In This Issue—January 1, 2014

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Animal husbandry and animal uses in agriculture, research, and entertainment were among the contentious topics discussed during a conference intended to promote dialogue on animal welfare. In other news, Congress is considering more comprehensive oversight of and restrictions on medication use in horse racing.

See page 10

Letters to the Editor

See page 29

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See pages 33, 37

Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

See page 41

ECG of the Month

See page 45

Animal Behavior Case of the Month

See page 49

Pathology in Practice

See page 53

Lidocaine-bupivacaine–infused absorbable gelatin hemostatic sponges versus lidocaine-bupivacaine retrobulbar injections following eye enucleation in dogs

Controlling postoperative pain following eye enucleation can be a challenge in dogs. Retrobulbar nerve block techniques have been shown to be effective, but these procedures take practice to master and may potentially be associated with adverse effects. Results of a new study suggest that inserting an absorbable gelatin hemostatic sponge infused with a lidocaine-bupivacaine combination into the orbit at the end of the procedure provides a level of postoperative analgesia comparable to that seen with lidocaine-bupivacaine retrobulbar injections. The study involved 19 dogs that underwent transpalpebral eye enucleation performed by a board-certified ophthalmologist.

See page 57

Refractometric total protein concentration in icteric serum from dogs

Opinions differ on whether high bilirubin concentrations have an effect on refractometric serum total protein concentrations, but it appears that refractometer characteristics may play a bigger role than bilirubin concentration. In a study in which serum samples from 2 healthy dogs were spiked with various amounts of bilirubin and total protein concentration was measured with 3 refractometers and a reference biochemical analyzer, no interference with refractometric total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were related to conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations.

See page 63

Presumed primary and secondary hepatic copper accumulation in cats

Little published information is available regarding pathological hepatic accumulation of copper in cats. In a review of medical records for cats with primary copper-associated hepatopathy (n = 11), extrahepatic bile duct obstruction (14), cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis (37), and various other hepatobiliary disorders (38), the cats with PCH were typically younger (median age, 2.0 years). However, clinicopathologic findings and imaging characteristics were similar for the various groups. Six cats with PCH underwent successful treatment with various combinations of chelation, antioxidants, low doses of elemental zinc, and hepatic support or high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets.

See page 68

Endovascular evaluation and treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs

Surgical approaches for attenuation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs have been associated with complication rates as high as 77%, perioperative mortality rates as high as 28%, and overall mortality rates as high as 64%. In contrast, a review of medical records for 100 dogs with IHPSSs suggests that endovascular treatment of these shunts may result in lower morbidity and mortality rates, with similar success rates, compared with previously reported outcomes for open surgical procedures. Partial shunt attenuation was performed in 92 dogs by means of caval stent placement and placement of thrombogenic coils within the shunt; complete shunt occlusion was performed in 3 dogs.

See page 78

Concentrated tea tree oil toxicosis in dogs and cats

Tea tree oil is marketed for cleaning hair, healing hotspots, and treating some skin allergies in dogs and cats, but the concentration of TTO in most skin care products is low (0.1% to 1%). Because undiluted TTO can be used topically without causing adverse effects in most people, some owners may knowingly or accidentally use 100% TTO to treat various skin conditions in their dogs and cats. A review of records for the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center database from January 2002 to December 2012 yielded information on 337 dogs and 106 cats with evidence of toxicosis following exposure to 100% TTO. The most common signs were increased salivation or drooling, signs of CNS depression or lethargy, paresis, ataxia, and tremors.

See page 95

Associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis at weaning and ultrasonographically measured body composition traits in yearling cattle

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis is one of the most important ocular diseases in cattle worldwide. The condition has been associated with decreased weaning weight in beef cattle, but results of a new study suggest that the adverse effects of IBK carry over into the postweaning production stage. The study was a retrospective cohort study involving 1,882 Angus calves from a single farm. Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th-rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not offset lower body weight at weaning.

See page 100

Dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam versus ketamine-midazolam for anesthesia of captive Asian small-clawed otters

Asian small-clawed otters are one of the most commonly exhibited otter species in North American zoos and aquaria. Historically, a combination of ketamine and medetomidine has been recommended for anesthesia in this species, but development of a fully reversible anesthetic cocktail would be advantageous. In a crossover study involving 10 captive Asian small-clawed otters anesthetized with a dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam combination or a ketamine-midazolam combination administered IM, both protocols were found to be safe and effective, but the reversible nature of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam resulted in more rapid recoveries than did ketamine-midazolam.

See page 107

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