In This Issue—March 15, 2014

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JAVMA News

Veterinarians and industries have been adapting as pre-slaughter livestock weights have risen, particularly in the past 25 years. In other news, the federal government will not provide funding to inspect U.S. horse slaughter facilities, prohibiting domestic horse slaughter during the current fiscal year.

See page 628

Letter to the Editor

See page 646

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See page 647

Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

See page 651

ECG of the Month

See page 657

Pathology in Practice

See PAGES 661, 667

Book Reviews

See page 670

2013 JAVMA Reviewers

See page 681

Effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior of shelter dogs

Canine behavior is a critical facet of shelter housing and management and plays an important role in determining an animal's adoptability and welfare. In a study of 107 dogs available for adoption at a municipal shelter that were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 48) or control (59) group, a program of environmental enrichment and cage-behavior training increased desirable behaviors (ie, sitting or lying down and being quiet) and decreased an undesirable behavior (jumping). However, location in cage, fearfulness, and eye contact were not significantly different between groups, and survival analysis revealed no significant difference in adoption rates between groups.

See page 687

Short-term outcome following liver lobectomy with a self-ligating loop in companion animals

Various techniques for liver lobectomy have been reported in companion animals, including use of a self-ligating loop. In a review of medical records for 22 dogs, 2 cats, 4 rabbits, and a ferret that underwent partial or complete liver lobectomy, use of the self-ligating loop was found to be generally safe, with low morbidity and mortality rates. Twenty-eight of the 29 (97%) patients were discharged from the hospital and survived at least 5 days after discharge. One patient had evidence of postoperative hemoabdomen, which was successfully treated with a single packed RBC transfusion. Diameter of the SLL was increased from 8 to 15 cm to allow for resection of larger masses in some animals.

See page 693

Biofilm-infected wounds in a dog

A 4-year-old dog was evaluated for treatment of chronic nonhealing pressure wounds over both elbow regions resulting from attempts at hypertrophic callus excision. Wound bed granulation tissue was mottled red and yellow with hyperemic, rolled epithelial edges. Both wounds were debrided, and the left wound was closed immediately. Calcium alginate rope with silver was packed into the right wound, and a thoracodorsal axial pattern flap was subsequently used to cover the wound. Bacterial biofilms were identified histologically in tissue specimens from both wounds. Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus canis were identified. Both wounds healed successfully.

See page 699

Continuous electroencephalography for diagnosis and monitoring treatment of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a cat

A 10-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of presumed seizures. Treatment was initiated with phenobarbital, zonisamide, and levetiracetam; however, the presumed seizure activity continued. Analysis of a continuous electroencephalographic recording indicated the cat had nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The cat was treated with phenobarbital (6 mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb], IV, q 30 min) over a 9-hour period, with treatment stopped when a burst-suppression electroencephalographic pattern was detected. During the high-dose phenobarbital treatment period, an endotracheal tube was placed and the cat was monitored and received fluids, hetastarch, and dopamine IV. Continuous mechanical ventilation was not required.

See page 708

Spontaneous regression of lumbar Hansen type 1 disk extrusion detected with magnetic resonance imaging in a dog

Results of neuroanatomic localization in a 3-year-old dog evaluated because of acute signs of back pain and spastic paraparesis were consistent with a lesion in the T3-L3 spinal cord segment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extradural spinal cord compression at the right ventral aspect of the L3–4 intervertebral disk space, and a diagnosis of sequestrated Hansen type 1 disk extrusion without extradural hemorrhage was made. The dog was treated with cage rest, restricted exercise on a leash, and NSAIDs. Results of follow-up examination 5 weeks later indicated complete resolution of clinical signs, and results of repeated MRI indicated a 69% reduction in the volume of the herniated disk material.

See page 715

Hemorrhage and blood loss–induced anemia associated with acquired coagulation factor VIII inhibition in a Thoroughbred mare

A 23-year-old mare was evaluated because of hemoperitoneum, hematomas, and signs of blood loss–induced anemia. Coagulation testing revealed persistent prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time attributable to severe factor VIII deficiency. On the basis of the horse's age, lack of previous signs of a bleeding diathesis, and subsequent quantification of plasma factor VIII inhibitory activity, acquired idiopathic hemophilia A was diagnosed. The mare was treated with fresh whole blood and fresh-frozen plasma; immunosuppressive treatment consisting of dexamethasone and azathioprine was initiated. Factor VIII deficiency and signs of coagulopathy resolved, and the inhibitory antibody titer decreased.

See page 719

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