JAVMA News

Click on author name to view affiliation information

DEVASTATING FLU, ONGOING HARM

Avian influenza outbreak called the largest U.S. animal health emergency

By Greg Cima

d4190417e113

Compost piles inside a turkey barn this past June in Iowa (Courtesy of USDA)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Chicken carcasses from the Iowa egg farm formed compost piles that were 6 feet high and 12 feet wide and, together, 6 miles long.

The piles contained almost 6 million hens, about one-fifth of the chickens killed in Iowa during the highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza outbreak this past spring, according to Dr. Jack Shere, associate deputy administrator for Veterinary Services in the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. He was among hundreds of department employees who worked inside barns during the disease response.

d4190417e130

Trucks used to haul bird carcasses from farms to landfills or incinerators, including this truck in Iowa, were disinfected at both ends of their journeys. (Photo by Michael P. Milleson/USDA APHIS)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Kevin Shea, APHIS administrator, said this spring's highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak was the largest animal health emergency in U.S. history. No other animal health emergency even approached its scale, he said.

“What we're seeing now is 10 percent of the entire layer inventory of the United States is gone, and you can't replace that overnight,” he said. The outbreak also has reduced the national turkey inventory by 7.5 percent.

Since the outbreak ended in June, APHIS officials have been working with state governments and farmers to prepare in case the virus returns this fall with the southward migration of the same wild bird species that brought the disease to the barns starting in fall 2014.

Even the tough have hearts

Dr. John Clifford, chief veterinary officer for APHIS, told an audience of veterinarians at July's AVMA Annual Convention that the H5N2 outbreak had, by then, both killed more animals and cost more than any prior animal disease event in U.S. history.

“We have destroyed—mass depopulation—42 million layers and pullets and 7 1/2 million turkeys,” he said. “We've paid, or are in the process of paying, $190 million in indemnity.

“This outbreak will cost us—the federal cost— probably somewhere in the neighborhood of $550 million.”

Dr. Randy Wheeler, executive director of the Iowa VMA, said losses from the outbreak also have taken a mental toll on farmers and their employees. Veterinarians in his state have been concerned not only about the welfare of the birds affected but also of those who own or work on farms, he said.

“The roughest, toughest farmer still has a heart,” he said.

Some of the turkey farmers will be bankrupted and unable to repopulate their barns, Dr. Shere said. Larger egg producers may need two years to repopulate. And the ability of producers to repopulate their barns will depend on availability of pullets, he said.

“The impacts are felt all over,” he said. “And these communities, these small towns will suffer because of that lack of funding.”

Thousands of people have been out of work while production has stopped for depopulation and cleanup, Shea said. Dr. David Schmitt, Iowa's state veterinarian, said some farm employees and their families have moved to find new work.

Margaret Van Ginkel has been coordinating Iowa State University Extension and Outreach service hotlines used by people who are under stress or in need of advice because of the influenza outbreak. Callers have included people who worked for farms or related businesses such as feed suppliers, lost jobs or portions of their incomes, wanted advice on managing finances or stress, feared return of the virus in the fall, or seemed to just want someone to listen.

James H. Patrick, city manager in Storm Lake, Iowa, said 1,800 employees of the local turkey processing plant were working reduced hours, and other residents who drive trucks, operate feed mills, or run retail stores or even recreational businesses all had been affected by the loss of turkeys and economic uncertainty. Storm Lake is home to half the 21,000 people in Buena Vista County, where about 6 million chickens and 800,000 turkeys died because of the outbreak, the third highest total of any U.S. county.

Patrick said turkey barn owners near the town are probably the most hurt. Those who depopulated their barns lost their sources of income, but their loan payments remain due.

Sick from strain

Only two landfills in Iowa would take bird carcasses, and one did so in limited quantities, Dr. Shere said. The other was a four-hour drive from many of the affected farms, problematic when the steel containers filled with bird carcasses exceeded highway weight limits.

Some carcasses were buried, and others were burned by the truckload in modified incinerators originally designed to heat asphalt for roads, Dr. Shere said.

A crew of 40 could depopulate and remove about 140,000 chickens from barns daily, Dr. Shere said. The mean population among commercial chicken farms with infections was more than 800,000 birds, according to APHIS data.

“We could eventually move fast enough to kill ahead of the disease,” he said. “But, with the fans on, that disease spreads from house to house.”

Those fans pushed plumes of virus into the intake fans of neighboring chicken houses, which are lined up end to end, he said.

Shea expressed pride in the 700-plus APHIS Veterinary Services staff members who worked on three-week field assignments at infection sites—250 of them on multiple assignments. They worked 21 consecutive days, sometimes 14 hours at a time.

“They are going away from their daily routine of life and jumping right into the middle of the biggest animal health emergency we've ever faced in this country,” Shea said. “And what they've done is helped arrest the spread of this disease and help these folks get back in business.”

But the strain of the work made some APHIS employees ill, he said.

“We've put down 50 million birds, and that's a stressful thing in and of itself,” Shea said. “Just the idea of giving up all this time with their families is hard, and the hours they're working. They're not going away to a set of business meetings in a hotel someplace. They are on working farms with literally millions of carcasses.”

That work has included collecting diagnostic samples, assessing farm biosecurity, and supervising thousands of contract employees removing carcasses and sometimes years of manure. Shea said he also is proud of the tact and bedside manner shown by veterinarians in his agency in working with farm owners.

“The owners are obviously very distraught dealing with this situation because they know they're not only going to lose their birds,” he said. “They're probably also going to be out of business for a substantial time.”

APHIS also hired about 50 members of the National Animal Health Emergency Response Corps for 21-day assignments. Corps members are veterinarians and animal health technicians who signed up to be called during emergencies.

Steeling for the fall migration

This year's outbreak started with the first known spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses across the Bering Strait into North American flyways, likely through adaptation of the viruses to ducks, Dr. Clifford said.

d4190417e214

APHIS operations and Wildlife Services employees meet in Iowa at the start of a 21-day field assignment for the disease biologists in the group. (Photo by C. Bannerman/USDA APHIS)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

The H5N2 virus, first seen in the U.S. in December 2014, was among three highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses—along with an H5N8 and an H5N1 strain—that emerged in wild birds in Washington through January. The outbreak among Midwestern commercial flocks started in early March.

At press time, the last known infection had occurred June 17 on an Iowa farm that had 1 million egg-laying hens.

The potential for the virus to return as wild birds fly south this fall remains a concern, Dr. Wheeler said, and those in the poultry industry are improving biosecurity and education as counter-measures. Iowa poultry producers had not before faced such an outbreak—conditions that can lead to complacency—but responding to one forces re-examination and prevention, he said.

Dr. Nicole Neeser, president of the Minnesota VMA and program manager for dairy, meat, and feed inspection in the Minnesota Department of Agriculture, said in June her state was recovering from spring's infections while assuming the virus would return in the fall, as well as in years ahead. Bird owners are trying to prepare despite uncertainty about how the virus spreads among farms, she said.

“We have some ideas about how it's spread, but we aren't solid on that,” she said.

Dr. Neeser said the influenza outbreak, while unfortunate, has “opened people's eyes to the really important roles that veterinarians play in agriculture and animal health” and demonstrated the need for public, legislative, and governmental support for veterinary response capabilities and public health.

Dr. Clifford said the U.S. needs to spend more on disease prevention and detection, including international assistance. And the nation needs not only research on interventions, such as vaccines, but also the ability to use them without loss of trade, he said, noting that vaccinating against avian influenza closes international markets.

By early June, the USDA had determined that available vaccines were not well-matched with the highly pathogenic virus and failed to achieve a suitable degree of efficacy. An announcement indicated then that available vaccines protected about 60 percent of chickens and an unknown portion of turkeys.

“However, some significant trading partners have indicated that, if we began vaccinating, they would ban all U.S. exports of poultry and eggs until they could complete a risk assessment,” the announcement states.

During that assessment, U.S. poultry producers could miss out on billions of dollars worth of sales.

Dr. Clifford also thinks the U.S. needs to find ways to prevent mass destruction of birds, not only by implementing biosecurity but also by improving immunity among birds and breeding for healthier birds. He favors breeding for higher levels of natural resistance to influenza and other pathogens.

Administrator Shea said many biosecurity improvements will come through practices such as wearing proper protective equipment, rather than changes to farm buildings. In indemnity agreements, he said, farm owners have to commit to implementing certain such practices.

Dr. Shere said each farm should have an emergency management plan, and each state should have an animal euthanasia and disposal plan. The U.S. cannot be caught flatfooted again, he said.

“You put the birds down quickly, you get them disposed of quickly, and you don't spread the virus that way,” he said.

USDA hiring veterinarians to fight avian flu

The Department of Agriculture is hiring 90 veterinarians on one- and two-year appointments as part of the response to the avian influenza outbreak.

Kevin Shea, administrator of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, said the agency also is hiring 210 animal health technicians. The veterinarians and technicians are among 450 temporary employees expected to help poultry and egg industries prepare for the fall migratory season and help APHIS respond to any infections with the same highly pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus that killed about 50 million chickens and turkeys this spring.

The administrator noted that recent graduates of veterinary schools, practicing veterinarians looking for a change in work, and those retired from practice are among those qualified. The job listings are posted at www.usajobs.gov, where the veterinary medical officer and animal health technician jobs can be found through key word searches for 24VS-APHIS-OC-2015-0873 and 24VS-APHIS-OC-2015-0885, respectively.

Shea said APHIS also is taking a hard look at the National Animal Health Emergency Response Corps following a disappointing response to the H5N2 outbreak. The corps includes about 1,000 veterinarians and about 3,000 animal health technicians who have signed up to be hired by APHIS for emergency work, but many of those called were unable to commit to the 21-day field assignments requested by APHIS during the spring outbreak.

AVMA convention brings thousands together in Boston

By Katie Burns

d4190417e288

On July 11 at the AVMA Annual Convention in Boston, the Association debuted a new brand combining a fresh look with a member-centric focus. The launch featured a town crier, a toast, and acrobats. (Photos by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Thousands of attendees enjoyed four days full of education and events in Boston at the 152nd AVMA Annual Convention, July 10–14 at the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center.

According to final on-site figures, the total number of registrants was 9,001. Among the convention-goers were 4,248 veterinarians, 631 veterinary students, 590 veterinary technicians and veterinary technician students, 1,475 exhibitors, and 2,057 spouses, guests, and others. The number of veterinarians in attendance was the highest in recent years.

Deidre Ross, director of the AVMA Convention and Meeting Planning Division, said during the convention that she thought attendees were having a wonderful time.

“They enjoy Boston a lot,” she said. “They like the quality of education. They like the events.”

“I think the depth of education has also impressed the attendees,” said Dr. Ron Banks, chair of the AVMA Convention Management and Program Committee. “It's not just superficial, basic veterinary information, but it's actually in-depth, detailed, practice-building clinical care and business management.”

Continuing education commenced in the afternoon on Friday, July 10, and concluded in the morning on Monday, July 14. The program provided more than 1,000 sessions, including a number of interactive labs. The AVMA Convention App helped attendees navigate all the offerings.

Hundreds of first-time attendees turned out Friday night for the reception welcoming them to the convention.

“We're a massive association, we're a very large convention, but we still relate to people on a one-on-one basis, and we start that at the first-timers’ reception,” Dr. Banks said. “It reminds them we are a family community, if you will. We are all individuals working together under a common banner for a common passion.”

Friday night also featured An Unforgettable Evening with the American Veterinary Medical Foundation: Honoring History, Embracing the Future at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

The exhibit hall opened Saturday morning. Convention-goers visited with more than 300 exhibitors through Monday afternoon.

New this year was Saturday's Keynote Luncheon in the exhibit hall, sponsored by Hill's Pet Nutrition. Ross said the event attracted 2,650 attendees. Chris Gardner, entrepreneur and author of the autobiography “Start Where You Are: Life Lessons in the Pursuit of Happyness,” shared his message on self-empowerment and overcoming obstacles.

The AVMA launched its new brand on Saturday evening during the Welcome Reception in the exhibit hall. The Association debuted a green-and-blue logo incorporating the staff of Aesculapius and a tag line: “Our Passion. Our Profession.” Overall, the brand combines a fresh look with a member-centric focus.

d4190417e325

Chris Gardner, author of “Start Where You Are: Life Lessons in the Pursuit of Happyness,” speaks during the Keynote Luncheon on July 11 at the AVMA Annual Convention in Boston.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

The Hot Topics Sessions and sponsored lunchtime sessions were among the highlights of the CE program on Sunday and Monday. The Beach Boys were a big draw for Sunday's concert, sponsored by Merial, at the Blue Hills Bank Pavilion.

The 2016 AVMA Annual Convention will be August 5–9 in San Antonio.

Iditarod veterinarian's devotion to sled dog well-being wins honor

Dr. Stuart Nelson Jr. (Missouri ‘76), chief veterinarian for the Iditarod, received the AVMA Meritorious Service Award during the AVMA Annual Convention's Keynote Luncheon July 11. The award is given to those who have contributed to the profession through activities outside organized veterinary medicine and research.

Animal athletes have always been Dr. Nelson's greatest interest. He spent a number of years in an equine practice focusing on Standardbred racehorses. In 1986, he had the opportunity to volunteer as a trail veterinarian for the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. His love for the Northern wilderness and the excitement of working with enthusiastic sled dogs resulted in him devoting his career to the sport of mushing.

d4190417e347

Dr. Stuart Nelson Jr. (Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Dr. Nelson has been the Iditarod's chief veterinarian since 1996. He promotes research and protocols to enhance the well-being of racing sled dogs. He is on the board of directors of the International Sled Dog VMA and organizes the annual ISDVMA Sled Dog Veterinarian Training Seminar in Alaska. He is also a relief veterinarian in Alaska, Idaho, and Washington.

Auburn dean emeritus receives AVMA Award

By Katie Burns

d4190417e367

Dr. John Thomas Vaughan

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Dr. John Thomas Vaughan came from agricultural roots to lead the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine during a transitional time. At the AVMA Annual Convention in July, the dean emeritus received the AVMA Award for his contributions to organized veterinary medicine.

Dr. Vaughan is an Alabama native, born in 1932 in Tuskegee. His father raised cattle on farms in the area and kept horses to work the cattle. His oldest brother diversified into other livestock, while his older brother became a physician. Dr. Vaughan said, “My father and my oldest brother said they thought I should be a veterinarian, and that suited me to a tee.”

After earning his veterinary degree from Auburn in 1955, Dr. Vaughan practiced briefly in Tuskegee. When he brought a cow to Auburn for surgery, the dean recruited him back to the veterinary college as an instructor in the large animal clinic. The next dean sent him to the University of Pennsylvania to study equine surgery, then assigned him to teach large animal surgery at Auburn. In 1968, Dr. Vaughan passed the inaugural board examination of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

Cornell University recruited Dr. Vaughan to be a professor of surgery and director of the large animal hospital starting in 1970. He returned to Auburn in 1974, accepting an offer to be department head in large animal medicine.

In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, Dr. Vaughan moved into leadership roles in academia and organized veterinary medicine. He became dean at Auburn in 1977. In 1980, he was ACVS president, and in 1981, he was president of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. Regarding the ACVS and AAEP, Dr. Vaughan said, “I've been greatly reinforced and rewarded through the years for my participation.”

From 1977–1995, Dr. Vaughan served as dean at Auburn and was an active member of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges During his tenure as dean, the veterinary college expanded its research program and graduate training and its clinics and clinical faculty. He provided leadership during the growth of veterinary colleges in the South and the increase in female veterinary students across the country.

“Dr. Vaughan has uniquely influenced higher education at its interface with the veterinary profession over the last half-century,” wrote Dr. Calvin M. Johnson, current dean at Auburn, in his letter nominating Dr. Vaughan for the AVMA Award. “His reputation as a practical scholar, clinical specialist, and public ambassador is recognized throughout the profession.”

Dr. W. David Goolsby, a 1982 Auburn veterinary graduate, wrote in a letter of support, “Dr. Vaughan, Dean Emeritus, is legendary. He is known both nationally and internationally for his integrity, intellect, service, surgical skills (particularly equine), speaking expertise, and for his depth of knowledge in the areas of management and administration.”

After retirement, Dr. Vaughan became active with the AVMA PLIT, the Trust that provides professional liability insurance. He was a trustee from 1996–2009, serving as chair from 2001–2003.

Dr. Vaughan has received a number of accolades during his career. Among them, Auburn renamed its large animal hospital as the John Thomas Vaughan Large Animal Teaching Hospital in 2003.

Currently, Dr. Vaughan is working on a history of veterinary medicine at Auburn. The college dates back to 1907, but he started with events as far back as the 16th century. He is up to 1935.

Past and future perfect

Kinnarney: AVMA's success depends on return to ‘entrepreneurial roots'

Story and photos by R. Scott Nolen

Dr. Joe Kinnarney worries the AVMA is losing its edge as a leading member organization.

“Never in my career have I been more concerned than I am now with this trend. It means that we have not been adapting and evolving fast enough to meet our members’ needs,” Dr. Kinnarney, the 2015–2016 AVMA president, said at the regular annual session of the Association's House of Delegates on July 10 in Boston. He succeeded Dr. Ted Cohn as AVMA president four days later.

While the HOD and Board of Directors have spent recent years attempting to reform AVMA governance, membership in the Association has declined. “Unfortunately, this heated debate has impacted our members. Our members do not understand why we are not focused on their current needs,” Dr. Kinnarney said.

Apple and other thriving companies succeed because they have visionary leaders who implement plans that give customers what they want, Dr. Kinnarney explained. Kodak and Blockbuster are examples of what happens when a company doesn't adapt. He told delegates it's clear the AVMA hasn't evolved to meet member needs as quickly as it should.

AVMA leadership, Dr. Kinnarney insisted, has to act and think differently. “The Board of Directors needs to think more entrepreneurially so that we are focusing on strategies, tactics, tools, and services to improve the lives of our members versus dealing with policies and rules,” he said. “We need to get back to our entrepreneurial roots.”

Dr. Kinnarney recalled how the veterinary profession has changed since its early days as horse doctors. And throughout its 152-year existence, the AVMA has been a guide for veterinarians, helping them evolve to meet changing societal demands. AVMA leaders, he noted, had the vision to set minimum standards for veterinary education and to establish the insurance trusts.

“What made all these changes possible?” he asked. “The House of Delegates working closely with the Board of Directors.”

Accountability is the one factor that has the greatest potential to reverse the declining membership trend, Dr. Kinnarney said. He informed delegates he introduced a proposal at the BOD meeting this past April to form a subcommittee to identify strategies to make the Board more transparent and responsive to member needs. He challenged the next BOD chair to make the necessary reforms.

As a valued partner in the AVMA's success, the HOD must take this time to change how it operates as well, Dr. Kinnarney said. “If we are to be relevant to our members, we must change our governance to allow current, pertinent issues to be openly discussed and acted upon by this body,” he said. “I challenge the leaders of this House—the House Advisory Committee—to tackle this issue.”

Further, Dr. Kinnarney challenged the HAC to have a resolution with such governance reforms ready by the next HOD session in January.

“I want to make it very clear I am honored to be the president of this great organization. I love this Association. I always have, and I always will,” Dr. Kinnarney said. “Some criticize this organization with the intent of hurting it. I criticize to help make it better.”

d4190417e439

Dr. Joe Kinnarney addresses the AVMA House of Delegates this past July in Boston.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Treasurer: New process ties finances with AVMA strategy

d4190417e454

AVMA Treasurer Barbara A. Schmidt (Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

AVMA Treasurer Barbara A. Schmidt told the House of Delegates July 10 during its regular annual session that the AVMA now has a process to tie Association finances with Association strategy.

“An important role of finance is strategy management—careful implementation and monitoring, aligning our organization's resources to our strategic priorities, setting targets, and tracking and measuring success,” she said.

Dr. Schmidt said this represents an expanded role for the Board of Directors’ Budget and Financial Review Committee as well as for the treasurer, whose responsibilities as of 2014 now include chairing this committee.

The AVMA Strategy Management Process is a comprehensive evaluation and planning effort that began in 2014. It resulted in the 2015–2017 AVMA Strategic Plan and in building the Association's capabilities for effective implementation. Dr. Schmidt acknowledged the instrumental role that AVMA Chief Financial Officer John Nocera has played both in development of the AVMA Strategic Plan and now in helping the Association build the three-year operating plan for its implementation. Links to the strategic plan and the strategic process landing page are at www.avma.org/About/Governance under “Strategic Planning.”

“Our surpluses are now able to support the AVMA in implementation and execution of its new direction in strategy management to achieve our goal to grow AVMA member value across all segments of the profession,” the treasurer said.

In that regard, the AVMA has grown its reserves by nearly $15 million since 2008. Reserves are projected at $37.35 million for 2015.

Dr. Schmidt reported that from October 2013 through April 30 of this year, the AVMA investment portfolio realized a gain of more than $5.46 million. It was two years ago that the Board adopted a less conservative asset allocation and alignment policy and hired Bernstein Global Wealth Management as the AVMA investment adviser.

Net revenue from operations was $3 million in 2014, and performance of the investment portfolio added $2.6 million. After $1.5 million in expenses was approved from reserves, the surplus was just over $4 million.

The 2015 operating budget depicts a balanced budget, with revenue just over $34.3 million and expenses just over $34.5 million. Given current projections, Dr. Schmidt is optimistic there will be a surplus from operations of close to $300,000.

“Across all segments of our profession, we are each uniquely aware of the competitive environment we are currently facing. Going into my third decade as an equine practitioner and as a business owner, I recognize that the challenges it presents must be navigated successfully in the work we all do every day,” she said.

In the same way, she went on, AVMA decision-makers must lead the way in reshaping the Association to meet the profession's challenges.

Meyer elected, candidacies launched

Dr. Tom Meyer became the 2015–2016 AVMA president-elect July 10 during the AVMA House of Delegates’ regular annual session in Boston.

As the lone candidate for the office, Dr. Meyer was declared elected by unanimous consent.

Dr. Meyer, a former HOD member and former AVMA Board of Directors chair, co-owns a mixed animal practice in Vancouver, Washington, with his wife, Dr. Jean Meyer. He will succeed Dr. Joe Kinnarney as AVMA president next summer.

At the Candidates’ Introductory Breakfast earlier that day, Drs. Jan Strother and Michael Topper announced they are running for 2016–2017 AVMA president-elect, while Dr. Stacy Pritt launched her campaign for 2016–2018 AVMA vice president. The vice president—currently Dr. Rebecca Stinson—serves a two-year term, acting as the AVMA liaison to the Student AVMA and student chapters and serving as a voting member of the BOD.

Dr. Strother is vice chair of the American Veterinary Medical Foundation as well as a former AVMA vice president and current Alabama delegate to the HOD. She is married to Dr. Michael Newman, an AVMA Board of Directors member, and is founder and hospital director of the North Alabama Cat & Bird Veterinary Clinic, a multi-doctor companion and exotic animal practice in Hartselle, Alabama.

Dr. Topper is the immediate past chair of the House Advisory Committee and has been a member of the HOD since 2008. A veteran of the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps, he currently is director of clinical pathology and immunology for Merck Research Laboratories. Dr. Topper previously was director of the Division of Pathology at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

d4190417e511

Dr. Tom Meyer

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e519

Dr. Jan Strother

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e527

Dr. Michael Topper

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e535

Dr. Stacy Pritt

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

The candidate for vice president, Dr. Pritt, is director of the institutional animal care and use committee in the Research Administration department at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. She is the American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners delegate to the HOD and is a member of the AVMA Political Action Committee Board.

Voting transparency policy approved, excludes elections

The AVMA House of Delegates has added a provision on voting transparency to its operating manual. It states: “All votes of the HOD are transparent except for elections.”

Under the previous policy, percentages of yes and no votes were provided when the HOD voted on resolutions and bylaws changes, but not results of how individual organizations voted. For elections, only the winning candidates were announced; neither the percentages obtained by each candidate nor how each organization voted was provided.

In Resolution 10, the New Hampshire and Vermont VMAs proposed that the AVMA implement a system for voting transparency on issues and elections, with corresponding amendments to the HOD Manual.

The House Advisory Committee drafted an amendment to exclude elections from the new policy.

Among the points raised during discussion on the HOD floor was concern that some delegates could hold grudges against others who didn't vote for their issue or candidate, and let it influence how they cast future votes. However, it was noted on the HOD floor that the body could elect to keep votes on a sensitive issue confidential.

The HOD approved the amended resolution by an 86 percent vote, to applause. Each organization's vote on resolutions and bylaws changes will be made electronically available to AVMA members.

House votes down restructuring of college accreditor

Resolutions called for further increasing separation between AVMA and AVMA Council on Education

By Katie Burns

d4190417e575

The Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University is one of the veterinary schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

The AVMA House of Delegates voted down three resolutions calling for a restructuring or re-examination of the AVMA Council on Education and a resolution calling for a one-year moratorium on COE accreditation of veterinary colleges.

The House deliberated on the resolutions during its regular annual session, July 9–10 in Boston. The resolutions revolved around increasing the separation between the COE and the AVMA to address concerns about AVMA influence on accreditation. The discussion also touched on veterinarians’ worries about the increasing number of graduates and criticisms of new educational models.

Open discussion

Ahead of the meeting, the Arizona, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Kentucky, and Nevada VMAs submitted a resolution to establish an independent accrediting agency under the umbrella of the AVMA.

“We like the COE,” said Dr. Richard Sullivan, California delegate, in open discussion before the regular annual session. “We like the idea of having practitioners on the COE; we feel that's very important. And we like the changes that the COE and the AVMA have made this spring to improve the firewall between the COE and Board of Directors.”

In recent years, a number of steps have been taken to strengthen the firewall between the COE and AVMA leadership. Dr. Sullivan said developing an independent COE under the AVMA umbrella, similar to the way that the American Veterinary Medical Foundation remains under the AVMA umbrella, would be a lateral move, “getting the issue resolved once and for all so that we can move on.”

The New York State Veterinary Medical Society submitted a resolution to establish an accrediting agency entirely separate from the AVMA and submitted the resolution for a one-year moratorium on accreditation.

“There is definitely a major problem here,” said Dr. Walter McCarthy, New York delegate, citing hundreds of letters that veterinarians sent to the Department of Education criticizing various aspects of the COE as the COE seeks renewal of USDE recognition. He continued, “There is a significant number of people out there who agree with us.”

Reference committee

It was standing room only at the House reference committee that reviewed the resolutions regarding the COE.

Dr. Sandy Willis, alternate delegate for Washington state, spoke about serving on one of the teams that goes on site visits as part of the accreditation process. She said, “It's a very rigorous program that's really focused on the quality education of the student.”

Dr. Dana Zimmel, delegate for the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians, said there is a misperception that the COE also can act as a gatekeeper for the veterinary workforce.

Some in attendance argued that the COE being inside the AVMA results in real or perceived conflicts of interest.

Dr. Sharon Hurley, Minnesota alternate delegate, said separating the COE would be like throwing the baby out with the bathwater. She said, “I think that we can make changes within the structure that we've got.”

The reference committee submitted a resolution to establish a task force to explore the following options: maintaining the current structure of the COE, improving the structure of the COE, creating an independent accrediting agency under the umbrella of the AVMA, and creating an accrediting agency entirely separate from the AVMA.

House floor

“What is the purpose behind this?” asked Dr. Mark Helfat, District II representative on the Board, on the House floor. He believes that the resolutions arose largely in response to new educational models such as the distributive model in which students receive clinical instruction at off-site facilities.

“I understand the discomfort and agitation which change may bring,” he said. “I also know that the COE is healthy, vibrant, and time-proven.”

Delegates discussed veterinarians’ various criticisms of the COE, including concerns about AVMA influence. Dr. Carla Carleton, delegate for the Society for Theriogenology, argued that the full separation of the National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners from the AVMA was a success.

Other delegates said many of the concerns are not actually with the COE but with the growth of the workforce. Dr. Jason Johnson, alternate delegate for the Society for Theriogenology, said he has found AVMA accreditation to be the gold standard in his experiences teaching in multiple countries.

At end, 71 percent of delegates voted against forming a task force, and 76 percent voted against establishing an independent accrediting agency under the umbrella of the AVMA. Ninety-one percent voted against establishing an accrediting agency entirely separate from the AVMA, and 95 percent voted against a one-year moratorium on accreditation.

The AVMA House of Delegates voted down four resolutions revolving around increasing the separation between the AVMA and the AVMA Council on Education, which accredits veterinary colleges. The resolutions, Nos. 11-14, are available at www.avma.org/About/Governance under “2015 HOD Resolutions and Bylaw Amendments.”

The AVMA Board of Directors recommended disapproval of the three resolutions that were submitted ahead of the House session. The Board provided a memorandum at jav.ma/1D9gjRO, an FAQ at jav.ma/1h3gRib, and a chart comparing the COE with four other accrediting agencies at jav.ma/1KwKz8Z.

AVMA encourages alternatives to certain dog and cat suppliers

By Greg Cima

Few providers remain in a controversial class of dog and cat suppliers for education, testing, and research, and the AVMA is advocating use of alternatives.

More than 100 Class B dealers were licensed by the Department of Agriculture to sell random-source dogs and cats for use in research during the early 1990s, according to a Government Accountability Office report. USDA figures indicate that only three licensed dealers remained as of this past July.

Class B is a USDA category for dealers who collect animals from various sources. It is distinguished from the Class A category, which includes dealers who breed and raise animals for sale.

The National Research Council and GAO report public perceptions that Class B dealers collect lost or stolen pets and state that some Class B dealers have provided inadequate care.

In a unanimous vote this past July, the AVMA House of Delegates changed the Association's policy on use of random-source dogs and cats for research, education, and testing to add a reference to an NRC report that indicates dogs and cats with diverse characteristics are desirable or needed under some circumstances, but buying them from Class B dealers is unnecessary. The citation adds to language that already encouraged buying such animals from Class B dealers only in the absence of alternatives.

The AVMA policy addresses purchases of random-source dogs and cats from all sources, not just Class B dealers. But the cited NRC report provides advice on limiting purchases from the latter.

The delegates also added to the policy a statement that welfare considerations should be among the criteria considered when determining whether to use random-source dogs and cats.

Dr. Stacy Pritt, a delegate representing the American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners and candidate for AVMA vice president in 2016, said later the ASLAP was among the groups that worked with the AVMA Animal Welfare Committee— which recommended the policy changes ultimately adopted by the delegates—to make the policy reflect changes in sales and use of random-source dogs and cats since the previous version of the AVMA policy was enacted in January 2010. For example, the National Institutes of Health published in 2013 guidance on plans to prohibit dog and cat purchases from Class B dealers for NIH-supported research starting Oct. 1, 2014, with exemptions for research ongoing from the prior fiscal year.

“It was time to update it based on what's transpired over the last 5 1/2 years,” Dr. Pritt said.

Other changes to the AVMA policy continue to support the use of random-source animals but make that support less emphatic. For example, a prior statement that use of random-source dogs and cats provided great contributions to human and animal health and welfare now states such use “can contribute,” and the word “ample” was removed from modifying the word “justification” in reference to uses in research, testing, and education.

Dr. Martha Smith-Blackmore, who was chair of the AVMA Animal Welfare Committee when the changes were developed, said those edits were intended to recognize that random-source animals can provide a spectrum of potential benefits, subject to varied factors difficult to describe in a clear, concise policy. And she noted that all the changes were part of a routine, five-year review of the policy.

Dr. Mark Helfat, the new vice chair of the AVMA Board of Directors, has advocated for the AVMA to oppose purchases of dogs and cats from Class B dealers. He said after the vote this past July that the recent changes were a fair compromise and source of consensus because the policy cautions against use of Class B dealers and refers readers to the NRC report.

Dr. Helfat expressed hope that animal shelters and veterinary schools will find ways to cooperate to provide schools with random-source dog and cat cadavers for dissection, which he thinks could eliminate any remaining need for Class B dealers. Dr. Smith-Blackmore noted that such a change could be difficult because work by shelter employees is reducing the number of unwanted animals, and some shelter operators fear that participating in research could make the public wary of shelters.

In March, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges rescinded a policy that had supported use of Class B dealers for research and education. Information provided by the AAVMC indicates the organization's Board of Directors considered reports that Class B dealers were unnecessary, NIH guidance published in 2013 on plans to prohibit purchases from Class B vendors for NIH-supported research, and some member universities’ prohibitions or restrictions on Class B dealer use.

AVMA Bylaws changes affect governing boards, research council

During its regular annual session in Boston, the House of Delegates approved three amendments to the AVMA Bylaws submitted by the Board of Directors.

Terms for the Board of Directors reverted to six years with House approval of one proposed amendment. Six-year terms had been in place for many years before four-year terms were adopted last year. The Board stated that six-year terms are more beneficial to its function and performance. The House Advisory Committee had recommended disapproval of the amendment.

The House approved an amendment to expand the Board of Governors to include the AVMA immediate past president and the vice chair of the Board of Directors. The Board of Governors now has five members, the others being the AVMA president, the president-elect, and the chair of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors cited two benefits from the change: The Board of Governors will gain the experience of a recent president, and the vice chair, who may later be elected chair, will learn more about the workings of the Board.

Another bylaw was amended to redefine two positions on the AVMA Council on Research as “representing academic veterinary medicine,” specifically, individuals who serve as dean or associate dean of research or the equivalent at an AVMA-accredited institution or directors of a comparative medicine division or department of veterinary sciences. Previously, the positions were defined as representing “veterinary medical colleges,” specifically limited to deans or associate deans or directors of research at an AVMA-accredited institution. The change is expected to increase the pool of veterinarians eligible for the seats and to help maintain critical insight and expertise into National Institutes of Health or Department of Agriculture funding issues and mechanisms.

The votes are in

In Boston, the House of Delegates filled vacancies on AVMA councils and the House Advisory Committee. The results are as follows.

Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents

Drs. Edward Wakem, Chesterfield, Virginia, and Jeffrey Powers, Beaver Island, Michigan, representing members at large; Dr. Jessica Light, Sloughhouse, California, representing industry exclusively

Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine

Drs. Patricia Bennett, Washington, D.C.; Larry Davis, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania; and Arnold Jostock, Dawson, Minnesota, representing agricultural agencies

Council on Research

Drs. Michael Lairmore, Davis, California, and Susan VandeWoude, Loveland, Colorado, representing colleges of veterinary medicine

Council on Veterinary Service

Dr. Kelly Campbell, Wasilla, Alaska, representing a recent graduate or emerging leader; Drs. Grace Bransford, Mill Valley, California, and Gay Gira-Lathrop, Ada, Michigan, representing private practice, exclusively small animal

Judicial Council

Drs. Sarah Allison, Urbana, Illinois, and Beth Thompson, St. Paul, Minnesota, representing members at large

House Advisory Committee

Drs. Sandra Faeh, River Forest, Illinois; Douglas Kratt, Onalaska, Wisconsin; and Saundra Willis, Tacoma, Washington, representing members at large

In addition, the HAC elected Dr. Tim Montgomery, Dacula, Georgia, as its chair.

Board acts on wellness and food security measures, elects officers

d4190417e763

Dr. John de Jong

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e771

Dr. Mark Helfat

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

The AVMA Board of Directors convened twice in Boston this July with agendas including such topics as global food security, professional wellness, and the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps’ upcoming centennial.

At the July 8 meeting chaired by Dr. Hugh “Chip” Price, the BOD approved a plan for the AVMA to host a national summit in 2017 on promoting and enhancing global food security. This past April, the Board approved the concept of the AVMA hosting a summit focusing on opportunities for U.S. veterinarians to build global animal health capacity and enhance food security. A subcommittee of the AVMA Committee on International Veterinary Affairs was tasked with developing such a plan, which the BOD signed off on.

The committee's plan outlines a three-day meeting in Washington, D.C., or the surrounding area attended by some 200 representatives of both national and international agencies engaged in global food security.

By hosting the summit, the AVMA will provide a valuable continuing education product and networking service for AVMA members engaged in food security as well as those wanting to learn about opportunities in this field of veterinary medicine, the committee explained in the recommendation background.

The committee expects the summit will help create new partnership possibilities for the U.S. veterinary profession with agencies already engaged in global food security activities but perhaps only minimally engaged with the U.S. veterinary profession.

In other actions, the Board of Directors directed AVMA executive staff to develop an action plan on professional wellness for consideration at the Board's Sept. 17–19 meeting. The plan is to take into account the proposals from the wellness report submitted to the BOD by the 2014–2015 class of the AVMA Future Leaders Program.

The Future Leaders report made several recommendations, including having the AVMA establish a program similar to the Partners for Healthy Pets initiative that brings together experts, organizations, and industry in an ongoing collaboration focused on veterinarians’ health and wellness.

During its July 14 meeting in Boston, the Board approved $400,000 for a statue commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Army Veterinary Corps in 2016. AVMA staff are to support fundraising efforts to offset the statue's cost.

Additionally, Drs. John de Jong of Weston, Massachusetts, and Mark Helfat of Mount Laurel, New Jersey, were elected AVMA Board chair and vice chair, respectively.

Dr. de Jong is a 1985 graduate of the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University and owner of the Boston Mobile Veterinary Clinic and Newton Animal Hospital. In 2010, he was elected to the AVMA Board of Directors to represent Association members in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Dr. Helfat is 1977 graduate of Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine and a mixed-animal veterinarian who in 1995 founded the Larchmont Animal Hospital in Mount Laurel, where he still works full time. In 2011, he was elected to the AVMA Board as the representative for Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Board makes appointments

The AVMA Board of Directors, meeting July 8 in Boston, named the following individuals to the entities indicated, representing the designated areas. The duration of each term varies.

Animal Welfare Committee

Association of Shelter Veterinarians—Dr. Jyothi Robertson, Belmont, California; ASV alternate—Dr. Elise Gingrich, Fort Collins, Colorado

Aquatic Veterinary Medicine Committee

Aquatic invertebrate health (e.g., mollusk, crustacean, corals)—Dr. Gregory Lewbart, Raleigh, North Carolina

Council on Education Selection Committee

At large—Dr. Andrew Hillier, Placida, Florida

Governance Performance Review Committee

AVMA committees—Dr. Leanne Alworth, Athens, Georgia; AVMA House of Delegates—Dr. Arnold Goldman, Canton, Connecticut

Political Action Committee

At large—Dr. Eva Evans, Joelton, Tennessee

State Advocacy Committee

AVMA Legislative Advisory Committee representative—Dr. Elizabeth Nunamaker, Gainesville, Florida

Liaison to the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments

AVMA/Animal Agricultural Liaison Committee—Dr. Patrick Gordon, Ames, Iowa

Education council members selected

Three positions became open for appointment on the AVMA Council on Education when the 2015–2016 Association year began July 10, at the close of the House of Delegates regular annual session.

The AVMA Council on Education Selection Committee appointed Dr. Kevin Donnelly, South San Francisco, California, to a term ending in 2021 representing non–private practice, nonacademic veterinary medicine. Dr. Donnelly began in the position a year ago, filling the last year of an unexpired term. Since he completed an unexpired term of three years or less, he was eligible for reappointment to a full six-year term.

The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Selection Committee appointed Dr. Margie D. Lee, University of Georgia, to fill the basic clinical sciences position, succeeding Dr. Fred Derksen, Michigan State University.

The COE is expected to fill an open public position when it meets in late September.

The process for appointing COE members changed in July 2013. The AVMA and AAVMC developed separate selection committees that choose eight and seven COE members, respectively. The COE itself elects the three public members of the council, the Canadian VMA appoints the Canadian representative, and the AAVMC appoints a veterinarian. Formerly, the AVMA House of Delegates elected 15 of the council's 20 members.

AVMA releases annual report

The AVMA has released an annual report as a new service to keep members better informed about the work that the Association does on their behalf.

The “2014–2015 AVMA Annual Report/Year in Review: Looking Back, Moving Ahead” is an overview of the Association's activities between July 2014 and July 2015. The sections cover topics under the headings of animal welfare, convention, diversity and inclusion, economics, finance and business, governmental relations, information technology, international affairs, marketing and communications, membership and field services, publications, scientific activities, state relations, veterinary education and accreditation, and veterinary research.

The report is available at www.avma.org/About/Pages/annual-report.aspx as a low-resolution PDF for online reading and as a high-resolution PDF for printing.

Volunteer for Our Oath in Action projects

The American Veterinary Medical Foundation is seeking volunteers this fall for Our Oath in Action, a veterinary outreach program with projects across the country. The AVMF also is seeking project proposals for 2016.

The confirmed projects this year are as follows:

  • • Alabama: Auburn University, Oct. 3, educational event covering disaster preparedness and response, working dogs, routine wellness examinations for pets, and responsible pet ownership; Tuskegee University, date to be determined, event providing veterinary care for low-income pet owners.

  • • California: Davis, Oct. 11, event offering pet adoption, free basic veterinary care, pet owner education, family activities, demonstrations of large animal rescue, and canine behavior training.

  • • Connecticut: New Britain, Oct. 24–25, event providing neutering and vaccinations for pets of low-income and disadvantaged owners.

  • • Florida: Alachua County, tentatively Oct. 24, event to neuter approximately 200 to 250 stray cats.

  • • Georgia: Atlanta area, Oct. 11, event providing veterinary care and grooming for pets of low-income seniors and setting up a food pantry for pets of seniors on a fixed income.

  • • Massachusetts: Worcester, Oct. 6, Nov. 3, Dec. 8, events providing veterinary care for low-income and homeless pet owners.

  • • Michigan: East Lansing, Nov. 14, educational event to increase awareness of homeless animals covering fostering, adoption, neutering, behavior training, and microchipping.

  • • Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, Oct. 24, event providing veterinary care for pets of homeless owners and medical care for the owners, event providing information about urban health and parasitic diseases.

To volunteer or find out more, email info@avmf.org or call 800-248-2862, ext. 6691, by Sept. 15.

Dec. 31 is the deadline for project proposals for 2016. The AVMF will support projects by providing up to $15,000 for supplies, training project leaders, assisting with marketing and publicity, providing educational materials and gifts for attendees, and supporting continuation of projects in future years. Submit proposals at http://jav.ma/1I1vLOX. For more information, contact Cheri Kowal at ckowal@avma.org or 800-248-2862, ext. 6691.

AVMA applauds walking horse legislation

AVMA CEO Ron DeHaven applauded Rep. Ted Yoho of Florida, a veterinarian, for introducing the Prevent All Soring Tactics Act (H.R. 3268) on July 28 in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Dr. Yoho joined his Senate colleagues in taking action against soring, the act of deliberately inflicting pain through chemical or physical means to exaggerate the leg motion of certain walking horse breeds to gain an unfair advantage in the show ring. Sens. Kelly Ayotte of New Hampshire and Mark Warner of Virginia introduced the PAST Act (S. 1121) on April 28 in the Senate.

Dr. DeHaven said, “For more than 30 years, the AVMA has urged Congress to stop its political posturing, cut through the bureaucratic red tape, and stand up for America's walking horses. … We encourage those in leadership to listen to their veterinary colleague, Rep. Yoho, and his colleagues in the Senate in passing this bill expeditiously to protect the health and welfare of America's walking horses.”

Dr. Yoho said in a press release, “The walking horse industry has had since 1970 to reform their ways and come up with a more ethical means to achieve their desired goal. They have failed to take advantage of this opportunity, and now is the time for horse soring to end.”

The PAST Act would amend the Horse Protection Act to designate acts related to soring as unlawful, strengthen penalties for violations, define an “action device,” and improve Department of Agriculture enforcement.

At press time, the House and Senate bills had 156 co-sponsors and support from many industry and animal health organizations.

Grant aims to give minorities a boost in whitest profession

Tuskegee receives $7.1 million to recruit, train, retain underrepresented populations

Veterinary medicine is one of—if not the most— homogenous professions. In fact, 97.3 percent of veterinarians in the workforce in 2013 were white— the highest of any profession—according to the August 2014 Bureau of Labor Statistics’ report “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity.”

To change that figure, Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine recently got word that it will receive $7.1 million from the federal government. The money will help the veterinary program expand its ability to recruit, train, and retain racially and ethnically underrepresented veterinary medical students. The funds also are meant for the institution to continue to educate culturally competent veterinarians and public health professionals.

The Department of Health and Human Services’ Health Resources and Services Administration announced the three-year grant July 10. It establishes a center of excellence in minority veterinary medical and public health education at Tuskegee via HRSA's Bureau of Health Workforce's Centers of Excellence program.

Tuskegee's veterinary school is the only one located at a historically black university. In receiving this grant, the veterinary program will have a greater opportunity to expand its educational pipeline to channel more African-Americans and other underrepresented minorities interested in veterinary medicine and other health careers.

The grant will also assist with improving the veterinary school's educational infrastructures, such as enhancing e-learning environments, providing more counselors and peer and faculty tutors, and strengthening the mentoring program, which consists of peer and alumni mentors, researchers, and educators.

d4190417e1015

Presence of racially and ethnically underrepresented students at U.S. veterinary colleges (Source: Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges’ 2014 internal reports)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

“The grant award of over $2.3 million yearly for the next three-year period would not have been made possible without a team approach, which was directed by Dr. Cheryl G. Davis, (Centers of Excellence) coordinator for the college. The COE proposal and progress report required diligent, dedicated, and cooperative efforts from our faculty and staff who realized the necessity in advancing our mission/goals and the national health priorities as expressed in Healthy People 2020, which focuses on major improvements for public health,” said Dr. Ruby Perry, dean of the veterinary school.

Tuskegee already graduates the greatest number of URVM students every year, by far. More than 75 percent of its class of 2014 were racially and ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine, according to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. In fact, approximately 50 percent of the nation's African-American veterinarians have graduated from Tuskegee. The second most diverse class was at Western University of Health Sciences with 35.5 percent URVM students.

And although the veterinary profession remains overwhelmingly white, much effort has been put into increasing the number of URVM students, and it has started to pay off. Ten years ago, the AAVMC launched its DiVersity Matters initiative, which seeks to increase diversity at U.S. veterinary colleges. Since then, the number of historically underrepresented students at U.S. veterinary colleges has increased from 951, or 9.7 percent of the total students enrolled, in 2005 to 1,810, or 14.6 percent, in 2015, according to AAVMC data.

d4190417e1035

Drs. Ruby Perry, dean of Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine, and Cheryl G. Davis, associate dean for strategic initiatives and Centers of Excellence program coordinator, will oversee a $7.1 million grant from the federal government to increase diversity in the veterinary profession. (Courtesy of TUSVM)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

However, the makeup of the veterinary applicant pool hasn't changed much in the past five years. During that period, 77 percent of applicants were female, with a mean age of 21 years. Additionally, of those who responded to the AAVMC annual applicant survey in the past five years and identified themselves with at least one race, 72 percent were Caucasian.

$16 million bolsters NC State endowments

A prolific donor to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine announced April 27 a new gift of $16 million. That brings to $47 million the total funds that have been allocated by the Randall B. Terry Charitable Foundation to the veterinary college that once cared for Terry's Golden Retrievers.

From the new gift, $8 million will go to a scholarship endowment, doubling the veterinary college's total scholarship endowment. Another $5 million will go to research projects, and $3 million will be for veterinary faculty.

“This new commitment will support our students, fund research to ensure that this college is discovery-driven, and enable us to recruit and retain world-class innovators to lead our programs,” said Dr. Paul Lunn, dean of NC State's veterinary college.

Terry, who died in May 2004, was the publisher of the High Point Enterprise and co-owner of International Home Furnishing Center in High Point, North Carolina. He became a friend of the college after his Golden Retrievers received treatment at the veterinary teaching hospital.

A longtime supporter of the institution, Terry chaired a campaign that raised $10 million for veterinary student education at NC State, and following his death, his foundation gave $20 million to help build the Randall B. Terry, Jr. Companion Animal Veterinary Medical Center, which opened in 2011.

d4190417e1066

Two Golden Retrievers help kick off the April 27 announcement of $16 million being donated to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. (Courtesy of NCSU)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

NIH grant expands after-school science program nationwide

d4190417e1082

Veterinary students such as this one at Purdue University deliver lessons about veterinary medicine to children through an after-school program at the Hanna Community Center in Lafayette, Indiana. (Courtesy of Dr. Sandy San Miguel)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Changing the lack of awareness of veterinarians’ role in keeping people healthy is one goal of a $1.26 million award to Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine. Announced June 10, the money comes from a Science Education Partnership Award from the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, a component of the National Institutes of Health. Those involved also hope that the program can cultivate future veterinarians from diverse backgrounds.

With the grant, a team of experts will spread the message of veterinarians’ role in human health nationwide through an after-school role-modeling program. Called “This is How We ‘Role,’” it will provide interactive science and math experiences to students in kindergarten through fourth grade, according to Dr. Sandy San Miguel, the principal investigator and associate dean for engagement at the veterinary college.

Students will learn how veterinarian-scientists develop methods that will ultimately help prevent or treat human health conditions as they help cows with diabetes, dogs with cancer, and horses with asthma. Veterinary and veterinary technology students along with veterinarians will receive training to deliver the program in a culturally responsive manner. It is being developed through a collaboration among veterinarians and elementary school teachers in consultation with experts at Purdue and the Kingston Bay Group, an educational consulting agency.

The program will focus on students who are educationally disadvantaged because of socioeconomic status, race, or ethnicity, with the long-term goal of diversifying the veterinary workforce.

“These children have already developed creative problem-solving skills and have experience overcoming unexpected challenges, and both of those qualities are essential for good scientists,” Dr. San Miguel said. “They are the future veterinarian-scientists who are going to find cures for cancer and change our world, so we need to instill a passion in them for this work early on in their education.”

The new program will begin with the development of veterinary lessons in English and Spanish with help from Purdue's College of Liberal Arts. Experts at Purdue's Discovery Learning Research Center will provide an assessment of the program's impact. According to Dr. San Miguel, within five years, the hope is to have “This is How We ‘Role’” programs at all 30 U.S. veterinary colleges.

For the past six years, Dr. San Miguel and members of the current team partnered on another NIH SEPA project called “Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses: animal contributions to a healthier citizenry.” That partnership with K-12 teachers and other Purdue experts led to the development of formal curricula for elementary, middle, and high school students, as well as books and traveling exhibits.

“We found that the program had the greatest impact on the elementary school students’ attitudes toward school, science, and career aspirations, so we decided to focus on them outside of the classroom,” Dr. San Miguel said.

The veterinary college started delivering some of the veterinary lessons to children through the after-school program at the Hanna Community Center in Lafayette, Indiana.

Spate of construction happening at CSU

Colorado State University has plans within the next five years to spend up to $175 million on multiple facilities that would benefit the College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences.

Announced earlier this year was the Institute for Biological and Translational Therapies. The $65 million, 103,000-square foot IBTT will investigate next-generation treatments that involve the use of gene therapy, stem cells, specialized tissue replacement, and novel proteins. It will house basic laboratory research, preclinical trials, and veterinary clinical trials—all under one roof—as well as focus on commercialization of new technologies (see JAVMA, March 1, 2015, page 494).

d4190417e1124

Dr. Christopher Kawcak, professor of orthopedics and director of equine clinical services, performs joint surgery on a horse. Demand for equine services at CSU has climbed substantially, going from 2,215 patient visits in fiscal year 2011 to 4,969 patient visits in fiscal year 2015.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

In July, the veterinary college announced a $10 million gift from the Denver-based Helen K. and Arthur E. Johnson Foundation that launches plans to build a $47 million, 180,000-square-foot equine teaching hospital. It is the lead contribution in establishing the Helen and Arthur E. Johnson Family Equine Hospital.

The university's equine clinical services now are housed in the James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Construction of the new equine hospital will move those services into a separate space and will allow for expansion and advancement. Specifically, the new hospital will feature the following three categories of specialized veterinary care for horses:

  • • Equine critical care and isolation facilities, providing medical attention for critically ill and injured patients and facilities for isolating horses with infectious diseases.

  • • Equine sports medicine and rehabilitation, providing care for equine athletes with lameness and musculoskeletal injury and disease.

  • • In-patient hospital services, including advanced diagnostics such as use of a high-resolution CT scanner in standing patients and during surgery.

d4190417e1148

Artist's renderings illustrate plans for the new Helen and Arthur E. Johnson Family Equine Hospital complex at Colorado State University. (Photos courtesy of CSU)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

In the new hospital, CSU's 27 equine clinicians will care for about 4,000 horses each year and will continue to conduct clinical studies, according to a CSU press release.

In addition, $23 million has been allocated for multiple renovation projects to the veterinary teaching hospital through 2020. They include plans for a new wing with classroom and laboratory space designated for second-year veterinary students. The intent is to help them transition into the hospital setting for clinical rotations during their final two years in the veterinary program.

Additional costs will be incurred for infrastructure and support facilities, including a hay barn, additional and relocated animal barns and handling facilities, parking, and stormwater detention and treatment facilities.

All construction costs will be covered by philanthropy, according to a CSU spokesperson.

The Institute for Biological and Translational Therapies would be located just north of the Diagnostic Medicine Center. The Johnson Family Equine Hospital will be located west of the Gail Holmes Equine Orthopaedic Research Center.

CSU will break ground on the new facilities when enough donations have come in to finance construction; the hope is within a year. Renovations at the veterinary teaching hospital are ongoing.

Ontario's new dean replaces Stone after 10 years

The first woman to lead a Canadian veterinary college is stepping down after a decade. Dr. Elizabeth Stone will be replaced as dean of the University of Guelph Ontario Veterinary College by Dr. Jeff Wichtel. Formerly of the Atlantic Veterinary College at the University of Prince Edward Island, Dr. Wichtel will begin a five-year term Oct. 1.

Under Dr. Stone's leadership at OVC, the veterinary college underwent much redevelopment. She was the driving force behind the OVC Integrated Plan, which included the creation of the Institute for Comparative Cancer Investigation and the University of Guelph Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses. Plus, in 2010, the veterinary college's Primary Healthcare Initiative celebrated the opening of the Hill's Pet Nutrition Primary Healthcare Centre.

Additional capital projects that transformed the OVC campus over her tenure included the Mona Campbell Centre for Animal Cancer, opened in 2012; the Equine Sports Medicine and Reproduction Centre, in 2012; the large animal clinical skills building and the Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses laboratory facilities, in 2011; and the large animal isolation unit, in 2009.

OVC's graduate studies enrollment has increased more than 50 percent since 2005, and the veterinary college now receives more than $13 million a year in external research funding. In addition, Dr. Stone co-chaired two Global Development Symposiums at the U of G, in 2012 and 2014, to demonstrate the critical links between animal health and human health and bring together participants from more than 20 countries and from varied fields in the sciences, health care, business, and public service.

In 2012, to honor the veterinary college's 150th anniversary, the OVC released the book “Animal Companions, Animal Doctors, Animal People,” an anthology of poems, stories, and essays, as well as a dramatic monologue and a graphic story. The book was published by the veterinary college and co-edited by Dr. Stone, who is a co-founder of the Society for Veterinary Medicine and Literature.

Finally, her focus on experiential learning will continue with the Stone Scholarship for Student Veterinarian Exploration. It challenges students to design an interdisciplinary project, using their skills and creativity, to broaden their career horizons, foster collaborations within and beyond the OVC, and expand the role of veterinarians in society. It was created in honor of her 10-year tenure as OVC dean by alumni, staff, and friends.

Dr. Jeff Wichtel, in addition to serving as OVC's newest dean, will hold a faculty appointment in OVC's Department of Population Medicine. He is a former chair of the Department of Health Management at Atlantic Veterinary College and was the college's associate dean of graduate studies and research since 2009.

Dr. Wichtel also served at AVC as acting dean, director of animal resources, and chair of the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre.

Before joining AVC, he taught at Massey University in New Zealand and North Carolina State University until 1998. Earlier, he was a resident at Iowa State University and a mixed animal practitioner.

Dr. Wichtel's research interests are animal nutrition, disease, production, and reproduction, and he has focused on trace element and vitamin nutrition in ruminants and horses. As principal or collaborating investigator, he has attracted more than $2.5 million in grant and contract funding. He is an associate editor of the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.

d4190417e1199

Dr. Jeff Wichtel

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e1207

Dr. Elizabeth Stone

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

He earned his BVSc degree in 1981 and his doctorate in 1985 from Massey University and is a diplomate of the American College of Theriogenologists.

Cornell dean promoted to provost

d4190417e1223

Dr. Michael I. Kotlikoff (Photo by Robert Barker/Cornell University)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Dr. Michael I. Kotlikoff, dean of Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine since 2007, is the university's new provost as of Aug. 1.

As the chief academic officer, the provost provides leadership for the planning, development, implementation, assessment, and improvement of all academic programs, policies, and supporting infrastructure. Dr. Kotlikoff will lead a strategic planning process for the university that will conclude by December 2016.

As dean, Dr. Kotlikoff initiated a strategic plan to enhance the veterinary college's programs in education, delivery of animal health care, and research. Plus, he launched an $87 million capital project to upgrade the veterinary college's infrastructure and teaching facilities, which enabled an increase in class size. During his tenure, Dr. Kotlikoff oversaw an increase in diversity of the faculty, staff, and college administration; the expansion of clinical training opportunities for veterinary students; and a reorganization of the Cornell University Hospital for Animals. He also focused on expanding basic and clinical research programs and promoting translational and interdisciplinary research.

Under his leadership, the veterinary college opened a specialty and emergency and critical-care hospital in Stamford, Connecticut, and the Cornell Ruffian Equine Specialists, a referral and emergency care hospital, near the Belmont Racetrack in Elmont, New York. Cornell also partnered with City University of Hong Kong to establish the first veterinary college there in March 2014. Currently, it offers a postgraduate program leading to a doctorate degree in the area of biomedical sciences, and it has accepted its first class of graduate students; no date has been set for the first class of students to earn a bachelor of veterinary medicine degree. On the construction side, CityU is renovating a building for a teaching hospital and is in the planning stage for a diagnostic laboratory.

Dr. Kotlikoff earned his VMD degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1981 and a doctorate in physiology from the University of California-Davis in 1984.

He joined the Cornell faculty in 2000 as professor of molecular physiology and served as chair of the Department of Biomedical Sciences from 2000–2007. Prior to Cornell, he was a faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania for 15 years, chairing the Department of Animal Biology from 1995–2000.

He has served on and chaired advisory committees for the National Institutes of Health, international scientific journals, scientific companies, and foreign universities.

His research laboratory, which has been funded continually by the NIH for more than 30 years, is recognized in the area of cardiovascular biology. Work from his laboratory has provided insights into heart development, cell-based heart therapy, muscle cell precursors, and the regenerative limits of heart cells. While provost, Dr. Kotlikoff will maintain his laboratory.

Dr. Lorin D. Warnick, professor of ambulatory and production medicine, has been appointed interim dean of the veterinary college. Dr. Warnick has served as associate dean for veterinary education for the past eight years and director of the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for the past three years. A search for Dr. Kotlikoff's successor is currently underway.

New Ohio State dean a national leader

Dr. Rustin M. Moore has been named the 11th dean of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, effective Sept. 1. He succeeds Dr. Lonnie King, who has held the position of dean for the past six years (see JAVMA, April 15, 2015, page 828).

Dr. Moore most recently was the Bud and Marilyn Jenne Professor, associate executive dean of the veterinary college, executive director of the Veterinary Medical Center, and director of the Alice Lloyd Finley Memorial Veterinary Research Farm. He joined Ohio State's faculty in 2006 as professor and chair of the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, a position he held until 2014.

He has taught undergraduate, professional, and graduate curricula, both at Ohio State and at Louisiana State University, where he served on the faculty from 1994–2006. Dr. Moore's clinical interests include equine surgery, lameness, and colic and its associated complications. His research has led to his being a principal or co-investigator on approximately 120 funded grants.

d4190417e1267

Dr. Rustin M. Moore (Courtesy of OSU)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Dr. Moore also has contributed wide-ranging veterinary service and outreach efforts. For example, while at LSU, he assumed emergency leadership of a large-scale rescue effort of nearly 500 horses and other animals during the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. A national leader, he has served as president of the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians, on the board of directors of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, on the board of regents of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, and as an equine health advisory board member for the Ohio Department of Agriculture, among other positions.

A native of Spencer, West Virginia, he earned his DVM and doctoral degrees from Ohio State. In addition, he is a diplomate of the ACVS.

American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Event: 2015 ACVIM forum, June 3–6, Indianapolis

Program: Of the registered attendees at the meeting, 2,180 were veterinarians, 208 were veterinary technicians, and 110 were veterinary students.

Awards: Robert W. Kirk Award for Professional Excellence: Dr. Thomas J. Divers, Ithaca, New York, for outstanding achievements and dedicated service to the veterinary profession. An ACVIM-certified specialist in large animal internal medicine, Dr. Divers is the Steffen Professor of Veterinary Medicine and chief of the Section of Large Animal Medicine at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. His research focuses on equine and bovine internal medicine and critical care. Dr. Divers is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. Distinguished Service Award: Dr. Mary Rose Paradis, North Grafton, Massachusetts, for outstanding and dedicated service to the college in a volunteer capacity. An ACVIM-certified specialist in large animal internal medicine, Dr. Paradis is an associate professor in the Department of Clinical Sciences at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. With a special interest in equine neonatal and geriatric care, she has organized and led Dorothy Russell Havemeyer Foundation workshops on equine neonatal septicemia and equine geriatrics. Dr. Paradis is a past chair of the ACVIM Board of Regents. ACVIM Foundation Distinguished Service Award: Dr. Claire Weigand, South Deerfield, Massachusetts, won this award, given in recognition of an ACVIM diplomate who has supported the foundation's efforts both monetarily and by raising awareness of its activities. An ACVIM-certified specialist in small animal internal medicine, Dr. Weigand practices at the Veterinary Emergency and Specialty Hospital in South Deerfield.

d4190417e1306

Dr. Virginia Buechner-Maxwell

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e1315

Dr. Joe Kornegay

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

She is co-chair of the ACVIM Foundation Development Committee. Resident Research Award ($500): Dr. Rosemary Cuming, equine, Auburn University, for “Ex vivo equine subconjunctival injection characteristics and in vitro release profiles of voriconazole from a PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel”; Dr. Amy Stieler, equine, University of Florida, for “Effect of rifampin on erythromycin-induced anhidrosis in foals”; Dr. Thibaud Kuca, food animal, Auburn University, for “Chronic (vagal) indigestion in adult dairy cattle: A retrospective study of 52 cases (2004–2013)”; Dr. Melanie Hezzell, cardiology, University of Pennsylvania, for “Pre-specified escalation of medical therapy reduces plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with stable CHF due to mitral valve disease”; Dr. Jill Hicks, neurology, University of Georgia, for “Evaluation of temozolomide and gadolinium conjugated PLGA microcylinders in the canine brain”; Dr. Crystal Garnett, oncology, University of California-Davis, for “Fixed dose rate gemcitabine in the cat”; Dr. Danielle Davignon, endocrinology, Cornell University Hospital for Animals, for “Effect of non-thyroidal illness on serum concentrations of T4, free T4, and thyroid stimulating hormone in cats”; Dr. Andrew Woolcock, endocrinology, University of Georgia, for “Evaluation of the use of baseline cortisol to monitor twice-daily trilostane therapy in dogs with spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism”; Dr. Alexandra Hamilton, hepatology, Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, for “Serum markers of vitamin B metabolism in cats with hepatic lipidosis”; Dr. Claire Fellman, pharmacology, Mississippi State University, for “Effects of aspirin and cyclosporine on canine t-Cell cytokines and regulatory t-Cells”

New diplomates: The ACVIM certified 162 new diplomates in 2014.

Cardiology

Kieran Borgeat, Whitchurch, United Kingdom

Peter Holler, Munich

Ashley Jones, Gainesville, Florida

Adam Kane, East Greenwich, Rhode Island

Ryan Keegan, Tinton Falls, New Jersey

Geri Lake-Bakaar, Boulder, Colorado

Nicole LeBlanc, Corvallis, Oregon

Maggie Machen, West Palm Beach, Florida

Aliya Magee, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Reid Nakamura, Thousand Oaks, California

Augusta Pelosi, East Lansing, Michigan

Jennifer Schneiderman, Robbinsville, New Jersey

Sarah Silverman, Northfield, Illinois

Justin Thomason, Manhattan, Kansas

Dennis Trafny, New York

Lance Visser, Davis, California

Dawn Webber, Palmer, Arkansas

Sonya Wesselowski, Annapolis, Maryland

Randolph Winter, Auburn, Alabama

Large animal internal medicine

Pamela Adkins, Columbia, Missouri

Pedro De Pedro, Lexington, Kentucky

Sarah Depenbrock, Columbus, Ohio

Melissa Esser, St. Paul, Minnesota

Krista Estell, Davis, California

Brandon Fraser, Gatton, Australia

Lisa Fultz, Athens, Georgia

Mary Catherine Furness, Guelph, Ontario

Diego Gomez Nieto, Guelph, Ontario

Kate Hepworth-Warren, Medford, New Jersey

Siddra Hines, Pullman, Washington

Crystal Hoffman, Leesburg, Virginia

Louise Husted, Morud, Denmark

Blaire Kraszeski, Raleigh, North Carolina

Amanda Kreuder, Ames, Iowa

Anne Kullman, Georgetown, Kentucky

Rachel Liepman, Columbus, Ohio

Michelle Linton, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania

Kathleen Mullen, Ithaca, New York

Elaine Norton, White Bear Lake, Minnesota

Florence Polle, Ecouche, France

Emily Reppert, Manhattan, Kansas

Diane Rhodes, Penryn, California

Kelly Sears, Bozeman, Montana

Elsbeth Swain, Fort Collins, Colorado

Joy Tomlinson, Ithaca, New York

Trina Westerman, Corvallis, Oregon

Neurology

Caroline Altenhoefer, Wuerzburg, Germany

Casey Birkel, Downers Grove, Illinois

Lindsay Boozer, Washington, DC

C.E. Boudreau, College Station, Texas

Roger Clemmons, Gainesville, Florida

Katherine Crook, Charleston, South Carolina

Daniel Cuff, Rockville, Maryland

Rob Daniel, Boston

Joy Delamaide Gasper, San Diego

Stephanie Dugas, Irvine, California

Stephanie Engel, Fort Collins, Colorado

Amanda Full, Chicago

Devon Hague, Urbana, Illinois

Kersten Johnson, North Palm Beach, Florida

Rainier Ko, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Daniel Krull, Vancouver, Washington

Melissa Lewis, Raleigh, North Carolina

Casey Neary, Springfield, Virginia

Rosanne Peters, Metairie, Louisiana

Clarisa Robles, Culver, California

Robert Rushing, Glendale, Wisconsin

Andrea Sangster, Fishers, Indiana

Philip Schissler, Tustin, California

Amanda Taylor, Auburn, Alabama

Lindsay Williams, Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Oncology

Megan Breit, Snohomish, Washington

Wesley Campbell, Arlington, Virginia

Kelly Carlsten, Santa Rosa, California

Brian Flesner, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Astrid Marcelo, Thibodaux, Louisiana

Michelle Morges, Tinton Falls, New Jersey

Xuan Pan, Madison, Wisconsin

Erin Roof, Dallas

Matthew Sherger, Tinton Falls, New Jersey

Sharon Shor, Tacoma, Indiana

Jaclyn Smith, Chicago

Paola Valenti, Milan, Italy

Paulo Vilar Saavedra, East Lansing, Michigan

J. Armando Villamil, Miramar, Florida

Kristen Weishaar, Fort Collins, Colorado

Jennifer Willcox, Columbia, Missouri

Sita Withers, Davis, California

Kimberly Wirth, Carmel, Indiana

Raelene Wouda, Manhattan, Kansas

Small animal internal medicine

Charles Aldridge, Auburn, Alabama

Sara Arnold, Latham, New York

Dawn Bachman, Tucson, Arizona

Alicia Bangert, Overland Park, Kansas

Mariam Baumstark, Morbio Inferiore, Switzerland

Abigail Bertalan, Jacksonville, Florida

Micah Bishop, Naples, Florida

Joseph Bisignano, Los Angeles

Kathleen Bonawandt, Yonkers, New York

Narelle Brown, Annandale, Australia

Wanda Burkhardt, Zurich

Marie Chartier, Waltham, Massachussetts

Jenny Cho-Macswain, Waukesha, Wisconsin

Alysa Cook, Atlanta

Catherine Cortright, Pattersonville, New York

Ann Petra Costa, Madison, Wisconsin

Sarah Crain, Shrewsbury, Massachussetts

Alicia Dudley, Fishers, Indiana

Marjam Equilino, Thun, Switzerland

Jamie Etish, Levittown, Pennsylvania

Audra Fenimore, Cherry Hill, New Jersey

Luca Galeandro, Morbio Inferiore, Switzerland

Brandi Gallagher, Fort Pierce, Florida

Jocelyn Garber, Greenville, South Carolina

Tara Ghormley, Monterey, California

Melanie Hall, Buffalo, New York

Lisa Hann, Seattle

Shannon Hauck, Vienna, Virginia

Aaron Herndon, Stillwater, Oklahoma

Joon Im, Forest Hills, New York

Aarti Kathrani, Davis, California

Yuri Lawrence, College Station, Texas

Kevin Le Boedec, Urbana, Illinois

Julie Lemetayer, Guelph, Ontario

Rebekah Mack, Greenville, South Carolina

Mayu Matsuda, Dublin, California

Linda Matthewman, North Mymms, United Kingdom

Jessica Midence, Langhorne, Pennsylvania

Alyssa Mourning, St. Michael, Minnesota

Shelly Olin, Knoxville, Tennessee

Kelly O'Neill, Decatur, Georgia

Caroline Page, Fountain Valley, California

Jean-Sebastian Palerme, Raleigh, North Carolina

Nicholas Parente, Riverhead, New York

Julie Pera, Rockville, Maryland

Kirsten Prosser, Oakville, Ontario

Jordi Puig, Barcelona, Spain

Oriana Raab, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island

Jennifer Reinhart, Fitchburg, Wisconsin

Alexandra Rose, Gablitz, Austria

Christine Savidge, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island

Christopher Scudder, Hertforshire, United Kingdom

Ashleigh Seigneur, Richmond, Virginia

Veronique Sicotte, Boston

Lisa Singer, Carrara, Australia

Jennifer Slovak, Pullman, Washington

Pamela Smyth, Maitland, Florida

Joshua Steinhaus, Sai Kung, Hong Kong

Kate Sycamore, Manchester, Missouri

Matt Takara, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Melissa Tollett, West Palm Beach, Florida

Laura Tonkin, West Lafayette, Indiana

Ahmira Torres, Manassas, Virginia

Julie Trzil, Indianapolis

Stephanie Wan, Richmond, Virginia

Carly Waugh, Franklin, Tennessee

Joanna White, Sydney, Australia

James Whitehead, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan

William Whitehouse, Denver

Cheryl Wood, Austin, Texas

Kimberly Yore, APO, AP

Bing Yun Zhu, North Ryde, Australia

Officials: Drs. Virginia Buechner-Maxwell, Blacksburg, Virginia, chair, Board of Regents; Joe Kornegay, College Station, Texas, president; Barbara Kitchell, Albuquerque, New Mexico, president-elect; Ellen Behrend, Auburn, Alabama, vice president; Leah Cohn, Columbia, Missouri, immediate past chair; Guy Pidgeon, Berryville, Virginia, treasurer; John Rush, North Grafton, Massachusetts, Specialty of Cardiology president; Charles Vite, Philadelphia, Specialty of Neurology president; Jeffrey Bryan, Columbia, Missouri, Specialty of Oncology president; Jane Sykes, Davis, California, Specialty of Small Animal Internal Medicine president; and Laurent Couetil, West Lafayette, ndiana, Specialty of Large Animal Internal Medicine president

Pharmacology research grant proposals invited

The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Foundation in partnership with the Veterinary Pharmacology Research Foundation is inviting grant proposals with a pharmacologic focus through Sept. 8. Up to three grants will be funded at $18,000 per study.

The partnership began the program in 2010 because of a lack of funding for basic pharmacology research and has awarded nearly $89,000 in grants.

The ACVIMF Grant Program encourages researchers to submit proposals that focus on research to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and effect duration of therapies for animals; new drug therapies for animals; methods of evaluating effects of drugs in animal diseases or conditions; or ways to ensure that a safe food supply is not compromised by drug therapy. Collaborations between pharmacologists and ACVIM diplomates are strongly encouraged.

For more information or to submit a proposal, visit www.acvimfoundation.org and click on “Grants.”

Alabama VMA

Event: Emerald Coast Veterinary Conference, June 3–4, Sandestin, Florida

Awards: Distinguished Service Award: Dr. Jan Strother, Hartselle, for exceptional achievements and contributions to the advancement of the profession. A 1986 graduate of the Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Strother founded and serves as hospital director of North Alabama Cat & Bird Veterinary Clinic. She serves as chair of the ALVMA Vet Tech Advisory Committee and is a past vice president of the AVMA, a past president of the Alabama VMA, and a past chair of the ALVMA Public Relations and Human-Animal Bond committees. Service Award: Dr. Barry Stewart, Hartselle, for contribution of time and energy to the association for the advancement of the profession. A 1985 graduate of the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Stewart practices at Hartselle Animal Clinic. He has served on the board of directors of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants and is a past chair of the ALVMA State Diagnostic Laboratory Committee. Dr. Stewart has also served as secretary of the North Alabama VMA for 19 years.

d4190417e1764

Dr. Jan Strother

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e1772

Dr. Barry Stewart

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e1781

Dr. T.C. Branch

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

d4190417e1789

Dr. Harold Pate

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247, 5; 10.2460/javma.247.5.434

Officials: Drs. T.C. Branch, Birmingham, president; Harold Pate, Lowndesboro, president-elect; Charles Ashwander, Decatur, vice president; Ralph Womer, Auburn, treasurer; James H. Lee, Atmore, member-at-large; and John Hammons, Athens, immediate past president

Obituaries: AVMA member AVMA honor roll member Nonmember

Hermann Bonasch

Dr. Bonasch (Michigan State ‘60), 85, Dublin, California, died July 6, 2015. He practiced small animal medicine at Arroyo Veterinary Clinic in San Lorenzo, California, for more than 40 years. Dr. Bonasch's wife, Marcia; a son, a daughter, and a stepson; and a grandchild and two stepgrandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Ave. SE, Washington, DC 20003.

Pamela L. Chamberlain

Dr. Chamberlain (Michigan State ‘87), 56, Gaithersburg, Maryland, died July 1, 2015. She began her career practicing mixed animal medicine in Sturgis, Michigan. Dr. Chamberlain then joined the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine, working 14 years as a reviewer in its Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation. During that time, she obtained a doctorate in toxicology from the University of Maryland in Baltimore (2001) and became a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. Dr. Chamberlain later spent a year at the World Health Organization as part of its International Programme on Chemical Safety, serving as a temporary adviser on several joint Food and Agriculture Organization-WHO expert committees on food additives. She also led the U.S. delegation on the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods. Dr. Chamberlain went on to serve as study director and associate director for veterinary services at Covance Laboratories in Reston, Virginia, before joining the FDA's Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats in 2011.

At the time of her death, she was a supervisory veterinary medical officer and the institutional official for the FDA White Oak Animal Program, assuming the responsibilities for the agencywide memorandum of agreement between the FDA, Department of Agriculture, and National Institutes of Health Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare to promote laboratory animal welfare efforts. Dr. Chamberlain was a past president of the Association for Women Veterinarians, which became a foundation and recently disbanded. She is survived by her spouse, Teri Gilger. Memorials may be made to the National Pancreatic Cancer Foundation, P.O. Box 1848, Longmont, CO 80502.

Erica D. Geary

Dr. Geary (Virginia-Maryland ‘14), 26, Farmville, Virginia, died April 3, 2015. She practiced small animal medicine at Ridge Animal Hospital in Farmville. Active with the Christian Veterinary Mission, Dr. Geary traveled to Haiti, Nicaragua, and Mongolia. Memorials may be made to the Christian Veterinary Mission, 19303 Fremont Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98133, www.cvmusa.org/support.

Norman H. Goldstein

Dr. Goldstein (Cornell ‘66), 77, Tully, New York, died June 13, 2015. A small animal and wildlife veterinarian, he founded and owned Manlius Veterinary Hospital in Manlius, New York, until 2005. Dr. Goldstein later served as a relief veterinarian and wildlife rehabilitator. He was a longtime member of the New York State VMS. Dr. Goldstein was a competitive canoe racer and a member of the Adirondack Mountain Club. He is survived by his wife, Georgia; three sons and two daughters; and five grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the Alive!Foundation, 3382 County Line Road, Skaneateles, NY 13152, or toward supporting pancreatic cancer research at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave., New York, NY 10065, http://mskcc.convio.net/goto/normangoldstein.

Samuel K. Grant

Dr. Grant (Auburn ‘71), 69, Cincinnati, died April 28, 2015. He owned Mount Washington Animal Hospital, a small animal practice in Cincinnati, prior to retirement in 2011. Dr. Grant also bred Doberman Pinschers. Early in his career, he worked in Kentucky for a few years. Memorials may be made to the Doberman Pinscher Club of America Rescue, 6400 Tripp Road, China, MI 48054, www.dpca.org/rescue.

William J. Hadlow

Dr. Hadlow (Ohio State ‘48), 94, Hamilton, Montana, died June 20, 2015. A past president of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, he was a former head of the epidemiology branch of the National Institutes of Health's Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton. Following graduation, Dr. Hadlow taught veterinary pathology at the University of Minnesota. In 1952, he joined RML as a veterinary pathologist, beginning a lifelong research career in comparative pathology. Dr. Hadlow transferred to the Animal Disease and Parasite Research Division of the Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service in 1958, stationed in Berkshire, England. In 1961, Dr. Hadlow returned to the United States as a research pathologist and head of the slow viral disease section of the RML.

Dr. Hadlow was known for his expertise on prion disease pathology, playing a major role in identifying chronic wasting disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy as prion diseases. He established a scrapie disease research program and investigated several other infectious diseases, including Aleutian disease of mink and progressive pneumonia of sheep. Dr. Hadlow's research linked neurologic disorders in humans and animals, and his work contributed to the use of slow virus infections of animals as models for human disease. He identified kuru, a spongiform encephalopathy of New Guinea inhabitants, as a slow virus disease similar to scrapie, publishing his observations in an article in Lancet. On the basis of the article, Daniel C. Gajdusek, MD, received an NIH grant to investigate kuru and ultimately won a Nobel Prize for his work.

In 1971, Dr. Hadlow received a Superior Service Award from what is now known as the Department of Health and Human Services, and, in 1981, he was the recipient of a Distinguished Alumnus Award from The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Hadlow was awarded the Olafson Medal, created to honor Dr. Peter Olafson, in 1992 for his contributions in pathology to the fields of comparative medicine and infectious disease, and, in 1994, he received the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society's Karl F. Meyer Gold Headed Cane Award for outstanding contributions to veterinary epidemiology. In 2001, the University of Minnesota honored him with an honorary doctor of science degree for his achievements in veterinary medicine.

Dr. Hadlow was a veteran of the Army and the Navy. He is survived by his son and daughter.

Richard A. Hartkopf

Dr. Hartkopf (Kansas State ‘56), 83, Mountainside, New Jersey, died Jan. 13, 2015. He was the founder of Westfield Animal Hospital in Westfield, New Jersey. Dr. Hartkopf was a past president of the New Jersey and Metropolitan New Jersey VMAs. He served as a first lieutenant in the Army Veterinary Corps. Dr. Hartkopf's wife, Janet; a daughter and a son; and two grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Seeing Eye Dog Training Center, 10 Washington Valley Road, Morristown, NJ 07960.

Coen H. Huddleston

Dr. Huddleston (Texas A&M ‘44), 93, Uvalde, Texas, died May 19, 2015. He practiced large animal medicine in Texas’ Uvalde County and surrounding areas. Dr. Huddleston also established a rabies vaccination program in the area and participated in the annual drive for six decades. He served in the Army Veterinary Corps Reserve during the Korean War. Dr. Huddleston's three sons and a daughter, eight grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren survive him.

Averry M. Irwin

Dr. Irwin (Pennsylvania ‘54), 85, Max Meadows, Virginia, died June 27, 2015. He served as regional veterinarian for southwest Virginia with the Virginia State Department of Agriculture for more than 40 years prior to retirement. Dr. Irwin's two daughters and a son survive him. Memorials may be made to the American Cancer Society, c/o Jean Lester, 430 W. Washington St., Wytheville, VA 24382.

James W. Kahl

Dr. Kahl (Michigan State ‘51), 94, Winona, Minnesota, died June 24, 2015. He began his career practicing mixed animal medicine in Winona. In 1960, Dr. Kahl established Kahl Animal Hospital in Winona, where he worked until 1968. He then served as director of research and development in the agricultural division of Watkins Products Inc. in Winona, before semi-retiring in 1985. Dr. Kahl continued to consult for five years. He was a member of the Minnesota and Wisconsin VMAs and volunteered with the Winona Area Humane Society. Active in civic life, Dr. Kahl served on the Winona City Council.

He was an Army Air Corps and Air Force veteran of World War II, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel. Dr. Kahl received several honors for his service. He was a member of the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars.

Dr. Kahl is survived by his wife, Jenny; a daughter and a son; 11 grandchildren; 19 great-grandchildren; and a great-great-grandchild. Memorials may be made to the Winona Area Humane Society, 1112 E. Broadway St., Winona, MN 55987, or Winona Health, 855 Mankato Ave., Winona, MN 55987.

Norman W. Knispel

Dr. Knispel (Ohio State ‘66), 77, Webster, South Dakota, died May 4, 2015. He practiced large animal medicine at Webster Veterinary Clinic. Dr. Knispel was a veteran of the Army. His two sons and two daughters, 12 grandchildren, and a great-grandchild survive him. Memorials may be made to the North Central Chapter of Paralyzed Veterans of America, 209 N. Garfield, Sioux Falls, SD 57104.

William Lloyd

Dr. Lloyd (Brandeis Middlesex ‘43), 93, The Villages, Florida, died June 16, 2015. After serving in the Army during World War II, he established The Lloyd Animal Hospital in Stoughton, Massachusetts, where he practiced small animal medicine for more than 40 years. Dr. Lloyd also served as an adviser to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. He was a member of the Masonic Lodge, Rotary Club, and American Legion. Dr. Lloyd's wife, Joan, and a daughter survive him. Memorials may be sent to Cornerstone Hospice, 601 Casa Bella, The Villages, FL 32162.

Derry D. Magee

Dr. Magee (Texas A&M ‘58), 80, College Station, Texas, died June 3, 2015. He was a clinical associate professor in the Department of Large Animal and Clinical Sciences at the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences from 1990 until retirement in 2007. Dr. Magee also served as staff veterinarian for the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Earlier in his career, he practiced mixed animal medicine in Louisiana for 32 years, initially in Amite and later in Kentwood.

Active with the National FFA Organization, Dr. Magee was a recipient of its American FFA Degree. He was also a member of the Masonic Lodge. Dr. Magee's wife, Gwendora; a daughter; three grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials toward the Dr. Derry Magee Scholarship Fund, with checks payable to the Texas A&M Foundation, may be sent to the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Attn: Dean's Office, 4461 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843.

William C. Marlatt

Dr. Marlatt (Pennsylvania ‘59), 80, Pittsboro, North Carolina, died Jan. 8, 2015. He owned Garner Animal Hospital in Garner, North Carolina, where he practiced small animal medicine for 46 years. Dr. Marlatt was a veteran of the Army, attaining the rank of captain. He is survived by his wife, Thelma; a daughter and two sons; and four grandchildren. One son, Dr. William C. Marlatt II (North Carolina ‘88), is a veterinarian in Belle Fourche, South Dakota. Memorials may be made to the American Diabetes Association, Diamond Hill Office Complex, 2460 W. 26th Ave. #500C, Denver, CO 80211, or American Veterinary Medical Foundation, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173, www.avmf.org.

Virgil E. McWilliams Jr.

Dr. McWilliams (Oklahoma State ‘72), 84, Hooker, Oklahoma, died April 30, 2015. He practiced in Oklahoma at Ardmore and Hooker. Dr. McWilliams was a veteran of the Army. He is survived by his wife, Margaret; three daughters; 10 grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren. Memorials toward the Gary Sinise Foundation may be made c/o Brenneman Funeral Home, 1212 W. 2nd, Liberal, KS 67901.

John J. Missenis

Dr. Missenis (Cornell ‘67), 77, Hagerstown, Maryland, died Feb. 25, 2015. He worked for the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in Hagerstown prior to retirement in 1992. Dr. Missenis was a member of the Hagerstown Elks. He served in the Air Force from 1955–1959. Dr. Missenis is survived by his stepson.

Sara J. Moore

Dr. Moore (Georgia ‘59), 79, Gray, Georgia, died June 12, 2015. She retired as a veterinary medical officer from the Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service in 1997. Earlier in her career, Dr. Moore served with the United States Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health; co-established a mixed animal practice in Gray with her husband, Dr. Berry W. Moore (Georgia ‘60); and served as a relief veterinarian. She is survived by her husband, two daughters, and three grandchildren. Memorials toward the building fund may be made to Gray United Methodist Church, 117 S. Jefferson St., Gray, GA 31032.

Donald E. Mossbarger

Dr. Mossbarger (Ohio State ‘45), 92, Bloomingburg, Ohio, died Jan. 1, 2015. He owned a large animal practice and was the founder of Midland Acres, a Standardbred horse farm, in Bloomingburg. Dr. Mossbarger was a past president of the Ohio and Southern Ohio VMAs, Ohio Standard Breeders Association, and Fayette County Hereford Association and a former board member of the Ohio Harness Horsemen's Association. He was also a past president of the Fayette County Board of Health and Bloomingburg Lions Club. In 1969, Dr. Mossbarger received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, and, in 1981, he was awarded the United States Harness Writers Association Achievement Award. In 2000, he was inducted into the Ohio Harness Racing Hall of Fame. Dr. Mossbarger is survived by three daughters and two sons, 11 grandchildren, and 13 great-grandchildren. Memorials may be made to Grace United Methodist Church, 301 E. Market St., Washington Court House, OH 43160, or Political Action Committee for Equine Racing, Ohio Harness Horsemen's Association, 850 Michigan Ave., Columbus, OH 43215.

G. Robert Oldham

Dr. Oldham (Ohio State ‘38), 99, Chicago, died March 19, 2015. He was assistant state veterinarian for Indiana from 1966 until retirement in 1983. Dr. Oldham began his career as city veterinarian in Dayton, Ohio. From 1941–1966, he owned a mixed animal practice in Kokomo, Indiana. Dr. Oldham was a past president of the Indiana VMA. In 1982, he was honored with a state of Indiana Distinguished Hoosier Award. Dr. Oldham's wife, Betty; three sons; six grandchildren; and 10 great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to First Church of the Nazarene, 9401 E. 25th St., Indianapolis, IN 46226.

Joseph W. Ralston

Dr. Ralston (Ohio State ‘51), 89, Wichita, Kansas, died June 1, 2015. He worked in meat inspection for the Department of Agriculture in Liberal, Kansas, and Maricopa, Arizona, prior to retirement in 2005. Before that, Dr. Ralston owned Kindness Hospital for Small Animals in Phoenix for more than 30 years. Early in his career, he worked in South Euclid, Ohio. Dr. Ralston was a Navy veteran of World War II. His wife, Bettylou; three children; six grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the First Evangelical Free Church, 1825 N. Woodlawn St., Wichita, KS 67208.

Joseph P. Renaldo

Dr. Renaldo (Cornell ‘61), 77, Plummer, Idaho, died May 8, 2015. He co-founded and practiced mixed animal medicine at Oneida Animal Hospital in Oneida, New York, prior to retirement in 1998. Early in his career, Dr. Renaldo served in the Army Veterinary Corps. He was a past president of the Central New York VMA, receiving its Lifetime Achievement Award in 1999. Active in civic life, Dr. Renaldo was also a past president of the Vernon-Verona-Sherill School Board, a charter member of the St. Maries Rotary Club, and a member of the Rotary Club of Sherill. He received the Paul Harris Fellow recognition several times. Dr. Renaldo's wife, Joan; two sons and two daughters; 14 grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Rotary Foundation, One Rotary Center, 1560 Sherman Ave., Evanston, IL 60201, www.rotary.org.

Russell R. Schoen

Dr. Schoen (Missouri ‘66), 73, Columbia, Missouri, died Jan. 12, 2015. A small animal veterinarian, he was the former owner of Rockbridge Animal Hospital in Columbia. Dr. Schoen is survived by his son.

Joseph L. Sewell

Dr. Sewell (Michigan State ‘55), 86, Crown Point, Indiana, died May 14, 2015. He practiced mixed animal medicine at Smith Animal Clinic in Crown Point for 55 years. Dr. Sewell was a member of the Indiana VMA and helped organize the Calumet Area VMA. He is survived by his wife, Mary; two sons; and three grandchildren. Dr. Sewell's nephew, Dr. Kirk Smith (Purdue ‘89), practices at Smith Animal Clinic. Memorials may be made to the Crown Point Court House Foundation, P.O. Box 556, Crown Point, IN 46308.

Howard S. Smith

Dr. Smith (Ohio State ‘44), 93, Fairborn, Ohio, died July 6, 2015. He owned a large animal practice in Yellow Springs, Ohio, for 40 years. Dr. Smith was a member of the Ohio VMA and Lions Club. His wife, Phyllis; a son and a daughter; three grandchildren; and a great-grandchild survive him.

Robert Van Camp

Dr. Van Camp (Kansas State ‘57), 82, Topeka, Kansas, died April 8, 2015. He owned a mixed animal practice in Colby, Kansas, prior to retirement. Dr. Van Camp helped establish the veterinary technology curriculum at Colby Community College. Early in his career, he worked for the Department of Agriculture in poultry inspection and owned a practice in Hoxie, Kansas. Dr. Van Camp was a member of the Kansas Livestock Association. He served three terms as mayor of Colby and was active with the Colby Chamber of Commerce and the local school board. Dr. Van Camp's wife, Marjorie; two sons and two daughters; eight grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to Precise Clinical Research, 1230 SW Harvey, Suite B, Topeka, KS 66604.

Stanley A. Witzel Jr.

Dr. Witzel (Cornell ‘57), 82, Charlotte, North Carolina, died June 5, 2015. A small animal veterinarian, he co-owned Cedar Grove Animal Hospital in Cedar Grove, New Jersey, from 1959 until retirement in 1995. Dr. Witzel also helped establish an emergency veterinary hospital in the Montclair-West Essex area of New Jersey. He was a past president of the Metropolitan New Jersey VMA, a past member of the New Jersey VMA board of directors and a past chair of the NJVMA Ethics and Grievance Committee, and a member of the American Animal Hospital Association. Dr. Witzel's wife, Betty; two sons; and four grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Class of 1957 Veterinary College Memorial Scholarship, Office of Alumni Affairs and Development, Box 39, Schurman Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 147 0 0
Full Text Views 701 675 67
PDF Downloads 36 26 7
Advertisement