• 1. Pilny AA. Clinical hematology of rodent species. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2008; 11: 523533.

  • 2. Thas I, Garner MM. A retrospective study of tumours in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) submitted to a zoological pathology service. J Comp Pathol 2012; 147: 368375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Lightfoot T. Clinical techniques of selected exotic species: chinchilla, prairie dog, hedgehog, and chelonians. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 1997; 6: 96105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Wenger S. Anesthesia and analgesia in rabbits and rodents. J Exot Pet Med 2012; 21: 716.

  • 5. Lennox AM. Emergency and critical care procedures in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), and prairie dogs (Cynomys spp). Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2007; 10: 533555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Brodbelt DC, Blissitt KJ, Hammond RA, et al. The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35: 365373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Stockham SL, Scott MA. Urinary system. In: Stockham SL, Scott MA. Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2002; 430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Proulx J. Respiratory monitoring: arterial blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and end-tidal carbon dioxide analysis. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 1999; 14: 227230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Day TK. Blood gas analysis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002; 32: 10311048.

  • 10. Bateman SW. Making sense of blood gas results. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008; 38: 543557.

  • 11. Jenkins JR. Rodent diagnostic testing. J Exot Pet Med 2008; 17: 1625.

  • 12. Kelly AM. Review article: can venous blood gas analysis replace arterial in emergency medical care? Emerg Med Australas 2010; 22: 493498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Souza AP, Guerrero PNH, Nishimori CT, et al. Cardiopulmonary and acid base effects of desflurane and sevoflurane in spontaneously breathing cats. J Feline Med Surg 2005; 7: 95100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Flecknell PA, Richardson CA, Popovic A. Laboratory animals. In: Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon KA, Grimm KA, eds. Lumb and Jones' veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2007; 766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Sorrell-Raschi L. Blood gas and oximetry monitoring. In: Silverstein DC, Hopper K, eds. Small animal critical care medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008; 878882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Sawyer DC. The anesthetic period: maintenance. In: Cann CC, ed. The practice of veterinary anesthesia: small animals, birds, fish and reptiles. Jackson, Wyo: Teton NewMedia, 2007; 232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Ardiaca M, Bonvehi C, Montesinos LV. Point-of-care blood gas and electrolyte analysis in rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2013; 16: 175195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Serum anion gap: its uses and limitations in clinical medicine. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 2: 162174.

  • 19. Keckler MS, Gallardo-Romero NF, Langham GL, et al. Physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2010; 49: 274281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Broughton G II. Hematologic and blood chemistry data for the prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Physiol 1992; 101: 807812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Mensack S. Fluid therapy: options and rational administration. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008; 38: 575586.

  • 22. Richardson CA, Flecknell PA. Rodents: anaesthesia and analgesia. In: Keeble E, Meredith A, eds. BSAVA manual of rodents and ferrets. Gloucester, England: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2009; 69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Hawkins MG, Pascoe PJ. Anesthesia, analgesia, and sedation of small mammals. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2012; 429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Redrobe S. Soft tissue surgery of rabbits and rodents. J Exot Pet Med 2002; 11: 231245.

Advertisement

Venous blood gas analytes during isoflurane anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

Sara M. Gardhouse DVM1, David Eshar DVM2, Nora Bello VMD, PhD3, and Diane Mason DVM, PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 3 Department of Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Abstract

Objective—To describe changes in venous blood gas analytes during isoflurane anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—16 black-tailed prairie dogs.

Procedures—Black-tailed prairie dogs were placed in an anesthesia chamber for induction of general anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen delivered via mask. Immediately following anesthetic induction, a venous blood sample was obtained from the medial saphenous vein; a second venous blood sample was obtained just prior to anesthetic gas shutoff. An evaluation of venous blood gas analytes was performed on each sample. General linear mixed models with repeated measures were used for data analyses.

Results—Median anesthetic time was 90 minutes (range, 60 to 111 minutes). A significant increase from immediately after induction to completion of anesthesia was observed in Pco2 and mean blood chloride ion, BUN, and creatinine concentrations. A decrease in Po2, mean blood pH, and anion gap was observed from induction of anesthesia to completion. No significant differences during anesthesia were observed in mean base excess or blood bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, blood glucose, lactate, and total CO2 concentrations. No complications occurred during or after anesthesia for any animal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Examination of prairie dogs often requires general anesthesia, with isoflurane currently the inhalation agent of choice. Results suggested respiratory acidosis and relative azotemia may occur during isoflurane anesthesia of prairie dogs. Given the increased risk associated with anesthesia in small mammals and the propensity for respiratory disease in prairie dogs, insight into physiologic changes associated with isoflurane anesthesia in healthy prairie dogs can aid in perioperative evaluation and anesthetic monitoring in this rodent species.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Gardhouse's present address is William T. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Supported by a research grant from the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University.

Address correspondence to Dr. Gardhouse (saragardhouse@yahoo.com).