In This Issue—April 15, 2015

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JAVMA News

An AVMA report indicates homeownership, board certification, postgraduate work, and internship participation may be predictors of veterinary employment and income. In other news, large animal practitioners are grappling with a shortage of large-volume bags of polyionic fluids, separate from the ongoing shortage of normal saline solution.

See page 816

Letters to the Editor

See page 834

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See page 839

ECG of the Month

See page 843

Theriogenology Question of the Month

See page 847

Pathology in Practice

See pages 853, 857

Urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio in samples collected by means of cystocentesis versus manual compression in cats

Renal proteinuria is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in cats with chronic kidney disease, and the most widely used method for quantifying proteinuria is calculation of the urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio. Ideally, the UPC ratio should be determined for samples collected by means of cystocentesis, but this procedure may be contraindicated in some patients. Now, results of a new study involving 43 client-owned cats suggest that collection of a urine sample from the midstream phase of micturition by manual compression may be a reliable alternative to cystocentesis for the determination of UPC ratio in cats, provided that postrenal proteinuria is excluded by means of urine sediment analysis.

See page 862

Ultrasonographic anatomy of bearded dragons

Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are among the most common reptile companion animals in the United States, but little is known about the normal ultrasonographic appearance of coelomic organs in this species. In a study involving 14 healthy bearded dragons, both microconvex and linear ultrasound transducers allowed for visualization of the heart, pleura, liver, caudal vena cava, aorta, ventral abdominal vein, gallbladder, fat bodies, gastric fundus, cecum, colon, cloaca, kidneys, and testes or ovaries in all animals. The pylorus was visualized in 12 of 14 animals. Small intestinal loops were visualized in 12 of 14 animals with the linear transducer but could not be reliably identified with the microconvex transducer.

See page 868

Surgical excision of anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas with and without adjunctive chemotherapy in dogs

Surgical excision of the primary tumor with extirpation of the sublumbar lymph nodes if lymphadenopathy is present remains the mainstay of treatment for dogs with anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas, but information is needed on variables associated with prognosis. In a review of medical records for 42 dogs with ASACs, median survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with sublumbar lymphadenopathy than for those without and for dogs that underwent lymph node extirpation than for those that did not. However, survival time and disease-free interval did not differ among groups when dogs were grouped on the basis of histopathologic margins (complete vs marginal vs incomplete excision).

See page 877

Laparoscopic versus conventional open cryptorchidectomies in horses

In horses, laparoscopy has reportedly been associated with a number of advantages, compared with traditional surgical techniques, but disadvantages, including the expense of the equipment and the need to develop familiarity with the equipment and techniques, call into question whether laparoscopic techniques should supplant traditional techniques, particularly for relatively straightforward procedures. For example, in a retrospective cohort study involving 60 cryptorchid horses, horses that underwent laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy had increased surgical preparation time, increased surgery and anesthesia times, and more postoperative complications, compared with horses that underwent open cryptorchidectomy.

See page 885

Survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program

The US Navy Marine Mammal Program has housed and cared for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for over 50 years, providing an important source of data on the care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations. During 2004 through 2013, annual survival proportions for 103 bottlenose dolphins in the MMP ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. The median age at death for MMP dolphins during the study period was > 10 years greater than that reported for free-ranging dolphins.

See page 893

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