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Chronicling a century of veterinary medicine

JAVMA celebrates its 100th year

Malinda Larkin

“A periodical is the voice of its readers. It reflects their thoughts, their ideas, their knowledge and their labors. Since our profession is composed of a number of branches somewhat unrelated in their application, covering the entire scope to the pleasure of all concerned is a baffling undertaking. The general plan is to create new departments which will portray the passing events of veterinary medicine as accurately and as completely as possible.”

(JAVMA, April 1939 editorial, page 421)

So let's just clear something up: Although we're celebrating the JAVMA centennial this year, the Journa is actually older than that. Technically, at least. But that's true only if you count the time that it wasn't actually the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

You see, back in 1877, the AVMA (then the United States Veterinary Medical Association) first established an official journal for the Association, calling it the American Veterinary Review. (Fun fact: That makes the Journal one of the oldest surviving veterinary-related journals, which include The Veterinary Journal, established in 1875 in London, and Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde, established in 1863 in Utrecht, The Netherlands.)

But the Association soon gave up its interest in the Journal, turning control of the Review over to its first editor, Dr. Alexandre Liautard, who became the publication's sole proprietor and publisher in 1881.

According to Dr. J.F. Smithcors in his 1963 book “The American Veterinary Profession”: “Dr. Liautard successfully got the USVMA to give up the Journal so he could have full control over it, presumably because of his dissatisfaction with the restrictions placed on him by the Association regarding his management of the Journal. This move allowed him the freedom to strongly criticize, even satirize, the Association without worrying about annual reelection to the editorship. He took advantage of this freedom regularly and to great, constructive effect for many years.”

CELEBRATING 100 YEARS

JAVMA's first issue came out in October 1915, which is why we are dedicating two issues to the Journal's 100th anniversary. The Oct. 1 issue focuses on our coverage of veterinary news. More about the scientific side of the Journal will appear in the Oct. 15 issue. Both feature a recap of all 10 decades and a photo spread.

In 1896, Liautard sold an interest in the Review to Dr. Roscoe R. Bell. Then in 1900, at age 65, Dr. Liautard severed his financial interest in the Review and returned to his native France. He did retain the title of senior editor and continued a monthly feature until 1918.

Although Dr. Liautard owned the Review, it never ceased, in effect, to be the official organ of the Association. However, after purchasing the rights to the American Veterinary Review for $2,500, the Association changed the name to JAVMA starting with the October 1915 issue, and the Journal once again was brought under the complete ownership and management of the Association. And so, this is why we celebrate the Journal's 100th year with this issue.

Hindsight is 20/20

As with any major milestone, a healthy dose of reflection is in order. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions JAVMA has made to veterinary medicine is simply documenting it. In doing so, current and future practitioners have a better understanding of the “why” behind what they learn in veterinary school and the current state of the profession.

Nonscientific content in early issues of the journal consisted mostly of editorials by the editor. These missives brought attention to things such as the need to improve educational standards, public awareness of the value of veterinarians, and the importance of Association membership.

Flipping through old issues reveals more than a few recurring quandaries. According to a June 1949 editorial: “The wholesale mixing of drugs with feed by manufacturers raises some disturbing questions. Will present meager sanitation and hygienic practices for the control of diseases be relaxed or even discarded? Will poultry producers simply rely on keeping their birds continually drugged by the use of medicated feeds? … Or, perhaps, will the parasites and bacteria develop a resistance to the drugs as some organisms and insects have to certain drugs and chemicals?”

An excerpt from “Historical Sketches and Memoirs” by Dr. L.A. Merillat (JAVMA, July 1947, pages 32–34)

In the United States, the faculty of the first veterinary college—Boston Veterinary Institute, started in 1854—published the American Veterinary Journal during the four years of its existence. The AVMA (then USVMA) began publishing the American Veterinary Review in 1877, a lapse of twenty-two years after the first college was started. Summed up, these facts show that the early faculties of veterinary medicine per se were remarkably sluggish in developing a periodical veterinary literature for the extension of graduate education beyond the classroom. The average lapse between the founding of colleges and journals was fifty-eight years in the four countries studied (France, England, Canada, and US). The average age of dogmatic veterinary education for these countries is 130 years, during which there was no journalistic support for an average of fifty-eight years. In fact, the fully animated veterinary profession, as of 1947, is only seventy-two years old—younger than the chap who's hammering this out. There's but one conclusion to draw: Veterinarians can read but don't.

Going back, there also were concerns about laypersons encroaching on veterinarians’ territory. Plus, continued calls for better public relations programs. And the perennial question: Are there too many or not enough veterinarians? This question was posed more times in various ways in editorials than any other topic, it seems, and yet, still challenges the profession today.

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Random items often ran in JAVMA under “Miscellaneous,” and later, “An’ Related Topics” or “Animals That Make the News.” This was viral content for the veterinarian, essentially.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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What's old is new again. Infographics have appeared in the Journal as far back as the 1930s.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Other editorials made some interesting predictions and captured the zeitgeist of the time. In 1940, as the horse was becoming less important with the rise of the car, a popular topic was the profession reorienting itself toward public health and a more medical bent. Concerning the perennially proposed reorientation, Dr. L.A. Merillat, then editor, countered in an editorial: “Conserving property for farmers is the principal function of veterinary science. Public health is but incidental thereto. … Transforming our entire educational system from the agricultural to the medical domain would be an undertaking that is entirely out of proportion to the benefits in sight.”

For and by the readers

Over the years, the Journal also has helped create a sense of community among veterinarians, particularly when the profession numbered only in the thousands during much of the first half of the 20th century. From early on, JAVMA published not only obituaries but also birth announcements, marriages, practice transactions or sales, retirements, and even people moving or vacationing for the summer or winter.

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Nary a shaggy head of hair was to be found at this Student AVMA gathering in the 1960s. Much of JAVMA's news coverage in those earlier decades focused on meetings, award recipients, and the like.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

In the early decades, no news was too trivial, it seems. Random items often ran under “Miscellaneous,” and later, “An’ Related Topics” or “Animals That Make the News.” Viral content for the veterinarian, essentially. In the July 1939 issue was this stand-alone nugget: “For about two years, a cat owned by a lady of Covert, Michigan, has been stealing baby squirrels from their nests and successfully rearing them as her own.”

An actual “News” section first appeared in the July 1939 issue. It initially featured veterinarians of the month, graduation announcements, government news, state VMA and AVMA committee reports, state news, and applications for AVMA membership. By the mid-1950s, birth and marriage announcements and the like had been phased out—perhaps because of an inability to keep up with the baby boom and growing membership. At the same time, more news articles began to appear, often about AVMA activities and entities and particularly the AVMA Annual Meeting, but they would later broaden into interesting stories of veterinarians’ experiences overseas or current events affecting veterinary practice.

Members would often complain that the Journal's news wasn't as up-to-date as it should be, recalls Bernadine Clune, who joined the Publications Division in 1967 and retired in 2007. The former production manager said the transition to desktop publishing in the mid-1990s improved the News section's ability to deliver more stories and in a more timely fashion because production was brought in-house, rather than staff having to send stories out to be typeset and converted to galleys.

Something to rely on

Regardless of how the Journal is put together, veterinarians and veterinary students have come to rely on its presence twice a month—whether online or in their hands. Dr. Andrew Maccabe, executive director of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, remembers first reading JAVMA while studying at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

“I think that's a very important marketing strategy. By providing the Journal (free) to students, it allowed us to get familiar with it and learn to rely on it throughout our practice careers,” Dr. Maccabe said.

Today, JAVMA is the most widely read veterinary journal, reaching over 80,000 subscribers. Further, the Journal was deemed the most authoritative publication in the veterinary industry by 59 percent of respondents to a 2014 Essential Media study. The second highest, the North American Veterinary Community's Clinician's Brief, came in at 27 percent. A 2012 readership survey showed about 70 percent of subscribers read three of every four issues.

Nick DeLuca, AVMA managing editor, said, “Most (members) spend upward of an hour with the Journal each issue, so we know it's reaching a large audience and that they value the content they're getting.”

He continued, “The Journal is something members can see as a tangible piece of membership. It's something the entire profession can relate to, and they know the name and what it brings when they see it in the mailbox twice a month. More importantly, with our stance on editorial independence, it's an independent voice for the profession. Members know when the Journal arrives that they are getting credible information that will inform and educate them and give them research that will last for years.”

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Longer feature stories began appearing more frequently in the Journal in the later years. This photo is from a March 15, 1996, story on presidential pets.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Dr. Ron DeHaven, AVMA CEO, says that given the speed with which communication channels are changing in society, JAVMA is entering a period of transition.

“On the one hand, it has such a rich tradition as the profession's premier paper journal; at the same time, the needs and expectations of our members are changing, and so we need to figure out how JAVMA can best meet those needs in the future.

“Clearly, we need to move more into digital communications with JAVMA, but many members still want that hard copy mailed to them twice a month.”

1915 – 1925

By Katie Burns

“A primary purpose of acquiring the Review had been as a vehicle for the proceedings of the meetings. … It might be noted, however, that while the new Journal carried some 600 pages of Association matters and papers its first year (1916), considerably more of the remaining 1,100 pages was devoted to scientific subjects than had been the case with the Review in its declining years.”

Dr. J.F. Smithcors, veterinary historian

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This photo, which appeared in the October 1919 issue of the JAVMA, depicts a group of AVMA members who participated in a trip to the Lederle Antitoxin Laboratories in Pearl River, New York, as part of the July meeting of the New York State Veterinary Medical Society.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

The JAVMA is celebrating its centennial this year, but the AVMA under another name published the first issue of the Journal under another name in 1877.

The United States Veterinary Medical Association first published the American Veterinary Review in 1877. The Review went private in 1881 under its editor, Dr. Alexandre F. Liautard, while the USVMA became the American Veterinary Medical Association in 1898. In 1915, the AVMA bought back the Review and changed the name to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

The publication changed less in format than in content. Dr. Pierre A. Fish, 1915–1918 editor, wrote in November 1915: “It has not been our desire to inaugurate violent changes as regards the form and appearance of the Journal. Some may be desirable, others unavoidable. We prefer a gray cover because that is the academic color for veterinary medicine.”

Drs. L.A. Merillat and Delwin M. Campbell, veterinary historians, wrote that the JAVMA in its early years “was little more than an installment publication of the proceedings of the AVMA, in lieu of the annual bound volume.”

“A primary purpose of acquiring the Review had been as a vehicle for the proceedings of the meetings,” noted Dr. J.F. Smithcors, veterinary historian. He continued, “It might be noted, however, that while the new Journal carried some 600 pages of Association matters and papers its first year (1916), considerably more of the remaining 1,100 pages was devoted to scientific subjects than had been the case with the Review in its declining years.”

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Index for the first volume of the JAVMA

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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The Journal reported on activities of the Women's Auxiliary to the American Veterinary Medical Association, established in 1917. This emblem incorporates the caduceus that the AVMA adopted as an emblem in 1921.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

The JAVMA contained scientific papers, clinical and case reports, and abstracts as well as news of the AVMA and other associations, book reviews, communications, European chronicles, editorials, miscellaneous news items, and obituaries (under the heading of “Necrology”), plus the proceedings of the Association. Toward the end of World War I, the Journal added a heading for articles about the Army Veterinary Service.

Just a few of the article topics from 1915 and 1916 were as follows:

  • Infected serum spreading foot-and-mouth disease.

  • Annual financial losses from the diseases of livestock.

  • Work of the committee on reorganization of the AVMA.

  • Ideal state law for cooperation between state and federal authorities in eradicating contagious animal diseases.

  • Report of the AVMA Committee on Advertisements of Veterinary Remedies.

  • Dyeing of war horses to make them dark chestnut to reduce their visibility.

  • Veterinary preparedness for war.

  • Opposition of butchers to a municipal meat inspection ordinance.

The JAVMA reported on the formation in 1916 of the AVMA Executive Board, now the AVMA Board of Directors, and the adoption in 1921 of a caduceus, a winged staff with two snakes, as the emblem for the AVMA. The Journal also reported on activities of the Women's Auxiliary to the American Veterinary Medical Association, established in 1917.

Headings expanded in the 1920s to births, commencements, engagements, examinations, marriages, meeting announcements, personals, and publications received by the AVMA. Personals covered topics such as relocations, appointments, and hospital openings.

Editorials and miscellaneous news items from 1915–1925 focused on subjects such as World War I, the AVMA, veterinary meetings, horses, agriculture, sanitation, legislation, and veterinary education. A March 1925 editorial on “Small Animal Practice” stated: “Small animal practice, especially in our cities and larger towns, has assumed important proportions during recent years, and now goes a long way to make up the loss in city practice caused by the replacement of a large number of horses with motor vehicles.”

Most of the illustrations in the JAVMA accompanied scientific articles. Other images were of notable veterinarians and buildings, groups of veterinarians, and cities hosting the AVMA meeting.

Following Dr. Fish as editor were Drs. William H. Dalrymple from 1918–1919 and John R. Mohler from 1919–1923. Dr. Horace Preston Hoskins came on as editor in 1923 and stayed until 1939.

1925 – 1935

By Katie Burns

With Dr. Horace Preston Hoskins as editor from 1923–1939, “The JAVMA then entered a lengthy period of growth and renovation” according to the book “The AVMA: 150 Years of Education, Science, and Service.” Dr. Hoskins also served as the executive secretary of the AVMA from 1923 through the end of 1938.

According to the book, Dr. Hoskins was “the first editor to fill the role in a full-time capacity and oversaw such innovations as the use of full-color illustrations and the addition to the JAVMA of a section of abstracts. The circulation of the Journal began to grow in earnest while Dr. Hoskins was editor.”

The membership of the AVMA had surpassed 2,000 by 1915 and ranged between 3,500 and 4,500 from 1918 through 1928, according to the 1929 proceedings. The circulation of the Journal was 4,073 in 1927, 4,328 in 1928, 4,770 in 1929, and 5,141 in 1930, according to a December 1930 editorial citing figures for the first six months of each year.

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Banquet at the 1933 AVMA Annual Meeting in Chicago

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Agriculture remained a primary focus for the JAVMA. In 1927, the Journal began publishing the proceedings of the United States Live Stock Sanitary Association, which later became the United States Animal Health Association. The JAVMA devoted 264 pages to the livestock sanitary association's proceedings in 1927, in comparison with 140 pages for the AVMA proceedings. In Volume 77, comprising the last six months of 1930, news items under the “Miscellaneous” heading covered subjects such as the worldwide battle against tuberculosis and efforts to eradicate cattle ticks within the United States.

The Journal started giving more attention to small animal practice in the ‘20s and ‘30s. A June 1938 article by Dr. C.P. Zepp, a New York City practitioner, provided an overview of “Progress of small-animal practice in the East during the past twenty years.” He wrote that a few of the more outstanding advances were “aids in diagnosis, anesthesia and asepsis in surgery, nursing of patients and hospitalization of small animals.”

The JAVMA continued publishing the complete proceedings of the AVMA meetings during this time. Dr. J.F. Smithcors, veterinary historian, summarized some of the discussion topics at the meetings from 1926–1935 as including educational requirements at veterinary colleges, selling the profession to the public, preventive medicine, and veterinary quackery.

The Great Depression was the main topic at the 1933 meeting in Chicago, according to Dr. Smithcors. Dr. John R. Mohler, chief of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Animal Industry and Dr. Hoskins’ predecessor as editor of the Journal, presented a paper on “Economic Aspects of Veterinary Medicine,” which was published in the September 1933 issue of the JAVMA. He wrote:

“With this and other nations grappling with huge economic problems affecting millions of people, the interests of any group of workers must, of necessity, be a minor part of the entire program. Our veterinary profession, numbering scarcely 12,000 active workers, exerts, it is true, great influence on our live stock resources and public welfare. But though recognized by us and related groups, the value of veterinary work may seem remote to persons who are unemployed, discouraged, and hungry.”

The JAVMA reported on the first meeting in August 1934 of the AVMA House of Representatives, now the AVMA House of Delegates. The House is the representative body of state VMAs and certain other veterinary organizations allied with the AVMA.

At the 1935 AVMA Annual Meeting, Dr. Hoskins reported that the number of miscellaneous news items in the Journal increased from 131 in 1933 to 162 in 1934, “largely the result of planned efforts to make the Journal just as newsy as possible.”

1935 – 1945

By Malinda Larkin

Similar to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his fireside chats, Dr. W. Horace Hoskins and, later, Dr. L.A. Merillat, dominated this decade with their influential editorials, which provided personal and direct communication with members on issues facing the profession.

In April 1935, in the midst of the Great Depression, Dr. Hoskins wrote that “no one can be unconscious of the tremendous swing right now to a consideration of all those things which come under the head of social betterment,” with the prevailing concern that veterinary medicine would become socialized or turned into a single-payer system.

Frequently, he railed against unscrupulous “self-made, state-made quacks” and advocated for quality education. Veterinary colleges adopted a minimum entrance requirement of one year of college work in 1937. Dr. Hoskins wrote a year later, “We rather lean to the belief that what we need is better trained veterinarians rather than more poorly supported veterinary colleges. It takes a lot of money to equip and run a veterinary college these days, and few states have shown any inclination to do the job the way it ought to be done.”

When Dr. Merillat took over as editor in 1939, the nation was gearing up for war again. In January 1940, he warned against veterinarians using their knowledge to spread “disease among domestic animals to hopple transportation and diminish the food supply of the enemy.” The AVMA started cutting back on expenses, including rent and payroll, and Army Veterinary Reserve officers were being placed on active duty.

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A September 1944 photo spread shows mules and horses in the theater of World War II (clockwise from top left) from New Guinea to Australia to Burma to Italy.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Then came the attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, and the U.S. officially entered World War II. The January 1942 JAVMA was titled the National Defense Issue, and that year's convention was the first “war session.” Programs centered on veterinary aspects of food conservation, the military, and civil defense problems.

The Journal reported that 2,000 Army Veterinary Corps members inspected more than 27 billion pounds of meat and dairy products from 1939–1946. The corps also was charged with overseeing sanitation conditions of producers; inspecting dogs for use as war dogs; providing veterinary care for birds of the signal corps; and training veterinary officers and enlisted personnel of the veterinary sections in veterinary administration, military food technology, animal sanitation, and disease control. The Journal listed who was taken prison of war and rescued in addition to transfers, promotions, and discharges.

JAVMA also encouraged civilian veterinarians to buy war bonds and to fill out a questionnaire sent by the Procurement and Assignment Service for Physicians, Dentists, and Veterinarians so they could voluntarily enroll with the service. The Journal's pages were filled with arguments for and against enrolling. Dr. Merillat wrote, “everyone will be drafted to the work for whatever he/she is best fitted to do, and will have to keep their personal desires in the background, as all good soldiers do.” Nearly 11,200 veterinarians among 13,000 or so AVMA members completed the forms.

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Photos taken of U.S. veterinary officers and technicians performing their duties in England show them inspecting food and training guard dogs, among other duties.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Later, it was reported that problems arose when reallocating some veterinarians and physicians, whether because the older ones didn't want to move, issues developed with interstate licensing for those who relocated, or some weren't fully accepted by their new communities.

Veterinarians in the U.S. also oversaw an increase in meat production to satisfy demand by the troops while they saw shortages for civilians and animals. In February 1944, Dr. M.L. Morris wrote as a solution to the food shortage for pets that people “properly moisten dry or dehydrated food and supplement with meat products like lungs, tails, gullet meat, etc.”

Looking back at the war's impact, Dr. Merillat wrote in October 1945 that some of the veterinary schools had been “swept clean” of students, and eventually curriculums were accelerated. He added that some “have expressed the feeling that the ‘professional skills'—surgery and medicine— of veterinarians were not largely used in this war” by the Army Veterinary Corps.

But, most important, he wrote, “the significant result (of the Selective Service) is that the civilian veterinary service was kept reasonably well-manned and made a splendid contribution to the war effort in spite of depleted ranks. For this accomplishment, great credit is due those thousands of veterinarians who worked to the limit to carry out their professional obligations.”

Dr. Otto Stader and the Stader splint

Many a contribution to the advancement of human medicine has been based on the pioneering work of veterinarians. This fact is emphasized by the honors paid to Dr. Otto Stader, a 1918 veterinary graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, for his development of the Stader reduction splint.

Originally used to stabilize long bone fractures in dogs, the technique was adapted by two human surgeons for use in people, and they published their findings with co-authorship by Dr. Stader in the Annals of Surgery in 1942. The splint won wide acclaim among the medical profession because it did not require an extension apparatus, a special frame or fracture table, or a plaster cast, according to a June 1944 JAVMA article. The United States Navy and the Canadian armed forces used the splint during World War II to set broken bones. It also became the prototype for other skeletal fixation devices, although Dr. Stader's contribution to their development is often ignored.

When presented with the 12th International Veterinary Congress Award in 1934 for his achievement, he was quoted as saying: “No piece of work in human and veterinary medicine in recent years has been more noteworthy.”

1945 – 1955

By Malinda Larkin

With servicemen back home and the G.I. Bill recently enacted, veterinary education flourished, with seven new veterinary schools established from 1945–1951 alone, making a total of 17.

“At the present, there are nearly 4,000 students studying veterinary medicine in the U.S. Ten years ago, there were only about half this number and twenty years ago, only about one fourth. The impact of these 4,000 students upon a profession which numbers only about 15,000 will shortly become evident. The graduates will be quickly and easily absorbed for a few years, but it is obvious that, if this rate is maintained, the number of veterinarians in the country is destined to increase rapidly during the next few years. The present shortage may very well change quickly to an actual surplus,” wrote Dr. William A. Hagan in a May 1952 article.

In 1945, a new national policy was just being initiated to provide increased federal support of science. The AVMA, for its part, started raising money for an AVMA Research Fund to be devoted to the study of animal disease problems. The money was used to award fellowships to “promising veterinarians who wish to go into graduate work and eventually teaching and research.” Some areas suggested for study were on anesthetics and their action in animals, hypoglycemia in swine, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, and arthritis in the horse.

At the same time, the use of laboratory animals began to expand rapidly with the influx of research funding, creating a host of problems as well as challenges. Few veterinarians were devoting themselves to laboratory animal care, which was not yet recognized as a special field. Plus, institutions were ill-prepared to accommodate increasingly large animal colonies. Simultaneously, researchers came under increasingly vigorous attack from antivivisectionists whose objective was to stop or limit animal research.

AVMA Editor L.A. Merillat wrote in a July 1949 editorial, “Recent state legislation against dog stealing … has been labeled a propaganda trick of the antivivisection cult by Dr. Anton J. Carlson, president of the National Society for Medical Research. Dr. Carlson said, ‘It seems impossible that any one could believe that universities, state, and city health departments, and great hospitals would sponsor thievery.’ … The only reason for the introduction of these bills has been to provide a springboard for fanatic charges by the antivivisectionists against medical and veterinary institutions.”

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Canned dog food became popular immediately preceding World War II and continuing thereafter. According to a May 1947 JAVMA article, “A typical canned dog food is composed of meat, meat by-products, bone, cereals, soybean flour, salt, and fish-liver oil.” Notably, the AVMA and American Animal Hospital Association created a dog food–testing program in the early 1940s as an attempt to solve some of the “undesirable” conditions existing in the dog food industry; however, critics called it a meaningless project without authority and worthless because the large manufacturers did not support it.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

The profession was also grappling with laypersons performing traditional veterinary services, particularly artificial insemination.

“AI has grown into a tremendous business in ten years and is considered one of the greatest contributions offered to the dairy cattle-breeding program. In the early days, veterinarians ignored this work, and during the war years they did not have time to take hold of it. … The cold fact remains that few veterinarians are actively identified with this program,” wrote Dr. John B. Herrick in “Trespassing and poaching on veterinary practice” in September 1949.

This decade also saw the first veterinary specialty organization recognized by the AVMA, which was the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, organized in Chicago in December 1948.

In 1950, AVMA President C.P. Zepp Sr. mentioned several other trends he felt would affect the veterinary profession, including “the rapid development of preventive medicine … (and) of therapeutic agents and their distribution to laymen … the increased practice of veterinary medicine by humane organizations under the guise of preventing cruelty … (and) the socialistic trend of society.”

That same year, Dr. Merillat retired as editor of AVMA publications and was succeeded by Dr. R.C. Klussendorf; however, he resigned the following year and was succeeded temporarily by Dr. C.R. Dorrham, followed by Dr. W.A. Aitken, who was appointed editor-in-chief in 1952.

An article in September 1950 titled “The world situation and the veterinarian” talked about the necessary planning for the Korean War. The author didn't want to repeat mistakes of WWII, including duplication of food inspection efforts with civilians and not having enough veterinarians in place in the military while also having poor distribution of civilian veterinarians for essential services in communities throughout the country.

Foot-and-mouth disease outbreak and the Aftosa Commission

A foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in Mexico started when the Mexican government allowed two shipments of zebu cattle from Brazil into the country—one in October 1945 and another in May 1946. The U.S. Department of Agriculture then received confirmation that foot-and-mouth disease was found in Mexican livestock in December 1946.

Importation of Mexican cattle into the U.S. was halted immediately. By then, FMD had spread to nine Mexican states and Mexico City, according to a 1947 JAVMA article.

A bill signed into law shortly after that authorized the U.S. secretary of agriculture to cooperate with Mexico in combating the disease. This led to the creation of the Mexican-American Commission for the Eradication of Aftosa Fever. A number of Army Veterinary Corps members were part of the commission. They vaccinated cattle in rural areas, sometimes with protection from the Mexican Army. Ranchers occasionally attacked the veterinarians when they killed infected cattle, so the commission had a song composed to explain the program to the people. Commission members earned the nickname “cow killers.”

The Aftosa Commission's efforts lasted until the mid-1950s. The U.S. never saw any reported FMD cases.

1955 – 1965

By Greg Cima

Antibiotics were a “wonder drug,” veterinarians were becoming more specialized, and the U.S. was shifting from the Atomic Age to the Space Age.

The JAVMA was filled with radiographs, black-and-white close-up photos of clinical subjects, and portraits of unsmiling men with precise haircuts. Also, starting in 1961, the editors made the unfortunate choice of distinguishing their journalism section by printing it on yellow pages.

The Journal's editors and contributors lauded expanding uses of antibiotics as revolutionary for veterinary practice and animal nutrition, treating disease, stimulating growth, and maybe someday preserving food. At least one dog food advertisement boasted of the “bonus benefit” of antibiotics.

But even mid-1950s articles noted public concern about residues and assertions that widespread administration and residues could reduce drug effectiveness.

“It has even been suggested that certain antibiotics which are extensively used by physicians be banned for use on food-producing animals,” a 1958 editorial states.

By the late ‘60s, the editors and AVMA would see potential needs to re-examine the routine administration of antibiotics and study the risks of drug resistance and residues.

Before then, journals of the mid-'50s also reminded veterinarians that they were living in the Atomic Age, whether in descriptions of the uses of radioactive cobalt to sterilize screwworm flies and clear the pest from areas of the U.S., fears of radioactive isotopes in food, results of national sampling for radioactive fallout following atom bomb tests, or reports on meetings of medical officials discussing responses to atomic warfare.

A Feb. 1, 1960, JAVMA editorial, “When the bombs fall,” urged preparation to provide mass casualty care. An article published the same year included the understatement that “The simultaneous detonation of a large number of thermonuclear weapons over this nation would result in widespread radioactive contamination of farms and agricultural resources by fallout, with serious consequences to the nation's agriculture.”

And starting in the late 1950s, editorials and articles also described increasing specialization in veterinary medicine and the loss of the general practitioner. The urban population was rising, increasing the demand for pet veterinarians. Farms were consolidating, and livestock industries were combining, requiring veterinarians better equipped to deal with larger numbers of animals.

As a June 1, 1957, guest editorial said, “Yes this is a changing world. The Dodo bird couldn't make it, but we feel sure that the veterinarian will.”

By 1963, “the profession's burgeoning interest in small animals” showed in JAVMA's scientific articles, 41 percent of which were on small animals. About 50 percent were on large animals, yet more articles were related to dogs than to any other single species.

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Capt. Keith Kraner, a veterinarian, holds a dog wearing a pressure suit and oxygen helmet as part of research related to space exploration. This photo appeared on the cover of the March 1, 1960, issue.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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“Recent experiences with antibiotic-resistant organisms in mastitis, diarrheas, and other diseases have indicated the desirability of a rapid antibiotic-sensitivity test,” read a June 1, 1956, article accompanying these photos.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

JAVMA also covered veterinarians’ contributions toward humanity's ascent beyond Earth's atmosphere.

The March 1, 1960, JAVMA cover article “Animals precede men into space,” showed veterinarians’ contributions in biomedical research related to space exploration. Veterinarians would work on human and animal tests; examine the first chimpanzee astronaut, Ham, after his 1961 flight aboard a Mercury capsule; and become eligible to apply for astronaut appointments. Despite a Nov. 15, 1966, notice indicating veterinarians could apply to conduct experiments in orbiting satellites, no veterinarians would go into space until 1993.

In other news, the Salk vaccine developed to prevent polio in humans already had potential to help animals, as seen in research toward a vaccine against vesicular stomatitis. And other article topics included studies of hip dysplasia, particularly in German Shepherd Dogs; rabies eradication efforts; mastitis in dairy cows; and the potential use of electricity-induced anesthesia of dogs.

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JAVMA underwent its first radical change with an increase in page size and new cover design, among other modifications, starting with the July 1938 issue.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dedicated issues were an early feature of the Journal. The January issue of 1942 was the National Defense Issue.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Starting in 1956, JAVMA switched from a monthly format and began publishing semimonthly, on the first and 15th of each month.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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To celebrate the nation's bicentennial, the Journal published this cover and a number of historically themed articles on the profession.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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In 1996, a work of art from Louisiana State University's International Exhibition on Animals in Art began appearing on a cover of the JAVMA each year.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

JAVMA covers through the years

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The AVMA centennial anniversary in 1963 was celebrated in this issue.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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The Journal started publishing more wildlife disease articles as interest in this field of medicine grew.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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This JAVMA issue from 1970 was the first to feature full-color cover art.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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This cover, featuring the work “All Creatures … Great and Small,” honored the Nov. 20, 1999, update to the Veterinarian's Oath that expanded its scope from livestock to the conservation of all animals.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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For the AVMA sesquicentennial, JAVMA News ran a monthly feature titled “Legends in U.S. veterinary medicine.”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

1965 – 1975

By Greg Cima

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Seven veterinarians were part of the Apollo 11 program, the first manned mission to land on the moon. Major Richard Boster (pictured at left in both photos), an Air Force veterinarian, exposed a variety of cold-blooded invertebrates and fish to lunar material.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

The face of the veterinary profession was changing.

General livestock practices were declining, marginal activities were poised to become the purview of assistants, and opposition to women in veterinary medicine was dissolving, according to a May 1966 article by Dr. Willis W. Armistead, dean of the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine. About 1,200 women would be in practice by 1975, when women would account for 5 percent of the profession and about 25 percent of veterinary students.

The U.S. veterinary profession exceeded 20,000 members in 1969 and 30,000 in 1974. AVMA Editor-in-Chief Arthur Freeman wrote in the Feb. 15, 1974, issue of the JAVMA that veterinarians had become more numerous, conspicuous, involved in their communities, and vulnerable to criticism. He cited a rise in professional liability claims as evidence the public demanded flawless service.

In 1973, Dr. Donald A. Price, AVMA executive vice president, had written to newspaper editors with a rebuttal to a Parade magazine article “How good is your veterinarian?” that included anecdotes such as the (surely apocryphal) story of a veterinarian tying a dog in heat to his bumper to lure and capture male dogs and collect boarding fees.

The AVMA also sought public attention on topics such as rabies eradication and dog and cat population control. The Journal carried still images from the clay-animated slide show “Pethood or Parenthood,” commissioned by the AVMA for a 1974 campaign advocating surgical neutering.

Earlier, the AVMA had opposed early- to mid-'60s legislation that would give the federal government oversight of research animal care. The Association worried that such oversight would stifle research and asserted that animal care improvements were being made—to ensure experimental accuracy.

But Congress held hearings in September 1965 on dog and cat thefts by animal dealers; Sports Illustrated published in November 1965 the account of Pepper, a Dalmation who disappeared from a backyard and was euthanized following an experimental procedure at a hospital; and Life magazine published in February 1966 the feature “Concentration camp for dogs” on a Maryland dog dealer. By spring 1966, Congress was considering 18 bills that each would have the Department of Agriculture regulating the transportation, sale, and handling of dogs and cats for research and experimentation.

The AVMA then advocated that any legislation focus on supervising unscrupulous dealers. The bill signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson in August 1966 required licensure of cat or dog dealers, registration of research facilities, and humane treatment by both.

The AVMA would later express support for the Horse Protection Act—signed in December 1970—with a statement to a congressional committee that soring to exaggerate the gait of walking horses is cruel, unnecessary, and objectionable.

Issues of the same era included reports from Vietnam, including a feature article on Army veterinarians’ work in Saigon to improve food production; medical care of dogs used as scouts, sentries, and trackers; an account of sentry dogs killed in a Viet Cong attack on an airfield; and a veterinarian killed when his Jeep struck an anti-tank mine.

In 1968, the JAVMA noted legislation to block student aid for those caught rioting or causing disruptions on campuses and to block federal research money to colleges and universities barring military recruitment on campus.

In other campus news, the National Conference of Student Chapters of the AVMA, which would later become the Student AVMA, formed in 1969.

The Journal also carried news of veterinarians’ contributions in developing precautions and quarantine procedures for lunar materials returned to Earth during the Apollo missions and in the areas of astronaut food quality, sample assessment, radiation monitoring, virology, and pathology.

Racehorse Dancer's Image became in 1968 the first—and to date only—Kentucky Derby winner disqualified as the result of a positive test for the anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. An editorial noted suspect statements by the attending veterinarian and his implication in other drugging scandals.

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Veterinary care of a dog during hostilities in Vietnam

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

And in Feb. 15, 1970, the AVMA published guidelines on training for animal technicians. An article from that year ndicated 10 schools were offering technology training.

1975 – 1985

By Susan C. Kahler

Production of JAVMA moved in April 1975 to the AVMA's first owned headquarters, newly constructed in Schaumburg, Illinois, and dedicated that October. AVMA President Harry J. Magrane said, “This is truly one of the most significant and historic events in the 112-year history of the American Veterinary Medical Association.” Membership had grown from 40 to 26,000.

For the 1976 U.S. bicentennial, JAVMA followed veterinarians who accompanied a Bicentennial Wagon Train to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Australia waived a 17-year export embargo on native animals to fly six koalas to the San Diego Zoo as its bicentennial gift to the people of the U.S. To preserve the profession's heritage, several state veterinary associations created veterinary museums during this decade. The Iowa VMA and Pennsylvania VMA celebrated their centennials.

President Gerald Ford was on hand for one of several dedications of new veterinary facilities. Three developing colleges were given reasonable assurance of AVMA accreditation. Veterinarian supply and demand was coming into question. The AVMA hired a staff economist, J. Karl Wise, PhD, in 1977 and commissioned a $200,000 manpower study by Arthur D. Little Inc. The 1977–1978 study projected that the number of veterinarians in 1985 and 1990 would exceed the number needed but predicted that demand for veterinarians with post-professional education and training would rise more steeply.

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Dr. John W. Carey readies a buggy he restored for the Living History Veterinary Infirmary the Iowa VMA dedicated in October 1977 in Des Moines, one of several veterinary museums created by state VMAs during this period. This decade also saw a number of historically themed veterinary events influenced by the U.S. bicentennial.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Advancements included an artificial heart implantation technique pioneered by a veterinarian, the production of the first goat in the U.S. by embryo transfer, and the birth of a calf from in vitro fertilization. A newly developed foot-and-mouth disease vaccine was seen as a breakthrough in genetic engineering.

Little Bo Peep and Napoleon were two of the famous “press agents” featured in an advertising program for the profession, part of the AVMA's increasing public relations and educational outreach. The June 15, 1976, JAVMA cover photo and lead news story showcased the 1976 opening of the exhibit “Animal Medicine: The Story of the Veterinarian” at Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry, nearly 15 years in the making.

Advertising by veterinarians was a different story. The Federal Trade Commission carried on a 5 1/2-year investigation alleging the AVMA supported restraints on advertising that inhibited free competition among veterinarians. It was only after the Association took “creditable action,” in the FTC's words, to relax public and private restraints that the case was closed.

Veterinarians were facing competition from tax-exempt or -supported animal control agencies. Regulations were being proposed or enacted involving certificates of acclimation for animals being shipped and disposing of infective veterinary hospital waste. The Food and Drug Administration first proposed restrictions on the low-level use in animal feed of antimicrobials also important for human health.

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Actresses Betty White and Mary Tyler Moore attend a meeting of the Morris Animal Foundation during the 1983 AVMA Annual Convention in New York.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

The 1979 World Veterinary Congress was held in Moscow in the spirit of detente. Dr. Arthur Freeman, JAVMA editor-in-chief and AVMA assistant executive vice president, was an AVMA representative. In 1975, an Air Force veterinarian was the U.S. project manager for a mission with the Soviets on a Kosmos satellite. In the May 1, 1980, issue, JAVMA interviewed the last chief of the Air Force Veterinary Corps as it was abolished.

AVMA published a much-awaited, third euthanasia report on July 1, 1978. Small animal practitioners and clients were alarmed by the number of dogs stricken with parvovirus infection. And a veterinary specialist assessed the implications for animal life resulting from a malfunction at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station.

An independent 1980 readership study found JAVMA was well-regarded by readers and competed effectively for advertisers’ dollars. The press run that year was 42,000.

1985 – 1995

By Susan C. Kahler

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Search-and-rescue dogs sent to Oklahoma City after the domestic terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building April 19, 1995, were trained to search buildings collapsed by explosions or earthquakes. Decontamination of the search dogs was important, a June 1, 1995, photo caption noted.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

This era saw female veterinarians become AVMA editor-in-chief and AVMA president-elect—and a veterinary student become Miss America. Between 1980 and 1994, the percentage of U.S. veterinarians who were women tripled to 28.7 percent, and by fall 1985, female veterinary students outnumbered males.

Shortly after becoming AVMA editor-in-chief Jan. 1, 1985, Dr. Albert Koltveit hired Dr. Janis H. Audin, his eventual successor, to oversee the conversion to desktop publishing. By transitioning the AVMA journals to this in-house production system in the ‘90s, she cut lead time and reduced costs. Dr. Audin also created the online format.

Bernadine Clune, a former AVMA production manager, adds, “Dr. Audin's background in art history contributed to developing the cover art. It just made the journals pop.”

Pop quiz: What year did the JAVMA “yellow pages” cease to exist?

In 1988, an AVMA consultant found the News was not perceived by members as a vital medium of communication and recommended replacing it with a newspaper. Instead, Dr. Koltveit set out to achieve the same reader impact by revitalizing the News.

The revitalized News debuted with the first issue of 1989. Yellow stock or yellow-coated stock, a tradition since 1961, was changed to white to enhance the vividness of expanded artwork in newly created news departments. One of the most popular news departments was Research Roundup. A Jan. 15, 1991, roundup on laser surgery captured an award from the American Society of Association Executives, one of two awards for JAVMA from the ASAE that year. It was the first of six consecutive years the Journal received honors from various national groups.

Vermont maple syrup factored into one of the top news stories—the AVMA's initiative advocating for a federal law to allow extralabel drug use by veterinarians. The House passed the Senate version after the latter attached the syrup amendment. It was a time of elation, a vote of confidence from Congress in veterinarians’ expertise. President Clinton signed the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994.

In 1988, Congress had passed a bill that included statutory recognition for the veterinary prescription drug category, another victory. Drug issues, from use of human-label drugs to avoiding residues to compounding, often dominated the news.

Concerned about substance abuse among veterinary students and veterinarians, the AVMA held an impairment seminar and a substance abuse workshop. JAVMA News also reported on assistance programs offered by state VMAs and carried a series on stress in early 1991.

A News section devoted to the mission of World AIDS Day was published Dec. 1, 1992. AIDS had killed almost 30,000 people in 1991. Topics included the bond created between animals and AIDS patients, advances in AIDS research, and an anonymous interview with Dr. Y, who was seropositive for HIV.

After years of debate and subtle changes to its policy on steel-jaw leghold traps, the AVMA in 1993 pronounced the device inhumane. Divergent views were presented in News on ear cropping and tail docking. Endorsement of Spay Day USA in 1995 set off a firestorm, with some AVMA members objecting to the Association collaborating with the animal rights group Doris Day Animal League, even on a common goal.

The AVMA hired a marketing director in 1986 and introduced its clinics on marketing in companion and food animal practice the next year. The Association conducted studies on the various veterinary services markets.

Veterinary disaster relief efforts as well as losses from natural events such as the California earthquake and man-made events such as the Oklahoma City bombing were covered. In 1993, the AVMA adopted an Emergency Preparedness Plan and Response Guide, and the AVMA Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams were established.

Feline injection-site sarcomas and the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in England were among medical issues of concern. Feature subjects in JAVMA News included the rescue of gray whales trapped in polar ice; the late Dr. James Herriot; military veterinarians serving in Operation Desert Storm and Operation Desert Shield; professor Hank Hannah, creator-author of JAVMA Legal Brief; and AVMA staff, by division.

The profession gained celebrity when, as a veterinary student, Dr. Debbye Turner Bell (Missouri ‘91) was crowned Miss America in 1990, and Dr. Martin J. Fettman (Cornell ‘80) became the first veterinarian in space in 1993, flying aboard the shuttle Columbia and carrying two AVMA flags. Another crowning event was the election of the first female AVMA president-elect, Dr. Mary Beth Leininger (Purdue ‘67), in 1995.

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Professor Hank Hannah, creator and author of the JAVMA Legal Brief feature, which appeared throughout the ‘70s, ‘80s, and ‘90s, was profiled in News.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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The Dec. 1, 1992, News section was dedicated to the topic of AIDS, coinciding with the fourth annual World AIDS Day. This poster was created by Pet Owners with AIDS/ARC Resource Service in New York, a nonprofit that helped to relieve stress for clients with the disease and their animals through information and support.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

1995 – 2005

By R. Scott Nolen

Just days before the publication of an April 1, 1996, JAVMA article reminding veterinarians not to sensationalize bovine spongiform encephalopathy, British officials announced a link between BSE and the human brain malady Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Seven years later, in early December 2003, the nation's first domestic case of BSE was discovered in Washington state.

Zoonotic disease and terrorism figure prominently in the pages of JAVMA News from 1995–2005. A Nov. 15, 1999, article on West Nile virus, which emerged in the northeastern United States that summer, profiled Dr. Tracey McNamara, who as head of the pathology department at the Bronx Zoo in New York City was instrumental in identifying the exotic pathogen. “Basically, we have a new virus looking for a home. It's never been here before, and it's going to keep everyone very busy for a long time,” Dr. McNamara said at the time. By the fall of 2002, WNV had spread to all but seven U.S. states and killed close to 150 people.

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On Jan. 26, 1998, Dr. Samuel E. Strahm, American Veterinary Medical Foundation chairman; Elizabeth Dole, president of the American National Red Cross; and AVMA President John I. Freeman signed a memorandum of understanding encouraging the AVMA and AVMF to be the leaders in coordinating companion animal disaster relief efforts.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Also that year, chronic wasting disease, another type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, was discovered in Wisconsin deer. Then in 2003, monkeypox virus arrived in the U.S. via a shipment of African rodents, and severe acute respiratory syndrome emerged in China and Vietnam. The next year, the global community wrestled with the potential for a flu pandemic wrought by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza.

With the terrorist attacks of 9/11 came a new urgency to protect the homeland from agricultural and biological threats. AVMA President James Brandt wrote in the Oct. 15, 2001, JAVMA, “It is paramount that every veterinarian be prepared to offer expertise in the defense of our way of life.”

Ensuing news articles described how veterinarians were helping to identify the strain of anthrax mailed to members of Congress and the news media and caring for the search-and-rescue dogs deployed on 9/11.

During the decade between 1995 and 2005, JAVMA tracked the debate within the veterinary profession over the humane treatment of animals against a backdrop of an increasingly bold—and sometimes violent—animal rights movement.

In July 1999, the AVMA encouraged practitioners to advise clients about the pain and risks of canine ear cropping and tail docking. Later, the Association called pain and suffering “clinically important conditions that adversely affect an animal's quality of life.” As the terrorist organization Animal Liberation Front became more active, the legal status of animals as property was increasingly challenged; pregnant sow housing, horse slaughter, and induced molting of layer hens fell into controversy; and courts were petitioned to award emotional damages when a pet dies as a result of negligence. By late 2004, the AVMA created an Animal Welfare Division to focus on such matters full time.

Much space was dedicated in JAVMA to articles about the rise of Internet veterinary pharmacies, advances in cloning, vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats, drug compounding, certifying foreign-trained graduates of non-AVMA-accredited colleges, and the human health impacts of antimicrobial use in food animals. Articles about gender, income, and student debt appeared frequently throughout the decade. A 1996 report predicted, “Assuming current trends continue, the number of female veterinarians will equal the number of male veterinarians by 2004.” (Women veterinarians outnumbered their male colleagues by 2009.)

Noteworthy profiles included Dr. Peter Doherty, winner of the Nobel Prize in medicine for his revolutionary research in the field of immunology; veterinarian and astronaut Rick Linnehan; and Dr. Edwin J. Smith, who in 1950 treated a black bear cub injured in a forest fire that would go on to become the real-life Smokey Bear.

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Dr. Rick Linnehan, pictured during a training exercise, was a mission specialist aboard the space shuttle Columbia in June 1996.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

2005 – 2015

By R. Scott Nolen

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Medical marijuana, used as an analgesic and appetite stimulant in human patients, started being used to treat chronic illnesses in companion animals, JAVMA reported in the June 15, 2013, issue.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Avian influenza bookends the decade concluding with the JAVMA's centennial in 2015. When the curtain rises on 2006, a Jan. 1 News article describes the World Health Organization's growing alarm about a possible flu pandemic as migratory birds carry the lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus from Asia into the Balkans.

Fast-forward to September 2015: Avian influenza is again making headlines, but this time the story is about an outbreak of the H5N2 strain that's resulted in the depopulation of more than 42 million chickens and nearly 8 million turkeys in the United States. It is the largest and most costly animal health emergency in U.S. history.

Veterinary medicine was center stage for several months beginning in the summer of 2006 as the nation followed the progress of Barbaro, the 3-year-old Kentucky Derby winner, when the racehorse broke a bone in his hind limb during the Preakness Stakes. Sadly, despite the heroic efforts of Dr. Dean Richardson and the veterinary team at the University of Pennsylvania's New Bolton Center, Barbaro was euthanized after a series of complications related to laminitis.

Lt. Col. Daniel E. Holland was posthumously profiled in the July 15, 2006, JAVMA News after becoming the first Army Veterinary Corps casualty of Operation Iraqi Freedom when a bomb detonated near his Humvee in Baghdad on May 18, 2006. The Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act became law that same year. A response to the animal welfare disaster wrought by Hurricane Katrina, the new law requires that state and municipality evacuation plans account for pets and service animals.

The Journal reported extensively on the melamine-contaminated pet food crisis, following the issue from the initial deaths and recalls to tighter federal regulations protecting cats and dogs.

Veterinary stakeholders continued their efforts aimed at recruiting minorities to the profession. In that spirit, the Journal's Feb. 15, 2010, issue was dedicated to the topic of diversity in the profession. Dr. Willie M. Reed, dean of Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, said he remembered, in particular, an article “on diversity in the profession and the role Tuskegee played was very good on educating veterinarians about the early days in the profession and the roles of Tuskegee, Kansas State, and Cornell in providing significant opportunities for diversity when others were denying them.”

Another focus in veterinary education was reforms that would produce graduates able to meet future societal needs, most notably in the area of food production and safety. Relatedly, Congress and the profession were concerned about shortages of veterinarians working in such important areas as public health and biomedical research.

The AVMA endorsed the one-health movement goal of bringing together veterinarians and physicians to address cross-species disease transmission. Pet obesity was becoming more common, as was pet health insurance. The unwanted horse population was growing as the nation's three horse slaughter facilities were shuttered by court order.

An April 15, 2007, JAVMA News article announced the appointment of Dr. Ron DeHaven as AVMA executive vice president following the retirement of Dr. Bruce Little, who served 11 years in the position. Dr. Janis Audin died in April 2009 after nearly a decade as editor-in-chief of the AVMA journals. Two months earlier, Dr. DeHaven had named the ailing Dr. Audin editor-in-chief emeritus. Dr. DeHaven said, “Dr. Janis Audin's contributions to the journals, to the AVMA, and to the profession were profound, and we will be forever grateful. Between the professional journals which she lived for and the many lives she has touched and influenced, Janis Audin's legacy will live on at AVMA.” Associate Editor Kurt Matushek was appointed AVMA editor-in-chief.

The profession's financial struggles came to a head during the Great Recession of 2007–2009. In an effort to limit the supply of new veterinarians, some voices within the profession demanded that the AVMA Council on Education stop accrediting new veterinary colleges, both in the United States and abroad. In the meantime, the AVMA stood up the Veterinary Economics Division to study economic problems throughout the veterinary profession and provide strategies to resolve them.

In 2008, the AVMA took a controversial stand against canine ear cropping and tail docking for nontherapeutic purposes. Four years later, the AVMA again raised the ire of some veterinary stakeholders by supporting federal legislation proposing national standards for treatment of egg-laying hens.

Between 2005 and 2015, the JAVMA published articles on the creation of veterinary specialties in animal welfare, sports medicine and rehabilitation, and shelter medicine; possible long-term health problems associated with early spay and neuter in cats and dogs; growing support for veterinary hospice; interest in marijuana's potential as a veterinary drug; and veterinarians on the front lines fighting against the largest Ebola virus outbreak in history.

Et cetera

Covering the full extent of JAVMA's 100 years would be an impossible task, so we focused our coverage of each decade on the most notable events in veterinary medicine and major changes to the Journal. During the course of our research, we ran across many interesting or peculiar items that didn't make the cut for the summaries. Here are a few, for your reading pleasure.

An August 1917 letter to the editor read:

Dear Sir:

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This photo appeared in the Army Veterinary Service section of the JAVMA in 1919 with the following caption: “POLO TEAM OF VETERINARY TRAINING SCHOOL, CAMP LEE, VA. Believed to Be the First Polo Team Ever Organized in the United States Composed Entirely of Veterinarians.”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Will you kindly permit me (as editor of the Veterinary Journal) to send a message through you (the editor of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association) to my brother members of the association to welcome them as Allies in this terrible war; and to say that the British Veterinary Profession will extend the cordial hand of welcome to an American Colleague wherever we may meet in the fight for freedom and liberty, and for the rightings of the wrongs of the weaker and smaller nations who have been so ruthlessly crushed.

Frederick Horday, FRCVS, FRSE

Major Army Veterinary Corps

Honorary Veterinary Surgeon to His Majesty the King

(Note: Prohibition began in January 1920 and continued through 1933.)

A September 1920 article titled “No Whiskey For Animals” reported:

A member of the American Veterinary Medical Association requested me to find out if veterinarians could prescribe alcoholic liquors for their animal patients. This matter was taken up with the Bureau of Internal Revenue and the following reply was received: “Replying to your communication of June 16, 1920, you are informed that veterinarians may not prescribe intoxicating liquors for internal use for their animal patients. Under the statute the right to prescribe intoxicating liquors for internal use for medicinal purposes is limited to duly qualified physicians for persons only. Not to exceed 6 quarts of alcohol may therefore be obtained by any veterinarian during any calendar year to be obtained and used as provided by Regulation 60.” N. S. Mayo, Secretary

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The caption for this Sept. 1, 1964, photo read, “The activities of women veterinarians was the subject of discussion between Dr. Majorie E. Losch, Baraboo, Wis., and Orion Samuelson, host to the ‘Country Fair’ radio program over WGN.”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. D.R. Stephenson of Rockford, Illinois, is shown using a mobile phone on a farm. According to the February 1950 article, the cost of using the phone for 18 months had been $642. He made 20 to 50 calls a month and said the advantages of a mobile phone were “mileage and time saved in the working day, ability to reach emergencies quickly, and peace of mind—because one is in constant touch with clients, office, and home.”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

During the Great Depression, veterinarians did their part by participating in the Civilian Conservation Corps.

This was a public works relief program that operated from 1933–1942 as part of the New Deal for unemployed, unmarried men from families on government relief. The program's director was quoted in JAVMA as saying that from 1933–1937 up to 115 veterinary reserve officers inspected food for program camps, which employed 2 million people.

The AVMA House of Delegates considered changing membership requirements in 1935 to allow for nonveterinarians. Obviously, the proposal didn't pass.

The AVMA Committee on History reported in 1945: “Much of the history of veterinary medicine in America has been recorded in the journals as ‘on the spot’ news, but has not been assembled as a history because that would be difficult, discouraging, baffling, and time-consuming … [and] would not sell for enough money to make the project worthwhile.”

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“Like the veterinarian in this scene from the ‘Pethood or Parenthood?’ slide/filmstrip presentation, AVMA's new public education materials explain the benefits surgical neutering offers both pet owners and pets,” according to this caption on this photo, which ran in the Jan. 15, 1974, issue. Other items the AVMA created were a brochure, a five-minute animated film, and a 30-second television spot.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

In his 1945 AVMA presidential address, Dr. James Farquharson dealt with frequently voiced criticisms. In answer to “What has the AVMA ever done for me?” he said that many members “have the idea that our central office does nothing more than operate a printing press of the Journal!” Dr. Farquharson also voiced a recurring desire for the AVMA to publish something similar to “Hygeia,” the lay publication of the American Medical Association, which ran from 1923–1949. Then from 1950–1976, it was published under the name “Today's Health.”

Researchers fed whale meat to minks in a search for food that would boost the minks’ libidos, fertility, litter sizes, or offspring weights. They found no significant differences from those fed horse meat, and the small account published in the Feb. 15, 1957, issue of JAVMA gave no indication how the results would have been used had a difference been found.

A JAVMA editorial responded, without condemnation, to photos of President Lyndon Johnson lifting a Beagle by its ears. The Aug. 15, 1964, editorial stated that pulling on a Beagle's ears to make it yip may be a useful technique for trainers, but owners should “let their dog's ears alone.”

Live veterinary surgical demonstrations captivated audiences in September 1970 at the New York State Fair in Syracuse. Upward of 15,000 people packed an amphitheater—and others were turned away—to watch the 28 surgeries sponsored by the New York State Veterinary Medical Society and performed on animals selected through referrals.

Numbering 602 pages, the Dec. 1, 1970, issue of the JAVMA was the largest in the Journal's history. Stripped of almost all its usual editorial and news content, the issue was devoted to the scientific proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the AVMA. Although five times the size of a typical issue, it was produced and mailed to subscribers almost on schedule. The printer used two boxcars of paper, exclusive of cover paper, to print the book. Sixteen days were required to print the entire issue. Six days were consumed in the bindery.

In 1979, AVMA President-elect William F. Jackson escaped from his car just before it was hit by a train and exploded, while on a call to test a client's bulls.

In the May 15, 1996, issue, JAVMA reported on “Managing your economic future in veterinary medicine,” an AVMA symposium addressing “soaring” veterinary student debt.

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“Veterinarians can be computer savvy, too,” according to the June 15, 1999, JAVMA caption. At that year's AVMA Annual Convention, attendees could visit the Multimedia Education Center to “learn how to build a Web page, use Power Point in a presentation, e-mail your colleagues, and search the Internet for veterinary resources and information.”

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Sarajevo University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine graduated 95 veterinarians on Dec. 12, 1996, after a 15-year hiatus during the civil war that rocked the Balkans.

A Jan. 1, 1999, JAVMA article examined fears about the Y2K bug and the likelihood of it causing a global economic crash.

Carbon Copy, the first cloned kitten, was born at Texas A&M University Dec. 22, 2001. CC was a perfect genetic match of its donor, Carbon.

Report predicts increase in starting salaries

AVMA report covers compensation trends in the market for veterinarians

By Katie Burns

Starting salaries for veterinarians are expected to increase substantially between 2014 and 2024, according to a new report from the AVMA.

On July 30, the Association released the 2015 AVMA Report on the Market for Veterinarians. The report covers compensation trends in veterinary medicine and other aspects of supply and demand in the market for veterinarians.

Increase in starting salaries

The mean starting salary for new veterinary graduates taking a position in private practice in 2014 was approximately $67,000, with the mean starting salary in companion animal–exclusive practice at just below $70,000. The report predicts that an increase in starting salaries will follow from an improving economy and a forecast that continued growth in the number of veterinary graduates is unlikely.

According to the report, “The demand for companion animal exclusive practitioners depends on the demand for services from pet owners, and their demand depends on their level of income. As pet owners’ incomes rise, their demand for veterinary services rises. As a consequence, the demand for veterinarians will rise, leading to an increasing willingness on the part of employers to offer higher salaries to obtain the services of a new veterinarian.”

The addition of new veterinarians to companion animal–exclusive practice has very little impact on starting salaries, according to analysis in the report, “while the income of pet owners has a very large impact. Thus, as a result of a projected improving economy and our forecast of a continued increase in the number of new veterinarians entering companion animal exclusive practice through 2019, with no annual increase after that, we project that mean starting salaries will see a steady increase to roughly $84,000 in 2020, reaching a high just shy of $94,000 in 2024.”

The summary continues, “While the demand for food animal veterinary services is not directly related to consumers’ disposable income, the demand for animal protein in the U.S. markets ensures a robust demand for food animal veterinarians.” The report estimates that the mean starting salary in the food animal-predominant sector will increase from approximately $73,000 in 2014 to just over $87,000 in 2024.

The report estimates that the mean starting salary in mixed practice will increase from approximately $64,000 in 2014 to more than $86,000 in 2024; in equine practice, from approximately $42,000 in 2014 to roughly $52,000 in 2024; and in uniformed services, from approximately $64,000 in 2014 to approximately $81,000 in 2024.

Age-earnings profiles

The report also provides age-earnings profiles, which plot expected income against years of experience, for men and women in private and public practice. The profiles come from data from 1999 through 2013.

“Contrary to recent trends, males practicing equine medicine have historically been the highest compensated group,” according to the report, referring to equine practice becoming less lucrative. Among men in private practice, the next highest compensation curves are in mixed animal practice and companion animal practice, and the lowest are in food animal practice and “other.”

The age-earnings profiles for women are similar among most sectors of private practice, according to the report, “though the food animal veterinarians appear to have lower wages for the majority of their careers.”

Among men and women in public practice, the age-earnings profiles are highest in industry. For men in public practice, the compensation curve is flattest in state and local government, “meaning that, while their starting salaries are quite competitive, wage raises are relatively slow compared to all of the other practice types.”

The 2015 AVMA Report on the Market for Veterinarians provides many more details about compensation trends and other aspects of supply and demand. The report is the fourth in a series of six reports on the economics of veterinary medicine. The series is available for purchase online from the AVMA Store at http://jav.ma/18V8lgV. The price is $249 for AVMA members and $499 for nonmembers. Additional information is available by calling 800-248-2862, ext. 6655, or emailing productorders@avma.org.

Education council schedules site visits

The AVMA Council on Education has scheduled site visits to five schools and colleges of veterinary medicine for the remainder of 2015.

Site visits are planned for the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 4–8; University of Guelph Ontario Veterinary College, Oct. 18–22; University of Edinburgh Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Nov. 8–12; Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Nov. 29-Dec. 3; and Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine in Harrogate, Tennessee, Dec. 13–17.

The council welcomes written comments on these plans or the programs to be evaluated. Comments should be addressed to Dr. Karen Martens Brandt, Director, Education and Research Division, AVMA, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Comments must be signed by the person submitting them to be considered.

AVMA develops communications on pet prescriptions

The AVMA has developed new communications regarding prescriptions for pets, comprising a message to AVMA members about working with pharmacies, a model letter to a pharmacist, and a client handout on pet prescriptions.

“Like you, pharmacists are trained professionals who want to do what's best for their clients,” states the message to members. “They receive training in advanced chemistry, biochemistry, and human physiology and pharmacology. But your local pharmacists may or may not be aware that animal physiology and pharmacology can differ significantly from that of humans, and this can lead to unintentional prescription errors and conflict.”

Refusing to write a prescription is unethical, according to the message. The AVMA has been working with pharmacy organizations to emphasize the need for pharmacists to establish and maintain a working rapport with veterinarians when it comes to filling prescriptions for pet medications.

The message also asks members to oppose federal legislation that would require veterinarians to write prescriptions even when the veterinarian dispenses the medication and encourages members to develop positive, collegial relationships with local pharmacies.

Members can access the model letter to a pharmacist as well as the client handout, “Your Pet Prescription Choices.” The handout outlines options for filling a prescription, caveats about pharmacies, and safety points.

“A message to AVMA members about working with pharmacies” is at www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference. The message links to the model letter. The client handout is at www.avma.org/clienthandouts.

Correction

The article “Grant aims to give minorities a boost in whitest profession” in the Sept. 1, 2015, issue of JAVMA News, page 453, listed The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine as having a 3.9 percent rate of racially or ethnically underrepresented students enrolled. The actual rate is 10.2 percent.

Affiliated groups meet in Boston

Forty allied and other veterinary-related organizations and 30 alumni groups from colleges and schools of veterinary medicine convened this July at the 152nd AVMA Annual Convention in Boston.

These groups engaged in a wide variety of activities during the convention, including lectures, certification examinations, business meetings, workshops, and social gatherings. Many of the organizations co-sponsored the AVMA's educational sessions.

The following pages highlight the activities and honors reported by some of these organizations.

Compiled by Anita Suresh

Avian pathologists

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AAAP officials: Front row—Drs. Ian Rubinoff, Martine Boulianne, Hector Cervantes, and Victoria Bowes. Back row—Janece Bevans-Kerr, Dr. Bernard Beckman, Dr. Robert Porter, Dr. Francene Van Sambeek, Dr. Eric Jensen, Dr. Suzanne Dougherty, and Dr. Eva Wallner-Pendleton (Not pictured is Dr. Charles L. Hofacre.)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American Association of Avian Pathologists Inc. meeting, July 11–14, Boston

Awards: Special Service Award: Dr. Bruce Stewart-Brown, Salisbury, Maryland, for outstanding contributions to the field of avian medicine. A 1985 graduate of the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Stewart-Brown serves as chief veterinarian and senior vice president of food safety, quality, and live operations at Perdue Farms. He is a diplomate of the American College of Poultry Veterinarians and a past president of the AAAP. Phibro Animal Health Excellence in Poultry Research Award: Dr. Siba Samal, Hyattsville, Maryland, for sustained excellence in poultry disease and health for 20 years or more. Dr. Samal earned his veterinary degree from the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology in India in 1976 and his doctorate in molecular virology from Texas A&M University in 1985. He serves as an associate dean of the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine and is a professor and chair of the Department of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Maryland College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Dr. Samal is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists. Lasher-Bottorff Award: Dr. H.L. Shivaprasad, Fresno, California, won this award, given in recognition of an avian diagnostician or technical services veterinarian who has made important contributions to the poultry health program in North America over the past 10 years. Dr. Shivaprasad earned his veterinary degree from the University of Agricultural Sciences in Bangalore, India, in 1969, and his doctorate in physiology and genetics from The Ohio State University in 1977. A diplomate of the American College of Poultry Veterinarians, he is a professor of avian pathology with the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare branch. Bruce W. Calnek Applied Poultry Research Achievement Award: Holly Sellers, PhD, Watkinsville, Georgia, for research contributions resulting directly or indirectly in a measurable, practical impact on the control of one or more major diseases of poultry. Dr. Sellers earned her doctorate in medical microbiology from the University of Georgia in 1998. She is a professor in the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. Bayer-Snoeyenbos New Investigator Award: Dr. John Dunn, East Lansing, Michigan, for research contributions to the field of avian medicine. Dr. Dunn received his veterinary degree from the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine in 2003 and his doctorate in pathology, also from MSU, in 2009. He is a veterinary medical officer in the Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Outstanding Field Case and/or Diagnostic Report Award: Dr. Silvia Carnaccini, Turlock, California. Dr. Carnaccini received her veterinary degree from the University of Bologna in Italy in 2012. She is a resident veterinarian with the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch. P. P. Levine Award, presented to the senior author of the best paper published in the AAAP journal, Avian Diseases: Dr. Haroldo Toro, Auburn, Alabama. Dr. Toro earned his veterinary degree from the University of Chile in 1983 and his doctorate in molecular virology from the University of Giessen in Germany in 1987. He is a professor of avian diseases in the Department of Pathobiology at the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. Reed Rumsey Student Award: Dr. Seiche Genger, Raleigh, North Carolina, a 2012 graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, and Dr. Eric Parent, St. Bernard, Quebec, a 2013 graduate of the University of Montreal Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Richard B. Rimler Memorial Paper Scholarship: Dr. Stivalis Cardenas Garcia, Athens, Georgia, a 2008 graduate of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. L. Dwight Schwartz Travel Scholarship: Eric Shepherd, Athens, Georgia. Shepherd earned his master's in poultry science from the University of Georgia in 2010. Arnold S. Rosenwald Student Poster Award: Matthew Moreau, PhD, Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, won in the category of basic research. Dr. Moreau earned his doctorate in pathobiology from Pennsylvania State University in 2015. Blanca Lopez de Juan Abad, Cary, New York, won in the category of applied research. She earned a bachelor's in biology from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill in 2015. Eskelund Preceptorship Awards: Shalette Dingle, Cornell University; Clarence Ducummon, University of Oklahoma; Marissa Garry, University of Oklahoma; Elsie Gerken, The University of Findlay; Kristie McLaughlin, Ross University; Ed Metzger, University of Guelph; Callie Pierce, North Carolina State University; Jessica Poindexter, Washington State University; Racheal Redman, Western University of Health Sciences; Abigail Reith, University of Missouri-Columbia; Marie Severyn, The Ohio State University; and Allison Watson, Colorado State University. AAAP Foundation Poultry Scholarship: Brandon Armwood, North Carolina State University; Valerie Marcano, University of Georgia; Callie Pierce, North Carolina State University; Rachel Redman, Western University of Health Sciences; Sara Reichelt, North Carolina State University; Laura Tensa, Oregon State University; and Jessica Walters, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine

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Dr. Bruce Stewart-Brown

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Siba Samal

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. H.L. Shivaprasad

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Holly Sellers, PhD

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. John Dunn

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Silvia Carnaccini

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Haroldo Toro

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Seiche Genger

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Eric Parent

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Stivalis Cardenas Garcia

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Eric Shepherd

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Matthew Moreau, PhD

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Blanca Lopez de Juan Abad

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Officials: Drs. Robert Porter, North Oaks, Minnesota, president; Hector Cervantes, Watkinsville, Georgia, president-elect; Charles L. Hofacre, Athens, Georgia, executive vice president; Suzanne Dougherty, Madison, Alabama, executive vice president–elect; Francene Van Sambeek, Cullman, Alabama, immediate past president; Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Port Matilda, Pennsylvania, Northeast director; Eric Jensen, Elkmont, Alabama, Southern director; Bernard Beckman, Earlham, Iowa, Central director; Victoria Bowes, Abbotsford, British Columbia, Western director; and directors-at-large—Drs. Ian Rubinoff, Urbandale, Iowa, and Martine Boulianne, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec

Contact: Janece Bevans-Kerr, Director of Member Services, American Association of Avian Pathologists, 12627 San Jose Blvd., Suite 202, Jacksonville, FL 32223; phone, 904-425-5735; email, aaap@aaap.info; website, www.aaap.info

Industry veterinarians

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AAIV officials and some board members: Drs. Silene St. Bernard, Mia Cary, Daniel Marsman, Cori Gross, Brian Huseman, Mary Beth Leininger, James Hall, Debra Nickelson, Richard Hartigan, and Michelle Larsen (Not pictured is Dr. James Freeman.)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American Association of Industry Veterinarians meeting, July 13, Boston

Business: The AAIV, which advances the professional standards of veterinarians involved in industry or other nonclinical practice, changed and updated its bylaws. Discussions were held on future webinars. Dr. Rena Carlson-Lammers, representing AVMA District XI, spoke about activities of the AVMA Board of Directors.

Officials: Drs. Silene St. Bernard, Long Beach, California, president; Cori Gross, Bellevue, Washington, president-elect; Debra Nickelson, Kansas City, Missouri, secretary; Richard Hartigan, Fredericksburg, Virginia, treasurer; and James Freeman, Franklin, North Carolina, immediate past president

Contact: Dr. Debra Nickelson, Secretary, American Association of Industry Veterinarians, 13800 NW 79th Terrace, Kansas City, MO 64152; phone, 816-460-6297; email, dnickelson@petag.com; website, www.aaivet.org

Small ruminant practitioners

Event: American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners meeting, July 11, Boston

Awards: Donald E. Bailey Practitioner of the Year: Dr. Paula Menzies, Guelph, Ontario. A 1978 graduate of the University of Guelph Ontario Veterinary College, Dr. Menzies serves as an associate professor of ruminant health management at the OVC. She is a diplomate of the European College of Small Ruminant Health Management and vice president of the International Sheep Veterinary Association.

Business: It was noted that the association has 1,039 members. A partnership with AmazonSmile allows a portion of the purchase price of eligible products on its website, www.smile.amazon.com, to go toward the Samuel Gus Educational Fund. The fund, managed by the AASRP, funds veterinary student experiences with small ruminant species via externships.

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Dr. Paula Menzies

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Patty B. Scharko

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Officials: Drs. Patty B. Scharko, Columbia, South Carolina, president; Dale Duerr, New Philadelphia, Ohio, president-elect; Susan Myers, Coopersville, Michigan, secretary; Joan Dean Rowe, Davis, California, immediate past president; and Joan S. Bowen, Wellington, Colorado, AVMA delegate

Contact: Dr. Michelle Kutzler, Public Relations and Communications Committee Chair, American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners, 112 Withycombe Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331; phone, 541-737-1401; email, michelle.kutzler@oregonstate.edu; website, www.aasrp.org

Veterinary parasitologists

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AAVP officials: Front row—Alan Marchiondo, PhD; Javier Garza; and Meriam Saleh. Back row—Timothy G. Geary, PhD; Dante S. Zarlenga, PhD; Dr. Ray M. Kaplan; Dr. Andrew S. Peregrine; and Dr. Doug Carithers

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Michael W. Dryden

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Anne Barrett

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Alice Lee

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists meeting, July 11–14, Boston

Awards: AAVP-Merial Distinguished Veterinary

Parasitologist Award: Dr. Michael W. Dryden, Manhattan, Kansas, for outstanding contributions to the advancement of veterinary parasitology. Dr. Dryden received his veterinary degree from Kansas State University in 1984 and his doctorate in veterinary parasitology from Purdue University in 1990. He is a professor of veterinary parasitology in the Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology at the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Dryden's research focuses on flea and tick biology and control, investigating urban wildlife as vectors of parasitic diseases, and diagnosis and control of gastrointestinal parasites. He is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiology. AAVP-Merck Outstanding Graduate Student Award: Anne Barrett, Oklahoma State University, for her work on novel spotted fever group Rickettsia species in ticks, dogs, and people. AAVP-Companion Animal Parasite Council Graduate Student Award in Zoonotic Disease: Alice Lee, Cornell University, for her work on larval trapping in mice infected with Toxocara canis and the results of concomitant preexisting infections with Toxoplasma gondii. Best student oral presentation, sponsored by Bayer Animal Health: First place ($500)—Chanel Schwartzentruber, University of Guelph. Second place ($300)—Melissa Miller, University of Georgia. Honorable mention—Jessica Scare, University of Kentucky; Emily McDermott, University of California-Riverside; Amy Murillo, University of California-Riverside; and Alice Houk, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine. Best student poster competition, sponsored by Elanco: First place ($500)—Elizabeth Shepherd, West Virginia University. Second place ($300)—Dr. Yoko Nagamori, Oklahoma State University. Honorable mention—Mary Maclean, University of Georgia; Carly Barone, University of Rhode Island; Lindsay Porter, Texas A&M University; and Victoria Demello, University of Georgia. Young investigator travel grants were awarded to 36 students to enable them to attend the meeting and present their abstracts as part of the scientific program.

Officials: Dr. Ray M. Kaplan, Athens, Georgia, president; Timothy G. Geary, PhD, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, president-elect and program chair; Dante S. Zarlenga, PhD, Beltsville, Maryland, vice president; Dr. Doug Carithers, Duluth, Georgia, secretary-treasurer; Dr. Andrew S. Peregrine, Guelph, Ontario, immediate past president; Alan Marchiondo, PhD, Santa Fe, New Mexico, program administrator; and graduate student representatives—Meriam Saleh, Blacksburg, Virginia, and Javier Garza, Morgantown, West Virginia

Contact: Dr. Doug Carithers, Secretary-Treasurer, American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, 3239 Satellite Blvd., Duluth, GA 30096; phone, 770-331-6069; email, doug.carithers@merial.com; website, www.aavp.org

Veterinary toxicologists

Event: American Board of Veterinary Toxicology meeting, July 13, Boston

Awards: Service Award: Dr. Roger McClellan, Albuquerque, New Mexico, for outstanding service to the field of veterinary toxicology. A 1960 graduate of the Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. McClellan is a consultant on issues related to human health risk analysis, inhalation toxicology, and strategic scientific business analysis and serves as editor-in-chief of the journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology. From 1988–1999, he was president and chief executive officer of the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Earlier, Dr. McClellan served as president and director of what is now known as the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in Albuquerque. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology and ABVT, a past president of the Society of Toxicology and American Association for Aerosol Research, and a past chair of the National Academies’ Committee on Toxicology. In 1990, Dr. McClellan became one of only a few veterinarians to be elected to the National Academy of Medicine. Veterinary Student Paper Competition: First place: Olivia Swailes, Purdue University, for “Use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to detect toxins and toxicants for veterinary diagnostic toxicology”; second place: Dr. Alisha Worth, North Carolina State University, for “Diphenhydramine exposure in dogs: 621 Cases (2008–2013)”; and third place: Dr. Lexi McGilvray, Washington State University, for “Ciguatera toxicosis, trouble in paradise”

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Dr. Roger McClellan

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

New diplomates: Five new diplomates were welcomed following successful completion of the certifying examination. The new diplomates are as follows:

Adrienne Bautista, Davis, California

Jarrod Butler, Phoenix

Rhian Cope, Woden, Australia

Genevieve Fent, Stillwater, Oklahoma

Sandra James-Yi, Crystal Lake, Illinois

Officials: Drs. Sharon Gwaltney-Brant, Mahomet, Illinois, president; Tim Evans, Columbia, Missouri, president-elect; Mary Schell, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, secretary; John Tegzes, Pomona, California, treasurer; and Konnie Plumlee, Gainesville, Missouri, immediate past president

Contact: Dr. Mary Schell, Secretary, American Board of Veterinary Toxicology, 890 Valley View Drive, Cedar Rapids, IA 52403; phone, 217-337-9749; email, mary.schell@aspca.org; website, www.abvt.org

Poultry veterinarians

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ACPV diplomates: Front row—Drs. Martha Pulido-Landinez, Yun-Ting Wang, and Yuko Sato. Back row—Drs. Sarah Tilley, Kevin Maschek, Christina Lindsey, Thomas A. Gaydos, and Elizabeth Dale

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American College of Poultry Veterinarians meeting, July 11–14, Boston

Business: The college will be changing its bylaws. The ACPV Recertification Committee was established and will review continuing education completed by candidates for recertification. The process of revising the ACPV certification examination and establishing new cut scores was completed.

New diplomates: Eight new diplomates were welcomed into the ACPV. They are as follows:

Elizabeth Dale, Athens, Georgia

Thomas A. Gaydos, Dallas

Christina Lindsey, Knightdale, North Carolina

Kevin S. Maschek, Brandon, Mississippi

Martha Pulido-Landinez, Brandon, Mississippi

Yuko Sato, West Lafayette, Indiana

Sarah Tilley, Clarksville, Georgia

Yun-Ting Wang, Atlanta

Officials: Drs. Becky J. Tilley, Goldsboro, North Carolina, president; Ken Opengart, Madison, Alabama, president-elect; Karen B. Grogan, Dacula, Georgia, executive vice president; and Samuel Christenberry, Cullman, Alabama, immediate past president

Contact: Janece Bevans-Kerr, Director of Member Services, American College of Poultry Veterinarians, 12627 San Jose Blvd., Suite 202, Jacksonville, FL 32223; phone, 904-425-5735; email, aaap@aaap.info; website, www.acpv.info

Veterinary preventive medicine

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Dr. Scott Cornwell

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Leo Cropper

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Brian McCluskey

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine meeting, July 12, Boston

Awards: Helwig-Jennings Award: Dr. Scott Cornwell, Fort Meyers, Florida, for outstanding and prolonged service to the ACVPM. A 1982 graduate of the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Cornwell practices at Viscaya Prado Veterinary Hospital in Cape Coral, Florida. He also serves as a courtesy associate professor in the Department of Global Health at the University of South Florida College of Public Health and is a guest professor at the University of Sarajevo Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Earlier in his career, Dr. Cornwell was an Army veterinarian for several years. He is a diplomate of the ACVPM. Distinguished Diplomate Award: Dr. Leo Cropper, San Antonio, for significant contributions to the specialty of veterinary preventive medicine. A 1974 graduate of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Cropper is director of trainee health surveillance at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio. Earlier in his career, he served several years in the Air Force in public health and was a consultant to the Air Force surgeon general. Dr. Cropper is a diplomate of the ACVPM. Frank A. Todd President's Award: Dr. Brian McCluskey, Littleton, Colorado, for meritorious service to the college. Dr. McCluskey earned his veterinary degree from the Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine in 1987 and a doctorate in epidemiology from Colorado State University in 2003. He has served as chief epidemiologist for the Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's Veterinary Services since 2011. During his career with the USDA, Dr. McCluskey has also directed the National Surveillance Unit and Veterinary Services Western Region. He is a diplomate of the ACVPM.

Business: The college has a new website that, along with Facebook and LinkedIn pages, will help increase visibility to diplomates and members of the public. It was noted that using ExamSoft software for the first time this year to administer the certification examination was successful. The ACVPM trademark project was completed.

New diplomates: Fifty-six new diplomates were welcomed into the college following successful completion of the certifying examination. The new diplomates are as follows:

Tara Anderson, Atlanta

Hayley Ashbaugh, Franklin, Ohio

John Beach, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

Amanda Burling, Columbia, Missouri

Stacie Cannon, Nashville, Tennessee

Thomas Carey, Canton, Michigan

Kristina Cataline, San Mateo, California

Alicia Cawlfield, Gaithersburg, Maryland

Bradley Christensen, Kaycee, Wyoming

Mary Donahue, Minneapolis

Adrienne Dunham, Longview, Texas

Laura Earle-Imre, Melbourne, Florida

Cynthia Facciolla, Winters, California

Mark Freedman, Atlanta

Matthew French, Olympia, Washington

Erin Frey, Raleigh, North Carolina

Susan Gale, Phoenix

Jarod Hanson, Athens, Georgia

Romina Hennig, Alexandria, Virginia

Dennis Horter, Savage, Minnesota

David Hustead, Overland Park, Kansas

Elizabeth James, Corvallis, Oregon

Vanmathy Kasimanickam, Pullman, Washington

Andrew Kay, Vancouver, Washington

Craig Kiebler, Oakland, California

Noel Kubat, Elizabethtown, Kentucky

Sang Lee, Bel Air, Maryland

Kelvin Lim, Singapore

Sarah Luciano, San Antonio

Anna Lyons-Nace, Fairfield, Iowa

Andrea Maceri, Woodstock, Georgia

Gabriele Maier, Woodland, California

Kyle Malter, Smithville, Missouri

Charles Marchand, Copperas Cove, Texas

Sean McCaul, St. Joseph, Missouri

Amanda McGuire, Fort Collins, Colorado

Manuel Moro, Clarksburg, Maryland

Sara Mullaney, Fort Collins, Colorado

Gleeson Murphy, Basseterre, St. Kitts & Nevis

Dusty Odekoven, Pierre, South Dakota

Tina Parker, Gaithersburg, Maryland

Sandi Parriott, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

Lauren Pecher, Fort Collins, Colorado

Alda Pires, Davis, California

Cara Reiter, State College, Pennsylvania

Caitlin Rizzo, Cameron, North Carolina

Joshua Schaeffer, Columbia, Missouri

Stacy Schwabenlander, Roseville, Minnesota

Terry Slaten, Cullman, Alabama

Sean Stockwell, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Suzanne Tomasi, Springfield, Ohio

James Watson, Madison, Mississippi

Amanda White, El Segundo, California

Michelle Willette, Lakeville, Minnesota

Elizabeth Williams, Fayetteville, North Carolina

Wanda Wilson, Washington, D.C.

Officials: Drs. Scott Brooks, Chicago, president; Marianne Ash, Lafayette, Indiana, president-elect; Tom Doker, Aiken, South Carolina, secretary-treasurer; Candace L. McCall, Summerfield, Florida, executive vice president; Mo Salman, Fort Collins, Colorado, immediate past president; Susan Trock, Atlanta, Specialty of Epidemiology president; and councilors—Drs. Paul Garbe, Atlanta; Armando Hoet, Columbus, Ohio; and Tom Berg, Richland, Michigan

Contact: Dr. Candace L. McCall, Executive Vice President, American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, 14275 S. Highway 475, Summerfield, FL 34491; phone, 210-382-5400; email, preventionfirst@gmail.com; website, www.acvpm.org

Veterinary medical association executives

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Charlene Wandzilak

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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David Foley

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Adrian Hochstadt

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American Society of Veterinary Medical Association Executives meeting, July 10, Boston

Awards: Executive of the Year: Charlene Wandzilak, Hummelstown, Pennsylvania, for exemplifying the best in association management and continually bringing credit to the profession and the association community. Wandzilak has served as executive director of the Pennsylvania VMA for the past 15 years. During her tenure, the association has seen financial growth, a substantial increase in membership, and the addition of new services, including its own insurance company, pvmaAssure. Wandzilak is a past president of the ASVMAE. Distinguished Service Award: David Foley, Lexington, Kentucky, for exceptional service to the ASVMAE, demonstrating initiative, integrity, and commitment in serving the veterinary profession and association colleagues. Executive director of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Foley is a past president of the ASVMAE and has served on and chaired several of the society's committees and task forces. Best in Business Award: The Oregon VMA won this award, given in recognition of successful programs and projects by VMAs that are making positive impacts on the veterinary medical industry. The Oregon VMA has played an active role in addressing concerns related to veterinary prescriptions and human pharmacies. After much discussion with veterinarians, the Oregon Board of Pharmacy, and resources such as the AVMA, the association created materials for its members to help provide them a better perspective on the role of pharmacies in relation to veterinary prescriptions. The association also created informational and educational materials for the OBP to distribute to licensed pharmacists and for veterinarians to provide to clients.

Officials: Adrian Hochstadt, Schaumburg, Illinois, president; Candace Joy, Issaquah, Washington president-elect; Deloris Green Gaines, Fayetteville, Tennessee, secretary; Dan Tjornehoj, South St. Paul, Minnesota, treasurer; and Dina Michel, Hastings, Nebraska, immediate past president

Contact: Adrian Hochstadt, President, American Society of Veterinary Medical Association Executives, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Schaumburg, IL 60173; phone, 800-248-2862, ext. 6780; email, ahochstadt@avma.org; website, www.vmaexecs.org

Veterinary epidemiologists

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Some AVES officials: Drs. Craig N. Carter, Georgette Wilson, and Charles O. Thoen

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American Veterinary Epidemiology Society meeting, July 13, Boston

Awards: Karl F. Meyer–James H. Steele Gold Headed Cane Award, sponsored by Hartz Mountain

Corporation: Dr. Isabel de Kantor, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Thomas P. Monath, MD, Townsend, Massachusetts, for outstanding lifetime contributions to veterinary epidemiology and public health. Dr. de Kantor earned a doctorate in biochemistry from the University of Buenos Aires in 1971. Prior to retirement in 1997, she was head of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Reference Laboratory for Mycobacteria in Buenos Aires. Earlier in her career, Dr. de Kantor headed the tuberculosis laboratory at the Pan American Zoonosis Center in Azul, Argentina. Dr. Monath earned his medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1966. He serves as chief scientific officer and chief operations officer for BioProtection Systems Corp., a subsidiary of NewLink Genetics Corp. With years of experience as a virologist and vaccinologist, Dr. Monath is working on a new Ebola vaccine. Honorary diplomas, sponsored by Hartz Mountain Corp., were given to Drs. René Carlson, Chetek, Wisconsin; Bruce Akey, College Station, Texas; Gopal Reddy, Tuskegee, Alabama; Ted Cohn, Lone Tree, Colorado; Jonna Ann Kenner Mazet, Davis, California; Jacqueline Smith, Lexington, Kentucky; Charles Muscoplat, Minneapolis; Cheryl Stroud, Apex, North Carolina; and Timothy Stevenson, Washington, D.C.

Business: The AVES unveiled its first-ever website, www.avesociety.org, at the meeting, and launched the James H. Steele One Health Track during the AVMA Annual Convention. The association plans to fund student speaker awards for the one-health track in the future. It was announced that the second edition of the James H. Steele biography will be available for purchase soon, with all proceeds going to the association to help sustain future programs. Dr. Craig N. Carter will assume the role of president for a five-year term beginning Jan. 1, 2016.

Officials: Drs. Charles O. Thoen, Ames, Iowa, president; Konrad Eugster, College Station, Texas, vice president; Craig N. Carter, Lexington, Kentucky, president-elect and executive director; Georgette Wilson, Secaucus, New Jersey, secretary; George W. Beran, Ames, Iowa, immediate past president; and board members—Drs. Lonnie King, Columbus, Ohio; Saul Wilson, Tuskegee, Alabama; George W. Beran, Ames, Iowa; and Bruce Kaplan, Sarasota, Florida

Contact: Dr. Craig N. Carter, President-Elect and Executive Director, American Veterinary Epidemiology Society, P.O. Box 11093, Lexington, KY 40512; phone, 859-321-4890; email, craig.carter@uky.edu

Veterinary history society

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Dr. Isabel de Kantor

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Thomas P. Monath, MD

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Jennifer Yu

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Ellen Kim

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Alexander Neale

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Stephanie Liao

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Boris Brglez

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Peter W. Cowen

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: American Veterinary Medical History Society meeting, July 11, Boston

Program: The past president of the AVMHS, Dr. Helen Wojcinski, presided over the meeting. The theme of this year's speaker program, held July 13 as part of the AVMA's continuing education sessions, was “Veterinary History: Some Massachusetts Connections.” Dr. Howard H. Erickson, Manhattan, Kansas, spoke on “The History of the Boston Veterinary Institute and Early Presidents of the United States Veterinary Medical Association”; Dr. Phyllis Larsen, Ithaca, New York, and Susanne K. Whitaker, Ithaca, New York, read “The Short Existence of the Harvard University Veterinary Department and Middlesex University School of Veterinary Medicine” on behalf of Dr. Henry E. Childers, Cranston, Rhode Island; Sarah M. Oates (Wisconsin ‘16), spoke on “Uncloaking Cognitive Decline: The Emergence of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction in Veterinary Medicine and Its Implications for Understanding Alzheimer's Disease”; and Dr. Basil P. Tangredi, Poultney, Vermont, spoke on “Laboratory of Reform: The New England Experiment to Control Bovine Tuberculosis 1894–1900.” The AVMHS booth featured the poster “A Life with Animals: Florence Kimball ‘10, D.V.M., R.N.” Dr. Kimball, a 1910 graduate of Cornell University and a native of Massachusetts, actively worked with animals while serving as a nurse in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Awards: J. Fred Smithcors Student Veterinary History Essay Contest, sponsored by the Donaldson Charitable Trust: First place ($1,200)—Jennifer Yu (California-Davis ‘16), for “West of West Nile: A virus conquers the new world”; second place ($1,000 each)—Ellen Kim (Kansas State ‘17), for “The great cattle plague and Dr. John Gamgee: The need for historical perspective on trade and public health policy”; and Alexander Neale (Tufts ‘17), for “In sickness and in health: A marriage of veterinary and human medicine, 1866–1881”; and fourth place ($500)—Stephanie Liao (Kansas State ‘17), for “Furry valor: Tactical dogs of World War I and II.”

Business: Discussions were held on activities to be completed in the coming year, including the program and the possibility of a tour of historical sites in the San Antonio area during the next annual meeting, held in conjunction with the 2016 AVMA Annual Convention. Discussions were also held on how the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine uses dues paid by national member organizations; itemizing the cost of producing issues and increasing the number of original research articles for the AVMHS journal, Veterinary Heritage; and problems related to updating and redesigning the society's website. For the first time this year, members were sent a postcard outlining the meeting program. The postcard featured an 1884 engraving of the Harvard University School of Veterinary Medicine. The society considered the idea of producing a similar card each year. It was observed that an amendment is needed to the AVMHS bylaws requiring that speakers for the AVMA Annual Convention be determined a year in advance since the AVMA plans its CE program well ahead of time. Reports of ongoing AVMHS activities were presented, including information on the society's Registry of Heritage Veterinary Practices that honors veterinary hospitals and clinics nationwide that are more than 50 years old. It was noted that several AVMHS members attended the 41st International Congress of the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine held in September 2014 in London.

Officials: Dr. Boris Brglez, Frederick, Maryland, president; Dr. Peter W. Cowen, Raleigh, North Carolina, program chair/president-elect; Susanne K. Whitaker, Ithaca, New York, secretary-treasurer; Dr. Ronnie G. Elmore, Manhattan, Kansas, immediate past president; and members-at-large— Drs. Ana Alcaraz, Claremont, California; Lisa Cox, Guelph, Ontario; and Cynthia Hoobler, Friendswood, Texas

Contact: Susanne K. Whitaker, Secretary-Treasurer, American Veterinary Medical History Society, 23 Wedgewood Drive, Ithaca, NY 14850; phone, 607-257-9248; email, skw2@cornell.edu; website, www.avmhs.org

Veterinary medical college

Event: Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, July 13, Boston

Business: Dr. Cyril Clarke, AAVMC liaison to the AVMA Council on Education, updated members on recent activities associated with the council. Dr. Trevor Ames, AAVMC immediate past president, discussed recent action taken by the American College of Veterinary Surgeons to assess an administrative fee on all surgical residency-training programs. Dr. Rebecca Stinson, AVMA vice-president, provided an update on the AVMA's activities. Jennifer Ryan of Harvard University's Office for Academic and Research Integrity presented “Conflicts of Interest in Medical Research and Education.”

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Dr. Eleanor M. Green

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Officials: Dr. Eleanor M. Green, Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, president; Dr. Douglas Freeman, University of Saskatchewan Western College of Veterinary Medicine, president-elect; Dr. Jean Sander, Oklahoma State University College of Veterinary Medicine, secretary; Dr. Mark Markel, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, treasurer; Dr. Trevor Ames, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, immediate past president; Dr. James P. Thompson, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, at-large representative of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities; Madison Herrick, Western University of Health Sciences, at-large liaison to student chapters of the AVMA; Dr. Andrew T. Maccabe, Washington, D.C., executive director; and directors-at-large—Drs. Alistair Cribb, University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; Robert Dysko, University of Michigan Medical School; Michael Lairmore, University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine; David Argyle, University of Edinburgh The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies; and Sandra Bushmich, University of Connecticut

Contact: Jeanne Johnson, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, 1101 Vermont Ave. NW, Suite 301, Washington, DC 20005; phone, 202-371-9195, ext. 144; email, jjohnson@aavmc.org; website, www.aavmc.org

Lesbian and gay association

Event: Lesbian and Gay VMA meeting, July 11, Boston

Program: Jeremy Pittman of the Human Rights Campaign presented the keynote address, “Is Marriage the End of the Road for LGBT Equality?” A panel comprised of Lisa Greenhill, EdD, Washington, D.C.; Dr. Malcolm Kram, Philadelphia; and Dr. Michael Chaddock, Okemos, Michigan, presented “How to Identify Culturally Diverse & LGBT Friendly Externships, Internships, & Practice Opportunities.” Dr. Barry Feldman, Boston, gave the lecture “Suicide Prevention: A Discussion for the Veterinary Profession.”

Awards: Leadership Award: Dr. Beth Sabin, Schaumburg, Illinois, won this award, given for outstanding leadership or community activism for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning people within the veterinary profession. Dr. Sabin is a 1992 graduate of the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine and obtained her doctorate in immunology from Cornell University in 1997. She has served as associate director for international and diversity initiatives at the AVMA since 2012 and as staff consultant to the AVMA Committee on International Veterinary Affairs since it was established in 2007. She oversees the global area of the AVMA website. Dr. Sabin provides leadership with regard to LGBTQ issues, advocates for an open and inclusive profession, and helps promote development of nondiscrimination policies within the veterinary community. Achievement Award: Dr. Michael Chaddock, Okemos, Michigan, for his dedication to promoting LGBTQ acceptance, inclusion, and leadership within the veterinary community. A 1973 graduate of the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Chaddock is associate dean for administration at the veterinary college and serves on the National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. Earlier in his career, he held positions as Michigan state veterinarian, director of the AVMA Governmental Relations Division, and assistant dean for one health and strategic initiatives at the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. A founding member and vice president of the LGVMA, Dr. Chaddock provides mentorship and leadership empowerment for LGBTQ veterinary students, faculty, and staff.

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Dr. Beth Sabin

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

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Dr. Michael Chaddock

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Business: The LGVMA updated its mission statement and strategic focus. New strategies will concentrate on fighting discrimination against LGBTQ individuals in the veterinary profession, building collaborative networks for the LGBTQ veterinary community, and supporting LGBTQ veterinary students through mentorship, program development, and scholarships. The association also rolled out LGVMA 2.0, its newly designed website. The website includes a job opportunity section and discussion boards.

Officials: Dr. Sandy Hazanow, San Francisco, president; Dr. Michael Chaddock, Okemos, Michigan, vice president; Dr. Linda Detwiler, Millstone Township, New Jersey, secretary; Kevin Cain, Washington, D.C., treasurer; Dr. Wayne Hollingshead, Saint Clotilde de Horton, Quebec, immediate past president; Elyse Cherry, Grafton, Massachusetts, student representative; and members-at-large—Dr. Michael McGuill, Boston; Dr. Paige Carmichael, Athens, Georgia; and Kara Burns, Wamego, Kansas

Contact: Dr. Linda Detwiler, Secretary, Lesbian and Gay VMA, 584 Castro St. No. 492, San Francisco, CA 94114; phone, 206-222-5855; email, secretary@lgvma.org; website, www.lgvma.org

Veterinary medical ethics

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Some SVME officials, guest speakers, and board members: Laura Kahn, MD; Dr. Lila Miller; Dr. John Wright; Dr. Alice Villalobos; Dr. William R. Folger; Dr. Jessica Baron; Dr. Rod Jouppi; Dr. Dennis Lawler; and Dr. Sid Gustafsen

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Event: Society for Veterinary Medical Ethics meeting, July 11, Boston

Awards: Robert Shomer Award: Awarded posthumously to Hal Markowitz, PhD, for leadership in creating enrichment programs for captive and zoo animals worldwide. Dr. Markowitz received his doctorate in behavior and physiology from Arizona State University in 1968. He was faculty specialist in environmental enrichment and animal well-being at the University of California-San Francisco and professor emeritus of biology at San Francisco State University. During his career, Dr. Markowitz also served as the first director of the Oregon Zoological Research Center and was research director at the San Francisco Zoo.

Known for his research on marine mammals and primates, he worked to design better zoos for wildlife and to improve the lives of captive research animals. Dr. Markowitz authored the book “Behavioral Enrichment in the Zoo.” SVME-Alice Villalobos Student Essay Award, sponsored by Waltham: Emma Svenson, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Honorable mention—Abaigeal Mleziva, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Adeyemi Olayide Abraham, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Veterinary Technician Student Essay Award, sponsored by Waltham: Christine E. Kershaw, Alfred State College, Alfred, New York

Officials: Drs. William R. Folger, Houston, president; Alice Villalobos, Hermosa Beach, California, acting vice president; Lide Doffermyre, Wilmington, North Carolina, secretary; John Wright, St. Paul, Minnesota, treasurer; Thomas Edling, San Diego, immediate past president; and newly elected board members—Dr. Jessica Baron, Boston, and Laura Kahn, MD, New York

Contact: Dr. Alice Villalobos, Acting Vice President, Society for Veterinary Medical Ethics, 1947 Manhattan Ave., Hermosa Beach, CA 90254; phone, 310-261-1015; email, dralicev@aol.com; website, www.svme.org

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Hal Markowitz, PhD

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

Report explores disconnect over preventive care

By Katie Burns

The fifth annual State of Pet Health Report from Banfield Pet Hospital, released Aug. 12 at Banfield's Pet Healthcare Industry Summit, attempts to answer this question: “What is the disconnect between how veterinarians position preventive care to pet owners and what pet owners truly believe?”

Vincent Bradley, Banfield president and chief executive officer, said, “It's no secret that although the veterinary profession is making great strides in prioritizing preventive health care, we still have a long way to go to ensure all pets get the care they deserve.”

MotiveQuest, a consumer research company, analyzed more than 2 million conversations about pet care that appeared in online forums, on blogs, and on Facebook in 2014. The company searched for terms such as these: dog, cat, puppy, kitten, pet, fur baby, pet supply, pet stores, cat food, dog food, veterinarian, vet, pet insurance, pet health, and pet hospital.

The resulting report, “Making Pet Care Personal: A Guide to Improving Preventive Care for Pets,” recommends expanding the definition of preventive care. Veterinarians say that preventive care includes vaccines, neutering, and parasite control. Pet owners ask, “What about my pet's diet, exercise, care, play, and emotional well-being?”

In online conversations, about 81 percent of pet owners say they believe that the pet owner is responsible for preventive care, while just 19 percent believe that the veterinarian is responsible for preventive care.

“For many pet owners, interactions with their veterinarian are not meeting their expectations and are seen as transactional,” according to the report. “They're tied to specific services, like vaccines or parasite control.”

When pet owners consider the overall wellness of their pets, they turn to day care providers, groomers, boarders, breeders, and trainers for advice.

As mentioned in online conversations, the most common reasons that pets visit the veterinarians are as follows: specific diseases, 13.1 percent; signs of illness, 8.1 percent; behaviors, 7.7 percent; sickness, 7.6 percent; fleas and ticks, 3.5 percent; check-ups, 3.2 percent; and heartworm medication, 2.3 percent. Only the last three categories fall under preventive care.

Pet owners most commonly look online to find additional information about behavior, health concerns, breeds and genetics, and food, nutrition, and diet.

“Veterinarians have an opportunity to listen,” according to the report. “We want a seat at the table—preferably at the head of the table—with other trusted sources like breeders, trainers and groomers so we can partner with them to ensure that pets are getting the care they need.”

Pet owners say, “As a pet owner, I want a veterinarian who …” does the following:

  • “Advises me, but lets me make decisions.”

  • “Respects me.”

  • “Puts my pet first.”

  • “Goes the extra mile.”

According to the report, “Veterinarians have significant opportunities to bridge the communications gap, to build a stronger relationship with the pet owner and promote the need for preventive care at every stage of a pet's life.”

The report offers these recommendations to veterinarians:

  • Service: Highlight the knowledge and expertise of veterinarians—beyond vaccines and parasite control.

  • Understanding: Discuss with owners their pets’ health, social skills, and behavior and expectations for their pets’ future.

  • Long-term planning: Incorporate discussions early on about pets’ life stages, breed-specific needs, and personalized care.

  • Relationships: Focus communications on relationships between pets, owners, and veterinarians; emphasize the pure joy of pet parenting, not just medical care.

Simplicity, gratitude inspire a productive team

By Susan C. Kahler

Dr. Robert D. Gribble has come to believe over his 18-year career that building a talented clinic staff, showing sincere appreciation to that staff, and “specializing in simplicity” make for an enjoyable workplace—and a measurably more prosperous one.

The 1997 Louisiana State University veterinary graduate shared his approach July 11 during the AVMA Annual Convention in Boston.

Dr. Gribble owns Hallsville Veterinary Hospital in the northeast Texas city. The practice employs nine full-time and two part-time support staff, or 10 full-time-equivalent staff. Dr. Gribble and another part-time veterinarian work 40 hours a week between them as one FTE. The two veterinarians work 10 or 11 days a month but never together or on weekends, and they don't take emergencies, yet the practice produces almost three times the national mean revenue for veterinary practices in the U.S.

“We like to utilize those 10 people,” he said.

Dr. Gribble took over the struggling practice in 2004, but a year later it still wasn't doing well. His longtime mentor urged him to find something he was passionate about. That passion turned out to be practice management, and his message to be simplicity.

Simplifying a practice can amplify its profits, he said. Although practices strive to have the most up-to-date technology, he said, “We need to simplify so our new employees can become productive a lot faster.”

It all began when he stopped at a concession stand one day. The simplicity of the posted menu struck him—there was one size and price for Coke, one price for a slice of pizza regardless of toppings, and so on. An employee would be knowledgeable from the first day, he thought.

He adapted that concept to his practice. His practice staff made sure that drugs and other products were arranged logically and that there was no oversupply.

Redundancies in treatment list codes were eliminated as much as possible for categories such as office visits, examinations, ear cleanings, sedation, and tooth extraction, both for the benefit of staff and clients. Dr. Gribble cited a Veterinary Economics survey that showed 61 percent of clients perceived a long list of fees as totaling more money than a short list, even if the totals were actually the same.

Weight ranges are no longer used for surgery and anesthesia pricing at his practice, and boarding costs are the same for all pets. Protocols were simplified to eliminate confusion. To arrive at some of the new coding and pricing, Dr. Gribble reviewed the top 50 treatments and procedures his practice uses.

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Dr. Robert D. Gribble

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 7; 10.2460/javma.247.7.688

He no longer charges for dental procedures according to disease grade. And in 2012, because of the practice's mission of giving patients and their owners “more good years together,” he decided to perform hematologic, serum biochemical, heartworm, and fecal testing on every dog at every age every year. Whatever vaccines patients need, he gives them free. “I have to pick up a lot of jaws after these talks,” he joked.

To motivate his staff, he gives them as much “ACE” as financially possible—not acepromazine, but appreciation, compensation, and education. Lack of appreciation is the top thing that demotivates staff, according to one study.

Dr. Gribble employs the forms of gratitude in “The 5 Languages of Appreciation in the Workplace” by Gary Chapman and Paul White. They state that every employee has a primary and secondary preferred “language” of being shown appreciation and a least valued one.

The first language is giving tangible gifts for good work. Tangible gifts are the primary or secondary preferred method of 30 to 40 percent of people. The second language is sharing quality time. Third is saying words of affirmation in thanks for a specific job that was done well. One payday, Dr. Gribble wrote a personalized note on each employee's paycheck. Physical touch—such as high fives and fist bumps—is fourth, and acts of service is fifth.

Dr. Gribble said the supervisor and team members are part of an appreciation triangle. He suggests that staff and supervisors take a 30-question “MBA” (motivating by appreciation) inventory at www.mbainventory.com.

Compensation is the second item in his three-pronged approach. He follows the 2013 Veterinary Hospital Managers Association Report on Compensation for Non-DVM Staff. In 2012, Dr. Gribble started a bonus structure called the Fructosamine Bonus Plan, by which employees can receive a bonus of up to $1 an hour during a given period, depending on practice growth during that time.

Education is the third component. Staff members receive raises for attending continuing education events. The practice contributes $500 a year for each employee's CE.

Dr. Gribble, “the singing veterinarian,” adds to the pleasurable environment when moved to get out his guitar.

Community

Obituaries

AVMA member

AVMA honor roll member

Nonmember

Charles C. Oldt

Dr. Oldt (Michigan State ‘56), 83, Grand Rapids, Michigan, died June 1, 2015. He was the founder of Plymouth Road Animal Clinic, a small animal practice in Grand Rapids. Dr. Oldt is survived by his wife, Patricia, and a son, daughter, and stepson. Memorials may be made to the Humane Society of West Michigan, 3077 Wilson Drive NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49534.

Martin E. Ottersberg

Dr. Ottersberg (Colorado State ‘79), 63, Pueblo, Colorado, died May 24, 2015. He owned Veterinary Associates in Pueblo for 36 years, initially practicing mixed animal medicine and later focusing on small animals. Dr. Ottersberg also volunteered his services to the Nature and Raptor Center of Pueblo and Wet Mountain Wildlife Rehabilitation. His wife, Jody; a daughter and a son; and three grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Nature and Raptor Center of Pueblo, 5200 Nature Center Road, Pueblo, CO 81003, or Wet Mountain Wildlife Rehabilitation, 743 Crestview Drive, Florence, CO 81226.

Marshall O. Pitcher

Dr. Pitcher (Iowa State ‘54), 89, Maquoketa, Iowa, died Feb. 4, 2015. From 1987 until retirement in 2000, he worked as a veterinary inspector for the Department of Agriculture. Prior to that, Dr. Pitcher owned a mixed animal practice in Maquoketa for 30 years. Early in his career, he worked in Freeport, Illinois. Active in civic life, Dr. Pitcher served on the Jackson County Board of Health and Maquoketa School Board. He was an Army veteran of World War II. Dr. Pitcher is survived by his wife, Else; two sons and two daughters; and eight grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA 50011, or First United Methodist Church, 1019 Wesley Drive, Maquoketa, IA 52060.

Donald G. Reid

Dr. Reid (Colorado State ‘43), 93, Evergreen, Colorado, died May 18, 2015. He owned a small animal practice in Denver prior to retirement in 1976. Dr. Reid also bred, raised, and showed Boxers. In 1976, he was named Colorado Veterinarian of the Year. Dr. Reid served in the Army Veterinary Corps during World War II. He is survived by three daughters and a son, nine grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. Dr. Reid's daughter, Dr. Barbara Reid (Colorado State ‘77); son-in-law, Dr. Jeffrey French (Minnesota ‘77); and grandson, Dr. Douglas French (Tufts ‘13), all practice small animal medicine at Cape Ann Veterinary Hospital in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

Memorials may be made to Mount Evans Home Health Care and Hospice, 3081 Bergen Peak Drive, Evergreen, CO 80439; Fort Morgan Heritage Foundation, Fort Morgan, CO 80701; or Rockies Heritage and Trails Foundation, Denver, CO 80222.

John E. Swanson

Dr. Swanson (Kansas State ‘84), 59, Kansas City, Kansas, died July 11, 2015. A mixed animal veterinarian, he began his career practicing with his father, Dr. J.J. Swanson (Kansas State ‘54), and brother, Dr. James Swanson (Kansas State ‘83), at Welborn Animal Hospital in Kansas City, Kansas. Dr. Swanson later took over the practice, renaming it Wellborn Animal Hospital and Groom. He also worked at the Kansas City Stockyards and was active with the Central Veterinary Conference, Wyandotte County 4-H Fair, and Shriner's Rodeo. Dr. Swanson's wife, Carol, and a daughter survive him. Memorials may be made to Kansas City Hospice, 1500 Meadow Lane Parkway, Suite 200, Kansas City, MO 64114; or Wyandotte County 4-H Dog Project, Attn: Cynthia Clark, 1216 N. 79th St., Kansas City, KS 66112.

James H. Waage

Dr. Waage (Minnesota ‘89), 56, Glenwood, Minnesota, died March 28, 2015. He and his wife, Dr. Jean Hollenstein (Minnesota ‘88), co-owned Glacial Ridge Veterinary Clinic, a small animal practice in Glenwood, since 1999. Earlier in his career, Dr. Waage practiced at Melrose Veterinary Clinic in Melrose, Minnesota, and worked in dairy nutrition for Land-O-Lakes and West-Con in Minnesota. He was a member of the Minnesota VMA. Dr. Waage is survived by his wife and two sons.

Pierre Wait

Dr. Wait (Georgia ‘61), 82, Bamberg, South Carolina, died June 29, 2015. Following graduation, he worked a year in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. In 1962, Dr. Wait established Denmark Animal Hospital in Denmark, South Carolina, where he initially practiced mixed animal medicine, focusing later on small animals. He was a life member of the South Carolina Association of Veterinarians. Dr. Wait served in the Army from 1953–1955. He is survived by his fiancee, Beth Greene, and two sons. Memorials may be made to Christ Episcopal Church, 5266 Carolina Highway, Denmark, SC 29042.

Merritt B. Wooding

Dr. Wooding (Cornell ‘61), 78, Hope, New Jersey, died Aug. 1, 2015. A retired mixed animal veterinarian, he was the former owner of Blairstown Animal Hospital in Blairstown, New Jersey. Dr. Wooding is survived by his wife, Pamela; a son and a daughter; and three grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the Cornell University Feline Research Center, 235 Hungerford Hill Road, Ithaca, NY 14853.

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