In This Issue—January 15, 2015

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Veterinarians say they have seen dramatic price increases for certain generic drugs, and congressional testimony indicates these increases may stem from shortages and lack of competition. In other news, research teams are looking for viruses that could emerge from wildlife or that are connected with disease but remain undiscovered.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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Anesthesia Case of the Month

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Animal Behavior Case of the Month

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Pathology in Practice

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Anamnestic responses in dogs and cats with current and out-of-date vaccination status

Antirabies antibody titers were measured before and 5 to 15 days after rabies vaccination in 74 dogs and 33 cats with current or out-of-date rabies vaccination status. All animals had an antirabies antibody titer ≥ 0.5 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. In addition, dogs with an out-of-date vaccination status were not inferior in their antibody response following booster rabies vaccination, compared with dogs with a current vaccination status. Findings supported immediate booster vaccination followed by observation for 45 days of dogs and cats with an out-of-date vaccination status that are exposed to rabies, as is the current practice for dogs and cats with current vaccination status.

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Effects of hospital visit stress on physiologic variables in dogs

Rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure are frequently measured in dogs, but information is lacking on how these vital signs might be altered simply because of patients being in a medical setting. In a study in which all 4 variables were measured in 30 dogs while in their home environment and after transport to a veterinary hospital, significant differences in rectal temperature, pulse rate, and blood pressure were identified, and the number of dogs panting was significantly higher in the hospital. Results suggested that practitioners should consider stress from transportation and environmental change when canine patients have abnormalities of vital variables on initial examination.

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Double pigtail ureteral stenting and renal pelvic lavage for renal-sparing treatment of obstructive pyonephrosis in dogs

Ureteral stent placement or insertion of a nephrostomy catheter is the standard of care for human patients with pyonephrosis. Although nephrostomy catheter placement in dogs has been described, outcome following ureteral stent placement in dogs with obstructive pyonephrosis has not been reported. In a review of medical records for 13 dogs with obstructive pyonephrosis (14 obstructed ureters secondary to ureterolithiasis [n = 13] or suspected ureteral stricture [1]), ureteral stenting was found to be a successful renal-sparing treatment that could often be performed in a minimally invasive manner and resulted in few major complications. Stents were placed under fluoroscopic guidance with endoscopic or surgical assistance.

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Triceps brachii muscle reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap in a dog

A 6-year-old Border Collie with a severe deformity of the right forelimb was found to have atrophy and contracture of the right triceps muscle resulting in a tension band and precluding manipulation of the right elbow joint. Treatment consisted of elevation and transposition of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle. The triceps brachii muscles were transected, and via a separate incision, the right latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated and tunneled subcutaneously beneath the interposing skin. The muscle was then sutured to the proximal and distal borders of the divided triceps muscle group. Two weeks later, physical therapy was initiated. After 2 months, the patient walked on the limb most of the time.

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Unilateral choristoma of the nictitating membrane in a horse

A 2-year-old Morgan mare evaluated because of corneal ulceration in the left eye was found on ocular examination to have hairs originating from the leading edge of the nictitating membrane that contacted the corneal surface. A bulbar pedicle conjunctival graft was performed, and conjunctiva at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane, including the aberrant hair follicles, was excised. Microscopically, a choristoma of pilosebaceous origin at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane was identified. Six weeks after surgery, the horse had no signs of discomfort, with no regrowth of the hairs. Findings emphasize the importance of a thorough adnexal examination in horses with corneal disease.

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Sensitivity and specificity of repeated test results from a commercial milk ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

Given the lower cost and faster processing time relative to bacteriologic culture of feces, a milk ELISA is the testing option of choice for many veterinarians and dairy producers attempting to identify cows with paratuberculosis. Results of a new study involving 3,145 dairy cows from 32 herds located in the Maritime provinces of Canada suggest that a potential strategy to improve detection of infectious cows (ie, cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis at the time of testing) with minimal loss of specificity is repeated testing with the milk ELISA. In the study, a 12-month test interval provided a greater increase in sensitivity, relative to an initial test, than a 6-month interval.

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Plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders

In reptiles, the diagnosis of inflammation is challenging, and several diagnostic methods have been found to be unreliable in the detection of disease. In a study of whether plasma fibrinogen concentration could be used as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and sliders infected with ranavirus or between healthy sliders and overtly ill sliders. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval for healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed, indicating that separate reference intervals should be used for males and females.

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