In This Issue—August 1, 2015

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President's Column

See page 222

JAVMA News

The AVMA unveiled a new look and member-focused outlook this July at the AVMA Annual Convention. In other news, federal agencies likely have too few veterinarians to mount effective responses to animal health emergencies, according to a recent report. See page 224

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See pages 243, 247

Pathology in Practice

See page 251

commentary

How complexity of animal welfare issues can foster differences within the veterinary profession

Society-wide differences in opinions regarding acceptable animal welfare are reflected in the veterinary profession and can be described as a dissonance within the profession. These differences should not be considered a failing of the profession, and disagreement and discourse are imperative to progress.

See page 240

enhancing clinical decision making

First steps to efficient use of the scientific literature in veterinary practice

The practice of high-quality medicine involves incorporation of information from the scientific literature. Thus, it is essential that veterinarians develop skills to efficiently acquire, evaluate, and interpret the continuously growing body of scientific literature to support their clinical decisions.

See page 254

Comparison of volume, security, and biomechanical strength of square and Aberdeen knots for intradermal closure

Holding strength of the completed knot is vital for appropriate suture closure of wounds. The square knot is most commonly taught and used because it is one of the most secure simple knots. However, because 4 to 6 throws are needed to create a secure knot, the resulting knot may be bulky. In a study in which square knots (4 throws) and 2 + 1 Aberdeen knots were compared as terminal knots for continuous intradermal wound closure in canine cadavers, the Aberdeen knot had a smaller volume than the 4-throw square knot and was as secure. The authors recommend use of the Aberdeen knot as the termination knot at the end of a continuous intradermal line on the basis of ease of burying the smaller knot.

See page 260

Influence of anesthetic variables on short-term and overall survival rates in cats undergoing renal transplantation surgery

Since 1987, renal transplantation has become a recognized treatment option for cats with end-stage renal disease. Still, information is limited on the impact anesthetic-related variables have on overall survival rate. In a study involving 94 cats that underwent renal transplantation between 1998 and 2010, prolonged anesthesia reduced overall survival rate, but no associations were identified between survival rate and anesthetic agent used, amount or type of fluid administered IV, physiologic abnormalities, or blood product administration. Minimizing anesthesia time, reversing μ-opioid receptor agonists, and preventing intraoperative decreases in blood oxygen saturation and postoperative decreases in Hct appeared to help maximize postsurgical survival time.

See page 267

Surgical and nonsurgical management of patent ductus arteriosus in cats

In dogs, untreated patent ductus arteriosus usually results in development of congestive heart failure by 1 year of age, but little has been published regarding treatment of this condition in cats. In a review of medical records for 28 cats with PDA, 17 of 26 (65%) cats did not have overt signs at the time of initial evaluation. Multiple congenital cardiac defects were identified in 6 of 23 (26%) cats. Seventeen cats underwent 1 or more vascular attenuation procedures, but vascular attenuation was not attempted in the other 11. Surgical ligation was successful in 11 of 15 cats, and coil embolizations was successful in 2. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment did not result in a significant difference in life expectancy in this small cohort.

See page 278

Use of a minimally invasive fasciotomy technique for treatment of antebrachial compartment syndrome in two horses

An 18-year-old stallion and 17-year-old gelding were evaluated because of acute, severe unilateral forelimb lameness. Horses were unable to bear weight on the affected limb and had a dropped elbow appearance. On the basis of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging findings, a diagnosis of antebrachial compartment syndrome was made in both horses. Following sedation and local anesthetic administration, caudal antebrachial fasciotomy was performed in each horse by inserting a bistoury knife through small incisions. Horses remained standing throughout the procedure and were immediately able to bear weight on the affected limb without signs of discomfort. Both horses recovered fully and returned to their previous activities.

See page 286

Risk factors for calcium carbonate urolithiasis in goats

As pet goats are becoming increasingly popular in the United States, uroliths are being detected with increasing frequency. But, information is lacking on risk factors for urolith formation. In a study of 354 goats with calcium carbonate uroliths and 16,366 goats without urinary tract disease, goats with calcium carbonate uroliths were typically neutered males, > 1 year of age, and of African descent, with 146 of 275 (53%) case goats for which breed information was available representing breeds of African origin (Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf, and Boer). Importantly, although certain factors were found to be associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis, the study did not allow conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships.

See page 293

Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel calf in North America

A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (< 24 hours) inappetence and lethargy. Pleural and peritoneal fluid analysis confirmed a diagnosis of septic pleuritis and peritonitis, and aerobic bacterial culture yielded Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus. Treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly, and the calf was discharged after 11 days. Findings illustrate that S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama).

See page 300

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