causes disease, which is a subject of center-funded research.

Dr. Tom Burkgren, AASV executive director, said veterinarians need to treat any vesicular disease as a possible FMD infection and report the infection to state or federal animal health authorities.

“You have to err on the side of caution and eliminate foot-and-mouth disease as a potential diagnosis,” he said.

From Jan. 1 to Sept. 1, investigators with the Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory in the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service received samples from 22 swine vesicular case investigations. Of 22 cases, nine were positive for SVV by virus isolation and PCR analysis, five were positive for SVV by PCR analysis only, and eight were negative for SVV, according to information provided by agency spokeswoman Joelle Hayden. In 2014, the agency conducted only five such investigations and isolated the virus in two.

The APHIS information also indicates SVV has been isolated from pigs with other clinical signs, such as those associated with central nervous system or enteric diseases, and agency officials do not know what role the virus has in any of the clinical presentations, including idiopathic vesicular syndromes. The agency also has limited data and lacks a validated serologic test, so the agency has no estimates on prevalence, incidence, or epidemiologic trends.

Dr. Sundberg said the virus has spread across the U.S., appearing in states ranging from Alabama to Hawaii. How the virus spreads and where it originated remain unknown.

Veterinary technicians now have 12 specialties

The Academy of Dermatology Veterinary Technicians is the latest specialty academy to be recognized by the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America, according to an Aug. 24 announcement by the association.

That means the Committee on Veterinary Technician Specialties, a sub-committee of NAVTA, has awarded provisional recognition to the ADVT. It joins the 11 existing NAVTA-approved technician specialties: dentistry, anesthesia, internal medicine, emergency and critical care, equine nursing, zoological medicine, surgery, behavior, clinical practice, nutrition, and clinical pathology.

“The NAVTA Academies give veterinary technicians acknowledgement for achieving advanced education, training, and experience in an area of specialization,” said Margi Sirois, chair of the NAVTA Committee on Veterinary Technician Specialties. “We are thrilled to have an increasing number of veterinary technicians seeking this level of specialization—it truly helps the entire veterinary health care team and the services we can provide.”

The decision was made during a meeting at the July 2015 AVMA Annual Convention in Boston. The ADVT will be inducted as a specialty at the NAVTA annual general membership meeting during the North American Veterinary Community Conference in January in Orlando.

The dermatology academy is still working on developing and finalizing the necessary forms; the first examination is anticipated in 2017 for interested veterinary technicians.

For more information on the new specialty for veterinary technicians, visit www.vetdermtech.com.

“The ADVT's mission is to promote excellence through specialization in the discipline of veterinary dermatology by demonstrating an advanced proficiency of dermatologic procedures, working with the veterinary team and client to advocate superior patient care, and providing cutting-edge continuing education. Our purpose is to enhance the skills and knowledge of veterinary technicians as integral members of the veterinary dermatology team,” said Kim Horne, president of ADVT.

The next generation of veterinary research

Hundreds of student scholars spent their summer in the laboratory


Dr. Peter C. Doherty (right) gave the keynote address at the 2015 Merial–National Institutes of Health National Veterinary Scholars Symposium, which took place July 30-Aug. 2 at the University of California-Davis. (Photos courtesy of Trina Wood/UC-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Even though Dr. Peter C. Doherty is the only veterinarian to ever receive the Nobel Prize—sharing it with Swiss immunologist and pathologist Rolf Zinkernagel, MD, in 1996 in the category of physiology or medicine—Dr. Doherty said research veterinarians have long played a role in public health.

His remark may have been preaching to the choir as he was giving the keynote address at the 2015 Merial–National Institutes of Health National Veterinary Scholars Symposium, which took place July 30-Aug. 2 at the University of California-Davis.

The Nobel laureates received the honor for discovering in the early ‘70s how T cells recognize virus-infected cells by looking for variants in certain molecules—histocompatibility antigens—on the surface of infected cells. But Dr. Doherty, a professor at the University of Melbourne Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, and Health Sciences and a member of the Department of Immunology at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, since 1988, was quick to point out that their research was built on the work of others.

“I get a lot of credit for work a whole group of people do,” Dr. Doherty said. “The collaborative research happening now is really being driven by young people—old guys like me have to get out of the way.”

Judging by the work that was on display at the symposium, Dr. Doherty may have a point about young researchers. More than 400 veterinary student scholars from across the U.S. attended the conference, which drew more than 600 participants, including leading researchers and educators from around the world. “Solving Complex Challenges at the Interface of Humans, Animals, and their Environment” was this year's theme.

Since 1989, Merial has funded the Veterinary Scholars Program to provide an opportunity for first- and second-year U.S. veterinary students to participate in a biomedical research project in a laboratory or clinical setting during the summer. Doing so has allowed them to experience firsthand the process of research and help them understand potential pathways for establishing a research career.

Seminars and discussion groups on careers in science are part of the experience, which culminates with the symposium. The program works with the participating veterinary schools, Merial, the NIH, AVMA, and several other institutions to support a talented pool of veterinary students who are interested in biomedical research and comparative medicine.

Winners of the 2015 Young Investigator Award, co-sponsored by the AVMA and the American Veterinary Medical Foundation, were announced during the weekend. The Young Investigator Award is given to graduate veterinarians pursuing advanced research training through doctoral or postdoctoral programs who present their research at the symposium. The top three finalists were as follows:


Dr. Johanna Elfenbein of North Carolina State University won the 2015 Young Investigator Award.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

  • • Dr. Johanna Elfenbein of North Carolina State University took first place with “Multicopy single-stranded DNA directs intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens.” She received a $2,500 honorarium.

  • • Dr. Greg Brennan of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle took second place with “Gene amplification provides a molecular foothold for viral transmission and adaptation to new species.” He received $1,000.

  • • Dr. Annie Newell-Fugate of Texas A&M University took third place with “Virilizing concentrations of serum testosterone in females may affect insulin signaling in adipose tissue.” She received $500.

The 2015 Merial Veterinary Scholars Award went to Geoffrey Zann (Florida ‘17) for his research project “Effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy on patellofemoral kinematics in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency: an in-vivo study.”

The AVMA and AVMF also presented awards for excellence in research (see page 871).

In addition to presenting their research, students heard from renowned scientists, including Dr. Brad Fenwick, a professor of pathobiology and microbiology at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, on “The big data future of biomedical research”; Richard P. Woychik, PhD, deputy director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, on “Strategic priorities for environmental health science”; and Dr. Brian Bird, a veterinary medical officer in the viral special pathogens branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, on “Synergies between the bench and the field: Rift Valley fever and Ebola.”


Katti Horng of University of California-Davis presents research at the symposium on the use of fecal microbiota transplantation in dogs.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Jessica Drakeford of Mississippi State University explains her research topic to a fellow student.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Next year's symposium will be held July 29-Aug. 1 at The Ohio State University.

Auxiliary reports from Boston

Linda Walker of Arlington, Texas, began her second year as president of the Auxiliary to the AVMA during the AVMA Annual Convention in Boston. Later she said, “The AVMA Auxiliary had a wonderful time in the beautiful city of Boston. The harbor setting was wonderful. The Beach Boys concert was fabulous.”

At its annual meeting July 13, the Auxiliary installed one new board member, Patricia Davis, La Veta, Colorado. As president, Walker chairs the 2015–2016 Auxiliary board. Also continuing on the board are Greg Mooney, Mount Gilead, Ohio, treasurer and immediate past president; Mary Louise Dixon, Rome, Georgia, secretary; Allegra Waldron, Mount Gilead, Ohio, vice president; and directors Judy Dewitt, Birmingham, Alabama, and Leslie Montgomery, Dacula, Georgia.

Kimberly Topper of Gaithersburg, Maryland, reported on the first scholarships awarded by the Auxiliary's Legacy Endowed Scholarship Committee. The new program awards $1,000 scholarships to exceptional second- and third-year veterinary students, with a focus on the prevention, treatment, and control of disease in all major farm and companion animal species. One recipient is selected annually from each of the 28 U.S. veterinary colleges.

The American Veterinary Medical Foundation assists the Auxiliary in administering this program, which was created at the 2013 AVMA convention when the Auxiliary presented the AVMF with a $2 million check to start the fund. Walker said, “It is wonderful to see how well this committee is doing.”


The 2015–2016 Auxiliary board of directors: Greg Mooney, treasurer and immediate past president; Allegra Waldron, vice president; Leslie Montgomery, director; Mary Louise Dixon, secretary; Linda Walker, Auxiliary president and board chair; and Patricia Davis, new director (Not pictured: Judy DeWitt, director) (Photo by Allegra Moone)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Kritters Korner in the exhibit hall does a brisk business in Boston. (Matt Alexandre Photography)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

The Kritters Korner Gift Store in the exhibit hall did “quite well,” Walker said of the Auxiliary's “big moneymaker.” A new line of T-shirts was introduced this year to complement the Laurel Burch merchandise, pewter items, and cutlery. “The crowds were terrific. As most of you know, the sales from our booth allow the Auxiliary to continue to promote AVMA. We look forward to seeing many of you at Western Veterinary Conference in Las Vegas next March,” Walker said.

Winners of the 2016 National Pet Week poster and writing contests will be announced in an upcoming Auxiliary newsletter and in JAVMA this coming March in advance of pet week, the first full week of May. “It was fun to see the artistic talent of our young entrants. Their creativity also made our decision more difficult,” Walker noted.

Walker expressed gratitude for all the support from Auxiliary members, friends, and relatives, whether it was staffing Kritters Korner, repacking the merchandise for shipping back to AVMA headquarters, or paying membership dues.

Henderson promoted, Ackley joins AVMA staff

In August, the AVMA announced the promotion of Dr. Kristi Henderson to director of the Association's Division of Animal and Public Health, formerly known as the Scientific Activities Division.

Also in August, Dr. Elise Ackley joined the AVMA staff as an assistant director in the Governmental Relations Division. A former AVMA Congressional Science Fellow, Dr. Ackley is managing the Association's public policy portfolio on animal welfare, wildlife, and zoo animals.

Dr. Henderson is a 1996 graduate of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine. She worked in private practice and as a federal veterinary medical officer before joining the AVMA in 2009 as an assistant director in the Scientific Activities Division. In 2014, she was named acting director and then interim director.


Dr. Kristi Henderson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Elise Ackley

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

She is responsible for such areas as the environment, wildlife, biosecurity, and animal agriculture. Additionally, Dr. Henderson provides technical and scientific expertise to the AVMA Committee on Environmental Issues and the Animal Agriculture Liaison Committee.

Dr. Ackley is a 2014 graduate of the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine with a focus on public practice. After graduation, she served in the office of U.S. Senate Minority Whip Richard Durbin as a 2014–2015 AVMA fellow focused on agriculture and public health policy.

During veterinary school, Dr. Ackley was involved in the Student AVMA, serving as its president in 2013–2014. She interned in the offices of U.S. Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand and U.S. Sen. Mary Landrieu and was a student volunteer scholar in the Department of Homeland Security's Office of Health Affairs.

Additionally, Dr. Ackley served as an intern in the World Health Organization's Neglected Tropical Diseases Division and in the legislative and public affairs office at the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

“Elise is an enthusiastic public policy professional, and she is a great addition to the AVMA team,” GRD Director Mark Lutschaunig said.

Cyberbullies derail Favorite Veterinarian contest

Less than a month before the winner of this year's America's Favorite Veterinarian Contest was to be revealed, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation canceled the contest because of “vicious” cyberbullying the AVMF says disrupted and contaminated the final process of election by the public.

The AVMF declared all 20 finalists “America's Favorite Veterinarians,” and they were to receive certificates of recognition.

The AVMF explained in an Aug. 26 statement that most of the contest finalists had been targeted by opponents of onychectomy (declawing) in cats. One contestant was called, among other things, “a butcher, a mutilator, a hack, an animal hater, a disgrace to the profession.” Others were subjected to the circulation of fraudulent negative advertisements, negative reviews, and threatening phone calls.

“Apparently many of the so-called animal activists have no problem practicing cruelty to human beings,” observed Dr. John Brooks, chair of the AVMF board. “We have always respected the rights of others to have differing opinions, but to do so in a way that is personally destructive and disruptive is inexcusable.”

Dr. Brooks asked the activists to stop harassing the finalists, adding, “We deeply regret that our contestants had to endure this abuse and intend to take proactive steps in the future to prevent this type of interference from impacting our activities.”

America's Favorite Veterinarian Contest was launched in 2013 to mark the AVMF's 50th anniversary. The latest batch of finalists was selected from 500 nominees. The judging committee comprised animal health industry and association leaders as well as bloggers. Nominees were evaluated on their community involvement, ethical behavior, passion for the profession, and connections to pets and their owners.

SAVMA steps up diversity outreach

Story and photos by R. Scott Nolen

An ad hoc cultural outreach officer position has been created on the Student AVMA Executive Board to advance diversity and inclusion within veterinary medicine. The SAVMA House of Delegates approved the position while meeting July 12–13 in Boston.

Following a one-year probationary period, the ad hoc position will be evaluated when the SAVMA HOD convenes in San Antonio in 2016. Delegates will then vote on whether a cultural outreach officer should continue on an ad hoc basis or be made a permanent SAVMA Executive Board position.

“Enhancing diversity outreach is a very important job. We in veterinary medicine can and should work toward improving it,” SAVMA President Jessica Carie said after the meeting.

Kyle Hohu, the senior SAVMA delegate from Purdue University, proposed the new position and later was elected to that office. He saw a cultural outreach officer as meeting a need among students to take a more active role in promoting diversity and inclusion. “We have many SAVMA board positions that deal with other issues affecting students, and I felt we needed someone to work on diversity, inclusion, and cultural competency,” Hohu said.

Over the next year, Hohu plans on establishing liaison positions with various organizations and working with Dr. Beth Sabin, AVMA's associate director for international and diversity initiatives, to align SAVMA and AVMA goals on advancing diversity and inclusion within the AVMA.

“The position will also focus on promoting diversity among future and current veterinary students. I will be working to facilitate outreach and promotion of veterinary medicine among underrepresented populations of future students,” Hohu explained, adding that he is looking at making relevant resources more readily available to students.

During its two-day meeting, the SAVMA HOD voted in favor of amending the SAVMA bylaws to allow delegates of satellite veterinary schools to be elected to the SAVMA Executive Board. Satellite schools, also known as 2+2 programs, have veterinary students spending their first years studying veterinary medicine at one university and then finishing their education at another university with a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Dr. Tony Bartels, a contributor to the Veterinary Information Network, gave a presentation on managing student loan debt, and Dr. Betsy Charles, executive director of the Veterinary Leadership Institute, spoke about inclusive and integrative leadership.


Student AVMA President Jessica Carie chairing the SAVMA House of Delegates meeting this past July in Boston

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

The AVMA PLIT told the student delegates it would begin sponsoring the cost of student liability insurance premiums as an added member benefit for students belonging to the SAVMA.

“The idea that someone can allege a veterinary student was negligent and committed malpractice during a clinical experience can be scary and overwhelming. We want students to know that they are not alone,” said Dr. Janet Donlin, AVMA PLIT CEO.

The PLIT, along with the AVMA, AVMA Group Health & Life Insurance Trust, and SAVMA, also announced $333,000 in support for the ALL for Students program (see “SCAVMA program funding renewed,” next page).

Student delegates elected the following 2016–2017 SAVMA officers: Meghana Pendurthi, University of Pennsylvania, secretary-elect; Shawn Wharrey, The Ohio State University, treasurer-elect; Michael McEntire, Texas A&M University, information technology officer–elect; Alex Schauer, University of Minnesota, The Vet Gazette editor–elect; and Kyle Hohu, Purdue University, ad hoc cultural outreach officer.


Kyle Hohu, senior Student AVMA delegate from Purdue University, speaks in support of adding an ad hoc cultural outreach officer on the SAVMA Executive Board.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

SCAVMA program funding renewed

The AVMA, both AVMA insurance trusts, and the Student AVMA are continuing their financial support for the Achieving, Leading, Learning for Students program in the 2015–2016 academic year.

The AVMA, the AVMA Group Health & Life Insurance Trust, and AVMA PLIT are each contributing $100,000 to the ALL for Students program while SAVMA is providing $33,000. The $333,000 will be distributed among the 35 student chapters of the AVMA and one associate organization in the SAVMA House of Delegates. The announcement was made during the SAVMA HOD meeting July 13 in Boston.

ALL for Students began in 2013 as a joint initiative among the AVMA, its trusts, and SAVMA to support the SCAVMAs in the categories of professional development, leadership, wellness, and community outreach.

“The ALL for Students funding could not have come at a better time for our chapter,” said Carrie Howe, University of Minnesota SCAVMA president. “We have had to make some major cutbacks in our budget, but the ALL for Students funding has greatly helped to offset this problem. The additional income provided by the ALL for Students funding has been pivotal in our ability to provide for our members.”

SAVMA President Jessica Carie said it's important that veterinary students have the resources to prepare them for leadership. “This funding will enable the ALL for Students program to continue providing critical services to our students as they prepare to embark on a career in veterinary medicine and equip them with the tools they need to succeed,” she explained.

Student leaders convene

Seventy-seven veterinary students and faculty advisers attended the 2015 Student Chapter of the AVMA Leadership Conference, Aug. 28–29 at AVMA headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois. Following a welcome by AVMA Chief Operating Officer David Granstrom and presentations by the AVMA insurance trusts, AVMA Vice President Rebecca Stinson (pictured at top) delivered the keynote address. The remainder of the SCAVMA Leadership Conference included sessions on chapter officer responsibilities, updating the Student AVMA logo, fundraising ideas, and use of the ALL for Students program funding.

Additionally, the 2015 Faculty Advisor Grant Award winners and projects were announced. They are Auburn University: men-toring and women-toring 21st-century veterinarians; Cornell University: emotional CPR; North Carolina State University: controversial issues–conflict resolution; University of Glasgow: difficult conversations; Washington State University: effective and innovative teaching in a clinical setting; and Western University: spring facilitator training.

New TV series follows budding veterinarians

By Rashmi Shivni


Fourth-year student Aziza Glass gets a lesson in equine dentistry on Nat Geo WILD's “Vet School.” The series premiered Sept. 19 and was produced at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Nat Geo WILD premiered a reality television show following veterinary students as they learn the ins and outs of the profession.

The show, “Vet School,” debuted Sept. 19 and took place at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. Nat Geo WILD followed first- and fourth-year students as they learned the basics and started moving toward hands-on activities, respectively. The show was filmed this past academic year.

According to a press release by Cornell University, the show followed first-year students Hannah Brodlie, Cristina Bustamante, and Dan Cimino. The fourth-year students were Sam Dicker, Singen Elliot, Aziza Glass, and Aria Hill. These students have different ambitions and aim to focus on specific areas of veterinary medicine.

The students were fielded and selected to be interviewed by Thinkfactory Media, a content production company, which helped Nat Geo WILD find potential students with specific interests, said Claudia Wheatley, a college spokeswoman at Cornell.

“First and foremost was each student's ability to represent Cornell and the veterinary profession,” Wheatley said. “We also looked at the students’ areas of professional interest to make sure they represented a broad range of veterinary specialties, from large animals to small animals, pets to production livestock.”


Millie, a Bulldog with congestive heart failure, is prepped for surgery on Nat Geo WILD's “Vet School.” (Courtesy of Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

The show portrays “the pressures, rewards and occasional sadness of life as an aspiring veterinarian,” the Cornell press release stated. This was a personal look at the struggles of transitioning from student to professional.

The network has some of the most popular shows about veterinary medicine and a large general audience interested in animal health and welfare.

“We viewed this show as a fantastic opportunity to raise the profile of the veterinary profession and to help the public understand the rigorous education leading to a veterinary degree,” Interim Dean Lorin Warnick said in the Cornell release. “We were honored to be asked to participate in the production and happy to showcase the experience of our students as they work to become veterinarians.”

The show consists of six episodes that are running every Saturday through Oct. 24. The episodes cover topics such as anesthesiology, cardiology, and dental surgery in both large and small animals.

Investigators recognized for outstanding research

During the 2015 Merial–National Institutes of Health Veterinary Scholars Symposium, held July 30-Aug. 2 at the University of California-Davis, the AVMA and American Veterinary Medical Foundation presented awards to two individuals for their efforts in advancing veterinary research.

AVMA Lifetime Excellence in Research Award

This award recognizes a veterinary researcher on the basis of lifetime achievement in basic, applied, or clinical research.

Dr. Ian D. Duncan

Dr. Duncan (Glasgow ‘71), a professor of neurology in the Department of Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, has been described as a true trailblazer in comparative biomedical research. He received his doctorate in pathology from Glasgow University in 1975. His research contributions started early on with the study of the peripheral neuropathy associated with laryngeal hemiplegia in horses and continued with neuroscience research that identified several previously unrecognized neuromuscular disorders in small animals. His work to understand the basic biology of genetic disorders of myelination has informed not only veterinary medicine but also human medicine, having translational impact on patients with multiple sclerosis and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.

Dr. Duncan is a fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, Royal College of Pathologists, and Royal Society of Edinburgh.

His acceptance included advice for developing a successful career in research, with points such as “stay focused” on a particular area of research rather than dabbling in several areas, and “remain open” to the possibility that what you think is true might not be so.

AVMF/Winn Excellence in Feline Research Award

This award honors a candidate's contribution to advancing feline health through research.

Dr. Urs Giger

Dr. Giger (Zurich ‘77) is a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and director of the Josephine Deubler Genetic Disease Testing Laboratory. He's also head of the Clinical Program in Medical Genetics and Pediatrics. His extensive contributions to the expansion of knowledge in feline medicine include the characterization of the feline AB blood type system, description of a number of blood cell abnormalities such as osmotic fragility syndrome and leukocyte adhesion deficiency, and discovery of numerous genetic defects associated with feline hereditary diseases.


Dr. Ian D. Duncan

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Urs Giger

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Dr. Giger is an American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine–certified specialist in small animal internal medicine as well as a diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (companion animals) and European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

Phi Zeta presents research awards

Phi Zeta, the international honor society of veterinary medicine, recently presented two awards for research manuscripts. Each award consists of a plaque and $1,000.

Dr. Freya Mowat (Bristol ‘01) received the 2015 Phi Zeta Research Award in the basic sciences category. The Psi chapter at North Carolina State University submitted her winning manuscript, “Tyrosine capsid-mutant AAV vectors for gene delivery to the canine retina from a subretinal or intravitreal approach.”

Dr. Mowat received her doctorate in molecular genetics in 2009 from University College London and recently completed her comparative ophthalmology residency at Michigan State University. She currently is an assistant professor of ophthalmology at North Carolina State University. Her research interests focus on comparative aspects of retinal disease in companion animals.


Dr. Freya Mowat

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Dr. Samantha Parkinson (Wisconsin ‘12) received the 2015 Phi Zeta Research Award in the clinical sciences category. The Phi chapter at the University of Tennessee submitted her winning manuscript, “Evaluation of the effect of orally administered acid suppressants on intragastric pH in cats” (J Vet Intern Med 2015;29:104–112).

Dr. Parkinson completed a small animal internship at Wheat Ridge Animal Hospital in Colorado and is currently in a residency program at the University of Tennessee in small animal internal medicine. Her research interests include infectious and renal diseases.

Society for Theriogenology

Event: Annual conference, Aug. 5–8, San Antonio

Program: Plenary sessions featured “Veterinary Supply and Demand” by Dr. David Hardin and “Founders Syndrome—Why Practices Never Reach Their Full Potential and How to Ensure Yours Does” by D. Kirk Eddleman. An educator's forum, sponsored by the Theriogenology Foundation, provided information on clinical teaching of theriogenology and outcomes assessment of veterinary students. Forty-seven scientific abstracts, 14 poster presentations, and six veterinary student case presentations were provided during various sessions at the conference.

Awards: David Bartlett Honorary Address: Dr. Beverly Purswell, Blacksburg, Virginia, presented the address. Dr. Purswell was recognized for excellence in teaching and research in theriogenology. Her research has focused on equine reproduction and the effects of hypothyroidism on canine reproduction.

Dr. John Steiner Award for Excellence in Practice: Dr. Clinton Hilt, Dutton, Montana. Dr. Hilt was recognized for clinical expertise in reproduction at cow-calf operations, equine theriogenology, and semen freezing.

Dr. Jerry Rains Memorial Abstract Competition, sponsored by Merck Animal Health: Stephanie Schroeder White, Pullman, Washington, “Fertility following two doses of PGF concurrently or at 6-hour intervals on the day of CIDR removal in 5-day co-synch progesterone-based synchronization protocols in beef heifers,” first place ($1,000); Dr. Robyn Ellerbrock, Urbana, Illinois, for “Diagnosis and effects of urine contamination on stallion semen cooling,” second place ($750); Rachel Shutter, Pullman, Washington, “Seminal plasma microRNAs: potential biomarkers for bull fertility,” third place ($500); Seth Bynum, Pullman, Washington, “Circulating microRNAs and associated gene regulations in puerperal metritis in dairy cows,” fourth-place tie ($250); Dr. Jamie L. Stewart, Urbana, Illinois, “Long-term effects of clinical application of pyrethrin and cyfluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, on bull reproductive parameters,” fourth-place tie ($250).

Veterinary Student Case Presentation Competition, sponsored by Hagyard Equine Medical Institute: Christine Garrett, Auburn University, “Endometrial cyst ablation in a 23-year-old Dutch Warmblood mare,” first place ($650); Kelsey Tanner, University of California-Davis, “Equine pregnancy following remote transvaginal aspiration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection,” second place ($525); H. Grady Bailin, Louisiana State University, “Intrauterine marbles for estrus suppression in mares—two marbles are not always better than one,” third place ($450); Amélie Rivaleau, Auburn University, “Domperidone treatment for agalactia in a queen,” fourth place ($375); Corinna Esdorn, University of California-Davis, “Use of behavioral and pharmacological manipulations followed by castration and gamete rescue in securing offspring from a challenging stallion,” fifth place ($300); and Alyssa Thomas, University of Missouri-Columbia, “Sperm immotility as a cause of infertility in a bull,” sixth place ($200).


Dr. Beverly Purswell

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Clinton Hilt

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Michael Thompson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Student Chapter of the Year Award, sponsored by Rood & Riddle Equine Hospital: Washington State University, first place ($1,000 and a banner), and Auburn University, second place ($500 and a plaque).

T-Shirt Design Contest, sponsored by Bovine Services: Auburn University, first place ($300), and Louisiana State University, second place ($100).

Student Quiz Bowl, sponsored by Merck Animal Health: Michigan State University, first place ($300), and University of Missouri-Columbia, second place ($100).

Student Poster Competition: Zarah Deutsch, Washington State University, “Clitoridectomy following vulvar laceration in a pregnant mare,” first place; D. Andrew Hestad, Auburn University, “Diagnosis and treatment of granulosa cell tumor in a 10-year-old mare,” second place; Natalie Palumbo, North Carolina State University, “Stallion-like behavior in a male castrated Thoroughbred with non-secretory inguinal mass,” third place; Kristina M. Simmons, North Carolina State University, “Priapism in a Thoroughbred gelding associated with metastatic Streptococcus equi infection,” fourth place; and Ericka Larsonberg, Washington State University, “Ovariohysterectomy following uterine rupture in a ewe,” fifth place.

Business: The bylaws were amended such that a person applying for associate membership is required to submit three letters of reference from current SFT members.

The Theriogenology Foundation is continuing its efforts to educate canine breeders and to support residency positions in small animal theriogenology. A three-year rotation for the popular canine, bovine, and equine symposia was announced.

Officials: Drs. Michael Thompson, Holly Springs, Mississippi, president; Peter Sheerin, New Freedom, Pennsylvania, president-elect; Isaac Bott, Elk Ridge, Utah, vice president; Robyn Wilborn, Lafayette, Alabama, secretary-treasurer; and Herris Maxwell, Auburn, Alabama, immediate past president. Newly elected members of the board of directors are Drs. Charles Scoggin, Paris, Kentucky; Jill Colloton, Edgar, Wisconsin; and Lisa Pearson, Pullman, Washington.

Contact: Dr. Charles Franz, Executive Director, Society for Theriogenology, SFT Association Office, P.O. Box 3007, Montgomery, AL 36109; phone, 334-395-4666; email, charles@franzmgt.com; website, www.therio.org

American College of Animal Welfare

The American College of Animal Welfare certified seven new diplomates following the certification examination it held July 25 in Raleigh, North Carolina. The new diplomates are as follows:

Louis DiVincenti Jr., Rochester, New York

Anna Hampton, Durham, North Carolina

Andrew Knight, Winchester, United Kingdom

April Kolstad, Durham, North Carolina

Franklin D. McMillan, Kanab, Utah

Debbie Vanderford, Durham, North Carolina

Cathy V. Williams, Durham, North Carolina

American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology

The American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology certified Dr. Matthew Stock, Madison, New Jersey, as a new diplomate, following the certification examination it held May 15–16 in Fort Collins, Colorado.

American College of Theriogenologists

Event: Annual business meeting, Aug. 6, San Antonio

Awards: Theriogenologist of the Year Award, sponsored by Universal Imaging: Dr. Rob Gilbert, Ithaca, New York, for excellence in research and teaching of reproduction. Dr. Gilbert was recognized for his work on the postpartum period in cattle and uterine disease, especially endometritis.

Business: A system for maintenance of certification of diplomates was submitted to the membership for approval; maintenance of certification for new diplomates must be implemented no later than 2016. The ACT board of directors has adopted a new policy for investment of reserves to ensure the return keeps pace with inflation.

New diplomates: The college welcomed 18 new diplomates following successful completion of the requirements:

Chance Armstrong, Auburn, Alabama

Theresa Beachler, Raleigh, North Carolina

Patrick Brogan, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Chelsie Burden, Augusta, Kansas Alexis Campbell, Pullman, Washington

Young Ho Choi, College Station, Texas

Natalie Fraser, Auburn, Alabama Claire Freeman, Elmira, New York Kendrick Sudderth Govan, Houston Alvaro Garcia Guerra, Madison, Wisconsin


Dr. Rob Gilbert

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Sara Lyle

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Jennifer Koziol, Auburn, Alabama Niamh Lewis, Cheshire, England Katherine McKelvey, Raeford, North Carolina

Alexandra Rauch, Piding, Germany Jennifer N. Roberts, East Lansing, Michigan

Camilla J. Scott, Davis, California

Carolynne Tarr, Pretoria, South Africa

Jared Voge, Campbell Hall, New York

Officials: Drs. Sara Lyle, Raleigh, North Carolina, president; Ram Kasimanickam, Pullman, Washington, president-elect; John Kastelic, Calgary, Alberta, vice president; John Dascanio, Harrogate, Tennessee, treasurer; Reed Holyoak, Stillwater, Oklahoma, secretary; and Barry Ball, Lexington, Kentucky, immediate past president. Dr. Sherrie Clark-Deener, Blacksburg, Virginia, was elected to the board of directors.

Contact: Dr. Charles Franz, Executive Director, American College of Theriogenologists, P.O. Box 3065, Montgomery, AL 36109; phone, 334-395-4666; email, charles@franzmgt.com; website, www.theriogenology.org

North Carolina VMA

Event: Annual meeting, June 25–28, Pinehurst

Awards: Distinguished Veterinarian: Dr. Philip McHugh, Durham, for career achievements and contributions to the veterinary profession and the community. A 1985 graduate of the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. McHugh owns and serves as medical director at Park Vet Hospital in Durham. He is North Carolina's alternate delegate to the AVMA House of Delegates and a member of the Veterinary Management Group. A past president of the NCVMA and a past chair of the NCVMA Finance Committee, Dr. McHugh served on the AVMA Task Force on Continuing Education from 2013–2015. Veterinarian of the Year: Dr. Sandra Albright, Raleigh. A 1987 graduate of the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Albright owns Crossroads Veterinary Hospital in Raleigh. She has chaired the NCVMA Political Action Committee for the past seven years and is a longtime member of the NCSU-CVM Alumni Society board of directors. Dr. Albright volunteers with several local animal rescue groups and acts as a mentor to preveterinary and veterinary students. Young Veterinarian of the Year: Dr. Mindy Wesely, Madison. A 2013 graduate of the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Wesely owns Stokesdale Veterinary Hospital. Earlier in her career, she worked in emergency medicine in Thomasville. Dr. Wesely serves as a course coordinator and lecturer at Davidson County Community College and is the NCVMA's District 6 representative.

Officials: Drs. Kristen Hammett, Waynesville, president; Tom Kuhn, Asheville, president-elect; Steve Stelma, New Bern, vice president; Brenda Stevens, Raleigh, secretary-treasurer; and Shannon Foy, Wilson, immediate past president

South Dakota VMA

Event: Annual meeting, Aug. 9–12, Sioux Falls

Awards: Veterinarian of the Year: Dr. James McKnight, Brookings. Following his graduation from the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine in 1963, Dr. McKnight founded McKnight Veterinary Clinic, a mixed animal practice in Brookings. He has focused on large animal medicine since 1991, also serving as a relief veterinarian in South Dakota and surrounding states. Dr. McKnight is a past president of the SDVMA and Interstate VMA and served on the South Dakota Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners for eight years. Distinguished Service Award: Dr. Sam Holland, Pierre, won this award, given in honor of an individual who has brought distinction to the veterinary profession through professional and personal achievements and by serving as an inspiration to veterinarians and their clients. A 1971 graduate of the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Holland is executive director of the South Dakota Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. From 1995–2009, he served as South Dakota state veterinarian. As state veterinarian, Dr. Holland developed and implemented pseudorabies eradication programs in swine herds, programs to control bovine trichomoniasis, and a chronic wasting disease control program; helped eradicate brucellosis from buffalo herds; co-founded the South Dakota Beef Quality Assurance/Critical Management Plan; and helped establish one of the nation's first state reserve veterinary medical officer corps. Emerging Leader Award: Dr. Chanda Nilsson, Bath, won this award, given to a member who has graduated in the preceding 10 years and has a record of outstanding accomplishments in veterinary research, private practice, regulatory services, civic activities, or organized veterinary medicine. A 2011 graduate of the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Nilsson practices mixed animal medicine at Groton Veterinary Clinic. She is a member of the SDVMA board of directors, representing District 2. Dr. Nilsson has also represented the SDVMA as an AVMA Emerging Leader.


Dr. James McKnight

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Sam Holland

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Chanda Nilsson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832


Dr. Christy Teets

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 8; 10.2460/javma.247.8.832

Officials: Drs. Christy Teets, Rapid City, president; Travis White, Wessington Springs, president-elect; Michelle Jensen, Harrisburg, vice president; Mark Braunschmidt, Brandon, secretary-treasurer; Todd Carr, Sioux Falls, immediate past president; Chris Chase, Brookings, AVMA delegate; Cindy Franklin, Yankton, AVMA alternate delegate; Angela Anderson, Sioux Falls, District 1 representative; Chanda Nilsson, Groton, District 2 representative; and Ethan Andress, Hettinger, District 3 representative

Obituaries: AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember

Howard C. Adams

Dr. Adams (Brandeis Middlesex ‘44), 93, Athol, Massachusetts, died Feb. 15, 2015. He owned Adams Animal Hospital in Athol for 40 years prior to retirement. Dr. Adams also served as animal inspector for the town of Athol. He was a past president of the Massachusetts VMA. Dr. Adams served on the Athol Area YMCA board of directors and was a member of the Masonic Lodge and Elks Club. His wife, Margaret; a son and a daughter; and four grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Athol Animal Shelter, c/o Athol Police Department, 280 Exchange St., Athol, MA 01331; or Athol Area YMCA, 545 Main St., Athol, MA 01331.

Austin T. Ayars

Dr. Ayars (Ohio State ‘07), 34, Mechanicsburg, Ohio, died June 7, 2015. He owned Ayars Veterinary Service, a primarily bovine practice in Phoenix, for seven years, until moving recently to Ohio. Earlier, Dr. Ayars worked for Herd Health Management in Phoenix. Dr. Ayars was a member of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and Ohio VMA and was active with the 4-H Club. His wife, Adrienne, and two sons and a daughter survive him. Memorials toward an educational fund for his children and a scholarship in his name may be made to Security National Bank, 2 S. Main St., Mechanicsburg, OH 43044.

Robert R. Birr

Dr. Birr (Michigan State ‘56), 87, Pulaski, Wisconsin, died April 6, 2015. Following graduation, he joined a mixed animal practice in Pulaski that later became the Pulaski Veterinary Clinic. Dr. Birr served the Tri-County area for more than 40 years prior to retirement. He was a member of the Wisconsin and Northeastern Wisconsin VMAs.

Dr. Birr is survived by his wife, LaDonna; four sons; nine grandchildren; and 10 great-grandchildren. Memorials may be made to Bay City Baptist Church, 1840 Bond St., Green Bay, WI 54303.

John C. Donaldson

Dr. Donaldson (Auburn ‘67), 72, Celina, Tennessee, died May 23, 2015. He was a mixed animal veterinarian. Dr. Donaldson is survived by his wife, Frances; a son and three daughters; 10 grandchildren; and a great-grandchild.

Toby S. Emo

Dr. Emo (Prince Edward ‘03), 40, Nunda, New York, died June 7, 2015. A mixed animal veterinarian, he joined Nunda Veterinary Clinic following graduation and took over as owner in 2010. Dr. Emo was a member of the American Association of Equine Practitioners and American Association of Bovine Practitioners. His wife, Dr. Ailsa C. Emo (Prince Edward ‘03), who has taken over Nunda Veterinary Clinic, and a son and daughter survive him. Memorials may be made to the Toby Emo Scholarship Fund Memorial, c/o Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave., Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3.

Donald C. Gay

Dr. Gay (Cornell ‘62), 84, Fiskdale, Massachusetts, died June 11, 2015. He founded Sturbridge Veterinary Hospital in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, where he practiced small animal medicine for 36 years prior to retirement. Dr. Gay was an Army veteran of the Korean War. His wife, Jacqueline; three daughters; six grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Lewy Body Dementia Association, 912 Killian Hill Road SW, Lilburn, GA 30047, www.lbda.org.

George E. Gorse

Dr. Gorse (Cornell ‘52), 90, Williamsburg, Virginia, died Feb. 22, 2015. A mixed animal veterinarian, he owned Biglerville Animal Clinic in Biglerville, Pennsylvania, prior to retirement in 2005. Earlier in his career, Dr. Gorse owned Blairstown Animal Clinic in Blairstown, New Jersey, and Stroudsburg Animal Clinic in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. He was a veteran of the Army Air Corps. Dr. Gorse is survived by his wife, Carol, and seven children. Memorials may be made to Hospice House, 4445 Powhatan Parkway, Williamsburg, VA 23188.

Thayer C. Hoover

Dr. Hoover (Iowa State ‘82), 57, Spirit Lake, Iowa, died June 23, 2015. He worked for Pfizer Animal Health/Zoetis for more than 20 years. Earlier in his career, Dr. Hoover served as a swine technical services veterinarian for SmithKline Beecham Animal Health. He was a member of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians and Iowa VMA. Dr. Hoover's wife, Cynthia; a son, daughter, and four stepchildren; and a grandson survive him.

Frank L. Krohn

Dr. Krohn (Cornell ‘55), 84, Sarasota, Florida, died March 10, 2015. In 1958, he founded Springfield Animal Hospital in Springfield, Vermont, where he practiced mixed animal medicine until 1986. Dr. Krohn later worked for Healthy Pets of Venice in Sarasota and served as veterinarian for the Sarasota Greyhound Race Track. Early in his career, he taught at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Krohn's wife, Carole, and three sons survive him.

Benson B. Martin Jr.

Dr. Martin (Pennsylvania ‘80), 68, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, died March 18, 2015. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, he retired in 2014 as an associate professor of equine sports medicine from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. During his 34-year tenure at the university, Dr. Martin also directed the New Bolton Center's Equine Performance Clinic and Jeffords High-Speed Treadmill facility and served on the veterinary school's admission committee.

Dr. Martin was a Navy veteran of the Korean War. Memorials toward the Ben Martin Endowed Opportunity Scholarship, with checks made payable to the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, may be made to the New Bolton Center Development Office, 382 W. Street Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Scott E. McComb

Dr. McComb (Oregon State ‘97), 49, Chandler, Arizona, died March 27, 2015. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Crossroads Veterinary Hospital in Chandler. Dr. McComb was a member of the Arizona VMA and received its Young Practitioner of the Year Award in 2006. His wife, Missy, survives him.

Richard J. Nelson

Dr Nelson (Texas A&M ‘62), 77, Seguin, Texas, died June 18, 2015. A mixed animal veterinarian, he established Parkview Veterinary Clinic in Seguin in 1968. Following graduation, Dr. Nelson served in the Army Veterinary Corps for two years, attaining the rank of captain. He then worked for the Department of Agriculture in south Texas and owned a practice in Uvalde, Texas, before moving to Seguin.

Dr. Nelson is survived by his wife, Ernestine; three sons and two daughters; and nine grandchildren. Memorials may be made to St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, 201 E. Nolte St., Seguin, TX 78155; Guadalupe County Youth Show, P.O. Box 1400, Seguin, TX 78155; or the Texas Agricultural Education and Heritage Center, 390 Cordova Road, Seguin, TX 78155.

Jeffrey C. Peila

Dr. Peila (Washington State ‘76), 64, Shepherd, Montana, died April 29, 2015. He owned Shepherd Huntley Animal Care Center, a mixed animal practice in Shepherd. Dr. Peila also raised cattle. Early in his career, he practiced in Montana at Ronan and Roundup and owned Animal House Hospital in Forsyth, Montana. Dr. Peila's wife, Susan; six children; and 13 grandchildren survive him.

Andreas R. Richter

Dr. Richter (Florida ‘87), 70, Genoa, New York, died June 1, 2015. A large animal veterinarian, he owned Cayuga Bovine Service in Genoa since 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Richter practiced at Midvale Veterinary Associates in Canajoharie, New York, and Cayuga Veterinary Service in Auburn, New York. Early in his career, he worked in Pennsylvania. Dr. Richter's wife, Hannah, and two daughters and a son survive him. Memorials may be made to the Poplar Ridge Friends Meeting, P.O. Box 146, Aurora, NY 13026.

David H. Schmidt

Dr. Schmidt (Ohio State ‘72), 74, Upper Sandusky, Ohio, died May 2, 2015. He owned Portage Animal Clinic, a small animal practice in Portage, Indiana, prior to retirement in 2011. Dr. Schmidt also helped establish the North Central Veterinary Emergency Clinic, serving as president and treasurer for several years. He was a member of the Calumet Area VMA board of directors and a member of the Indiana VMA.

Active in civic life, Dr. Schmidt was a past president of the Portage Chamber of Commerce and a member of the board of directors of the Portage YMCA and Wyandot County Historical Society. He served in the Navy from 1959–1963. Dr. Schmidt is survived by his wife, Rosalie; two daughters; and a grandson. Memorials may be made to the Wyandot County Historical Society, c/o Bringman Clark Funeral Home, 226 E. Wyandot Ave., Upper Sandusky, OH 43351.

Jim Simpson

Dr. Simpson (Texas A&M ‘84), 56, Weatherford, Texas, died March 26, 2015. He owned Equine Chiropractic and Acupuncture, a mobile equine practice focusing on lameness. Earlier in his career, Dr. Simpson worked at Belmont Racetrack in Elmont, New York, for 17 years. He was a certified member of the American Veterinary Chiropractic Association. Dr. Simpson is survived by his wife, Brenda.

Michael E. Tatum

Dr. Tatum (Texas A&M ‘64), 73, College Station, Texas, died June 23, 2015. He began his career as a veterinarian with the Texas A&M University Experiment Station. Dr. Tatum joined the veterinary faculty of TAMU in 1965, serving as a professor of veterinary anatomy until retirement in 2000. In 1999, he received what is now known as the Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award.

Dr. Tatum's wife, Carol; two daughters and a son; and four grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Hospice Brazos Valley, 502 W. 26th St., Bryan, TX 77803; A&M United Methodist Church, 417 University Drive, College Station, TX 77840; or Class of ‘64 Scholarship, College of Veterinary Medicine, 4461 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843.

  • View in gallery

    (Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

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    The Journal has reported extensively over the years on scientific developments that impact practitioners. Pictured is a pit dug for the burial of cattle and hogs killed after being found to be infected with foot-and-mouth disease in late 1914 in Champaign County, Ohio.

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    A March 1, 1956, article showed techniques for holding a dog to be given an epidural anesthetic.

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    The staff of the 1939 AVMA Secretariat included Drs. H. Preston Hoskins (front left) and L.A. Merillat (front center). Dr. Merillat succeeded Dr. Hoskins as editor that year.

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    The first separately plated images, titled “Paralysis of Pigs,” appeared in the May 1916 issue.

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    “Army Veterinary Service” was one of JAVMA's earliest special sections. It first appeared in the September 1917 issue and continued through the late 1930s, providing articles, letters, and reports related to military service.

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    During the 1928 AVMA Annual Meeting, six sections featuring live demonstrations were held at University Farm at the University of Minnesota. The sections covered horses, cattle, small animals, sheep, swine, and poultry. “Leaders in these different fields of practice … were on hand to give demonstrations, perform operations and explain the latest methods of diagnosis and treatment,” according to a September 1928 article.

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    In the April 1928 issue, JAVMA published its first color images with an article on infectious enteritis in swine.

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    According to a November 1937 issue of JAVMA, “The amount of radiation absorbed in a single examination would rarely be dangerous, but since the effects are associated with cumulative absorption, every precaution to avoid the unnecessary exposure should be taken. … It may be truthfully said that the operator should be more concerned with his own protection than with that of his patient.”

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    Nutrition for all species was a main focus in this decade. In this March 1941 article on nutritional disease of chickens, one is shown with rickets (left) and two others with riboflavin deficiency (center and right).

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    An article on the urinary tract and small animal radiography in September 1953 read, “Working together, physiologists and chemists have developed a range of dyes that make it possible to render visible most of the organs and vessels which, because of their structure or position, would not otherwise be seen in sufficient contrast.” Shown are examples of normal variation of the renal pelvis in dogs.

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    From the December 1954 issue of JAVMA, the debut of “What Is Your Diagnosis?”

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    Pictures that ran with a May 1, 1956, article on portable equipment for veterinary practice show the open trunk of a ‘55 Packard 400 hardtop, converted for use as a mobile medical and surgical supply.

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    The August 1955 article “The physical examination of rhesus monkeys” chronicled researchers’ problems with how the monkeys were to be caught and held while being examined. The researchers found the “only satisfactory method of holding was by hand, with the attendant grasping the monkey's arms and pinning them behind its back with one hand and holding the animal's head or hindlegs with the other” (as shown in this picture).