In This Issue—March 15, 2013

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The AVMA is giving expanded information on the process, considerations, and technical issues involved in euthanasia. In other news, a study found that many veterinary practices are not taking steps to increase cat visits, despite the potential to increase practice income.

See page 714

Letter to the Editor

See page 736

What Is Your Diagnosis?

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See page 745

ECG of the Month

See page 748

Anesthesia Case of the Month

See page 753

Pathology in Practice

See page 759, 765


One health, food security, and veterinary medicine

The developing world is changing rapidly, and the challenges of hunger and food security are increasing in scope and complexity. In collaboration with specialists from other disciplines, the veterinary profession has an opportunity to help poor countries sustainably meet their demand for foods of animal origin.

See page 739

Book Reviews

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2012 JAVMA Reviewers

See page 774

Coagulation status in dogs with partial or complete extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction

Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction has generally been assumed to cause hypocoagulability, because of impaired intestinal absorption of vitamin K. In contrast, results of a cohort study involving 10 dogs with EHBO and 19 healthy control dogs suggest that hypercoagulability is common in dogs with EHBO. All dogs with EHBO had a high coagulation index, and thromboelastography variables, including maximal amplitude, α-angle, and coagulation index, were significantly higher, and K (clot formation time) and R (reaction time) were significantly lower in dogs with EHBO than in control dogs. All dogs with EHBO had prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times within reference limits.

See page 778

Dynamin 1 mutation status in Labrador Retrievers with recurrent episodes of exercise-induced collapse

An autosomal recessive mutation in the gene encoding the dynamin 1 protein (ie, DNM1) has been shown to be strongly associated with exercise-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers. In a study involving 109 Labrador Retrievers with a history of recurrent EIC, 74 were homozygous for the mutation (ie, had DNM1-associated EIC) and 35 were heterozygous for or free from the mutation. Dogs with DNM1-associated EIC were young at the time of the first collapse episode, and collapse in these dogs was characterized by low muscle tone, clinically normal mentation, and rapid recovery. The remaining dogs had various characteristics of collapse that were not consistent with a single disease.

See page 786

Pylorectomy and gastroduodenostomy for treatment of pyloric stenosis in a cat

A 5-month-old cat evaluated because of decreased appetite, regurgitation, vomiting, and a lack of weight gain was found, on abdominal radiographs, to have a fluid- and gas-distended stomach. Endoscopy revealed an abnormally shortened pyloric antrum and stenotic pyloric outflow orifice, and pyloric stenosis was diagnosed. A pylorectomy with end-to-end gastroduodenostomy (Billroth I procedure) was successfully performed, and a temporary gastrostomy tube was placed. Six days after surgery, the cat was eating and drinking normally, and 15 months after surgery, the owners reported that the cat seemed completely normal in appearance and behavior.

See page 792

Treatment of encrusted cystitis associated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in a dog

Encrusted cystitis was diagnosed in a 5-year-old dog that was examined because of signs of persistent stranguria following treatment for urethral obstruction. Bacteriologic culture of urine and bladder wall biopsy samples yielded Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Treatment consisted of long-term administration of antimicrobial drugs and bethanechol and feeding a commercially available diet for dissolution of urinary calculi. Clinical signs of encrusted cystitis gradually resolved during the next 3 months. Results of urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography performed 4 months after the initial examination indicated resolution of the disease.

See page 798

Spinal cord compression secondary to extramedullary hematopoiesis in a dog

Results of neurologic examination in an 11-year-old dog with a 2-week history of progressive paraparesis were consistent with T3–L3 myelopathy. Several hypoechoic splenic nodules were evident on abdominal ultrasonography, and results of fine-needle aspiration cytology were consistent with splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. Two compressive, extradural masses were seen on MRI images of the thoracolumbar portion of the vertebral column, and a dorsal laminectomy was performed. Results of histologic examination of tissue samples were consistent with EMH, and clinical signs resolved following surgery. There was no recurrence of the masses 24 months after surgery.

See page 803

Surgical stabilization of shoulder luxation in a pot-bellied pig

A 4.6-month-old pot-bellied pig was evaluated because of non–weight-bearing right forelimb lameness of 4 days' duration. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a closed, lateral luxation of the right shoulder joint. Closed reduction failed to provide adequate stability of the shoulder joint; therefore, open reduction and internal fixation consisting of placement of 2 lateral tension sutures with a system designed for canine cranial cruciate ligament repair were performed. This procedure provided adequate joint stability and a successful outcome.

See page 807

Evaluation of a point-of-care analyzer for measurement of plasma immunoglobulin G, total protein, and albumin concentrations in ill neonatal foals

In equine medicine, rapid detection of failure of passive transfer of immunity is particularly important, because FPTI is a risk factor for foal morbidity and death. Results of a new study suggest that a recently released point-of-care analyzer may be acceptable for determination of plasma IgG and total protein concentrations in ill foals but not for determination of plasma albumin concentration. The study included 100 foals < 7 days old. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of FPTI were 80.7% and 100%, respectively, when FPTI was defined as a plasma IgG concentration < 400 mg/dL and were 75.9% and 100%, respectively, when FPTI was defined as a plasma IgG concentration < 800 mg/dL.

See page 812

Incidence, management, and outcome of complications of castration in equids

Castration is one of the most common surgical procedures in equine practice, so additional information on complications of the procedure would be useful. In a review of medical records for 311 horses, 10 mules, and 3 donkeys undergoing routine castration, 33 of the 324 (10.2%) equids reportedly developed a complication after surgery. Of these, 32 recovered and 1 was euthanized because of eventration. Equids that underwent semiclosed castration had significantly higher odds of developing a complication (odds ratio, 4.69) than did those that underwent closed castration. Equids that received additional doses of anesthetic agents developed complications more frequently than those that did not.

See page 820

Clinicopathologic variables associated with hypokalemia in lactating dairy cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus

Hypokalemia commonly develops in dairy cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus, and formulating appropriate treatments requires an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In a study of 112 cows with abomasal volvulus, 1,160 cows with left-displaced abomasum, and 172 cows with right-displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus, 78 (70%), 636 (55%), and 92 (53%), respectively, were found to be hypokalemic. Serum chloride concentration had the strongest positive association with serum potassium concentration. Findings suggested that treatment of hypokalemia should include increased dietary potassium intake or oral administration of KCl and correction of hypochloremia, alkalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and dehydration.

See page 826

Gangrenous mastitis caused by Bacillus species in six goats

Six lactating dairy goats were examined because of acute mastitis. The affected udder halves had a gangrenous distal portion with a sharp demarcation from grossly normal tissue proximally. In all goats, a pure growth of a Bacillus sp was obtained. Treatment consisted of polyionic IV fluid therapy, systemic and intramammary antimicrobial administration, and anti-inflammatory treatment. All goats survived to discharge, and affected udder halves sloughed in 1 to 2 months. In subsequent lactations, milk production for 2 of the 5 goats for which follow-up information was available was above the mean, but 3 goats were voluntarily withdrawn from lactation.

See page 836

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