In This Issue—November 1, 2013

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A study linking neutering with higher rates of certain cancers and musculoskeletal disorders in Golden Retrievers is among growing evidence challenging the belief that cats and dogs should be routinely spayed or castrated. In other news, heartworm experts agree some worms have developed resistance to preventive drugs.

See page 1218

Letters to the Editor

See page 1240

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See pages 1251, 1255

ECG of the Month

See page 1260

Pathology in Practice

See page 1265


Concerns about extralabel fluoroquinolone use in food-producing animals

A description of enrofloxacin use in dairy heifer calves in a study published in the journal serves as a reminder that extralabel drug use must comply with current regulations and that current regulations prohibit the extralabel use of certain drugs, including enrofloxacin, in food-producing animals.

See page 1242


A strategic approach to workforce dynamics requires collaboration and sound data

The recent release of the AVMA's study of the US veterinary workforce has led some to call for a mandate from the AVMA and Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges that veterinary colleges in the United States reduce their class size. However, no authority exists for either organization to take such measures.

See page 1245

public veterinary medicine: public health

Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2013

The Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue operators, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues and exhibits, and others concerned with control of disease and with minimizing health risks associated with animal contact in public settings.

See page 1270

Autologous platelet therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs

Intra-articular injection of autologous platelets may result in sustained improvements in lameness and pain severity in dogs with osteoarthritis, according to results of a new randomized, controlled clinical trial. In the study, 20 dogs with osteoarthritis involving a single joint were given a single injection of autologous platelets or saline solution. For control dogs, lameness scores, pain scores, and peak vertical force 12 weeks later were not significantly different from pretreatment values. In contrast, for dogs that received platelet injections, lameness scores, pain scores, and PVF were all significantly improved at 12 weeks, compared with pretreatment values.

See page 1291

Prevalence of uveal cysts and pigmentary uveitis in Golden Retrievers in the Midwest

Pigmentary uveitis is a condition unique to Golden Retrievers that was first described in 1996. Uveal cysts are often found in conjunction with PU, but whether they are a cause or effect of PU or merely an incidental finding is unknown. In addition, little information is available on the prevalences of these conditions. In a cross-sectional study involving 164 Golden Retrievers from Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan, 80 of the 328 (24.4%) eyes and 57 of the 164 (34.8%) dogs had visible uveal cysts. Nine (5.5%) dogs had PU. Prevalences of uveal cysts and PU were both higher than prevalences reported previously in the Canine Eye Registry Foundation's 2009 All-Breeds Report.

See page 1298

Fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in nondiabetic and diabetic cats

There is great interest in identifying hematologic parameters that could identify cats at high risk of developing diabetes mellitus or would indicate a progression toward diabetes before persistent hyperglycemia develops. However, in a study of 117 client-owned cats (76 nondiabetic cats [25 with normal body condition, 27 overweight, and 24 obese] and 41 naïve [n = 21] and treated [20] diabetic cats), few differences in results of hematologic testing were identified. Results suggested that cats at risk of developing diabetes (ie, overweight and obese cats) could not be distinguished from cats with a normal body condition on the basis of results of isolated hematologic testing.

See page 1302

Perianesthetic complications in dogs undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain for suspected intracranial disease

For dogs with intracranial disease, MRI is the most commonly recommended advanced imaging modality for determining the underlying cause, but typically requires a prolonged period of general anesthesia, raising concerns about the risk of perianesthetic complications. In a study of 238 dogs undergoing MRI of the brain, the percentage of dogs with intracranial lesions that developed severe perianesthetic complications (3/149 [2%]) was not significantly different from the percentage of dogs without intracranial lesions that developed severe perianesthetic complications (0/89 [0%]). All 3 dogs with severe complications required use of a ventilator following anesthesia.

See page 1310

Clinicopathologic and atypical features of naturally occurring leptospirosis in dogs

In dogs, leptospirosis has classically been associated with renal disease or concurrent renal and hepatic disease. However, in a study of 51 dogs with leptospirosis, a variety of atypical abnormalities were identified, including radiographic evidence of pulmonary disease (10/23 dogs) and hepatic involvement alone (7/51). Other abnormalities included proteinuria (34/51), thrombocytopenia (26/51), coagulopathy (7/24), hypoalbuminemia (14/51), and glucosuria (9/51). Significant associations were found between detection of antibodies against serogroup Grippotyphosa and renal involvement and between detection of antibodies against serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and hepatic involvement.

See page 1316

Laparoscopic removal of a bladder urolith in a standing horse

Transrectal palpation in an 11-year-old gelding evaluated because of hematuria, stranguria, and pollakiuria revealed a 5-cm firm round mass in the urinary bladder, and urinary cystoscopy and transrectal ultrasonography confirmed the diagnosis of urinary bladder urolithiasis. A multiportal transparalumbar fossa laparoscopic approach was selected for cystotomy and urolith removal, and cystotomy and urolith removal were performed with sedation and local anesthesia, with the horse standing. No perioperative complications were observed. Urination returned to normal 5 days after surgery, and the horse returned to its previous level of activity 3 weeks after surgery.

See page 1323

Association between β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in dairy cows with left-displaced abomasum and removal from the herd after surgery

Risks factors associated with development of left-displaced abomasum in dairy cows have been evaluated, but less research has focused on factors associated with whether a cow will be retained in the herd after surgical correction of this condition. In a study of 136 dairy cows that developed LDA between 5 and 30 days after parturition and underwent corrective surgery, cows with a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration < 1.2 mmol/L immediately prior to surgery were 2.5 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.0) to be removed from the herd ≤ 30 days after surgery, compared with cows that had a BHB concentration ≥ 1.2 mmol/L.

See page 1329

Factors affecting use of veterinarians by small-scale food animal operations

Results of a study of small-scale farm and ranch operations throughout the United States indicated that most had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011; however, there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states. For the study, surveys were sent to 16,000 small-scale food animal operations, and 8,186 (51.2%) responded. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval, 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available ≤ 29 miles away, but 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey.

See page 1334

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