In This Issue—September 15, 2015

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The California drought is hurting dairies already weakened by volatile milk prices, and some have gone out of business. In other news, a group of recent graduates is providing resources on topics such as stress, finances, and work-life balance in an effort to reduce rates of depression and suicide in veterinary medicine. See

page 562

Letters to the Editor

See page 591

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See page 597

Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

See page 601

Anesthesia Case of the Month

See page 605

Pathology in Practice

See pages 611, 615


A renewed call for veterinary leaders

Discussions with various leaders across the veterinary profession make it clear that there is a need for greater understanding of what leadership is and what resources and training are available for veterinarians who wish to take a greater leadership role. See page 592

Book Reviews

See page 618

Prevalence and underlying causes of histologic abnormalities in cats suspected to have chronic small bowel disease

Determining that chronic small bowel disease is present and distinguishing among the various causes of chronic small bowel disease in cats pose many diagnostic challenges. In a review of medical records of 300 cats with chronic vomiting, chronic small bowel diarrhea, or weight loss that also had ultrasonographic evidence of thickening of the small intestine, chronic small bowel disease was diagnosed in 288 (96%). The most common diagnoses were chronic enteritis (n = 150) and intestinal lymphoma (124). Full-thickness biopsy specimens were useful in differentiating between intestinal lymphoma and chronic enteritis, but such differentiation was not possible with ultrasonography or clinicopathologic testing alone.

See page 629

Transfusion practices for treatment of dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses

Splenic masses are a common indication for splenectomy in dogs, but limited information is available regarding specific transfusion practices in dogs undergoing splenectomy because of splenic masses or triggers for the decision to perform a transfusion. In a review of medical records of 542 dogs that underwent splenectomy for splenic masses, transfusions were administered to 240 (44%). Packed RBCs were the most frequently administered blood product. Shock, anemia, and hypocoagulability were apparent triggers for the decision to perform a transfusion. Dogs undergoing transfusion more commonly had malignant disease and had greater odds of a poor long-term outcome, compared with dogs that did not undergo transfusion.

See page 636

Transfusion practices for treatment of dogs hospitalized following trauma

Information regarding transfusion practices in dogs following traumatic injury is limited, and little is known about factors that trigger the decision to perform a transfusion or outcome of dogs that receive transfusions. In a review of medical records for 125 dogs that sustained trauma and were hospitalized for ≥ 24 hours, 45 (36%) were found to have received transfusions. Apparent triggers for the decision to perform a transfusion included evidence of shock or worsening anemia and a need for perioperative hemodynamic optimization. Although dogs that received transfusions had a lower survival rate than dogs that did not, this was likely attributable to greater severity of injuries in the transfusion group.

See page 643

Diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis in client-owned chelonians

A review of medical records for 40 turtles and tortoises with urolithiasis found that only 5 had physical examination abnormalities associated with the urogenital tract and that hematologic, biochemical, and urinalysis findings were generally nonspecific. Mean prevalence of urolithiasis for the study period was 5.1 cases/100 chelonians examined. Thirty-one of the 40 chelonians were desert tortoises. Surgery was performed on 17 chelonians; 5 developed postoperative complications, and 4 of those died. Necropsy was performed on 18 chelonians, and urolithiasis contributed to the decision to euthanize or was the cause of death for 9. Uroliths from 13 chelonians were analyzed, and all were composed of 100% urate.

See page 650

Indications for and factors relating to outcome after rumenotomy or rumenostomy in cattle

Although rumen surgery is commonly performed in cattle, information on long-term outcome is lacking. Results of a review of medical records for 95 cattle that underwent rumenotomy or rumenostomy indicated that these procedures can be effective in treating or relieving complications secondary to forestomach disorders in cattle. Long-term follow-up data were available for 31 of the 42 (74%) cattle that underwent rumenostomy: 17 (55%) were still in the herd, 4 (13%) had been culled, and 10 (32%) had died or were euthanized. Long-term follow-up data were available for 38 of the 53 (72%) cattle that underwent rumenotomy: 13 (34%) were still in the herd, 14 (37%) had been culled, and 11 (29%) had died or been euthanized.

See page 659

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