Adrenal gland tumors are rare in dogs, comprising 1% to 2% of all canine tumors.1 The most common tumor types include adrenocortical adenoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma.1–5 Adrenocortical tumors may or may not be cortisol secreting, which may lead to clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.1,2,6 For dogs with clinical signs attributable to an adrenal gland tumor, adrenalectomy is the gold-standard treatment.1–6
Invasion of the caudal vena cava by adrenal gland tumors has been reported to occur in 9.5% to 46% of cases.6 In the past, vena caval invasion was often determined to be inoperable or to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, more recent reports7,8 indicate that tumor invasion into the caudal vena cava may not affect short-term survival rate. Kyles et al7 reported that adrenalectomy for tumors with associated vena caval thrombi does not result in substantially higher perioperative morbidity and mortality rates, compared with surgery in dogs without invasion. Those data are in agreement with the prognosis in humans with adrenal gland tumors; the presence of vena caval thrombi does not lead to a poorer prognosis.9
The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate risk factors associated with short-term and long-term outcome for adrenal gland tumors with or without invasion of the caudal vena cava and treated via adrenalectomy in dogs. The hypothesis was that vena caval invasion would have no association with short- or long-term survival rate of dogs surgically treated for adrenal tumors.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
JMP, version 8.0.2, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.
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