In This Issue—August 1, 2012

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JAVMA News

Professional bull riding's best bovine athletes buck, spin, and are worth hundreds of thousands of dollars, and they receive specialized veterinary care for injuries that would send other cattle to slaughter. Grocers, restaurants, and cafeteria businesses have vowed to stop buying pork from producers who use individual swine gestation stalls.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

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Pathology in Practice

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commentary

Everyday leadership: make your mark

The veterinary profession requires veterinarians to take on leadership roles, regardless of their interest in leadership. By dedicating even a small amount of time to developing leadership skills, veterinarians can have overwhelmingly positive effects in their personal and professional lives.

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Enteropathogens identified in cats entering a Florida animal shelter

Results of a study involving 100 cats entering an animal shelter in Florida revealed that many harbored enteropathogens. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or specific risk factors such as signalment, source, or condition, making it difficult to predict which cats were most likely to be infected. Enteropathogens that were identified included feline coronavirus, Clostridium perfringens, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Cystoisospora spp, hookworms, ascarids, Salmonella spp, astrovirus, feline panleukopenia virus, calicivirus, and Spirometra spp. Because it is not possible to test all shelter cats for all possible infections, practical guidelines should be developed to treat routinely for the most common and important enteropathogens.

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Enteropathogens identified in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter

Results of a study involving 100 dogs entering an animal shelter in Florida revealed that many harbored enteropathogens. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or specific dog characteristics, making it difficult to predict the risk of infection for individual animals. Enteropathogens that were identified included Clostridium perfringens, hookworms, Giardia spp, canine enteric coronavirus, whipworms, Cryptosporidium spp, ascarids, Salmonella spp, Cystoisospora spp, canine distemper virus, Dipylidium caninum, canine parvovirus, and rotavirus. Guidelines for preventive measures and empirical treatments that are logistically and financially feasible for use in shelters should be developed for control of the most common and important enteropathogens.

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Frequency of vomiting in hydromorphone-treated dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery

Results of a new uncontrolled clinical trial suggest that hydromorphone can be administered to dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery without a clinically important risk of vomiting or regurgitation. The study involved 58 dogs undergoing repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Before surgery, all dogs received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM or IV); 41 dogs also received acepromazine. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with isoflurane. After surgery, dogs were randomly assigned to receive hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) IM, IV quickly, or IV slowly. No dogs vomited during the study, regardless of the method of hydromorphone administration. Because no dogs vomited, a particular administration method cannot be recommended.

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Use of locking-loop pigtail nephrostomy catheters in dogs and cats

Results of a review of medical records for 16 cats and 4 dogs suggest that placement of locking-loop pigtail nephrostomy catheters is a safe, effective, and well tolerated method for achieving renal pelvis decompression through temporary urinary diversion. Catheters were placed percutaneously with ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance or via a ventral midline laparotomy with fluoroscopic guidance. Reasons for catheter placement were ureterolithiasis (15 kidneys), ureteral stricture (3), malignant obstruction (2), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (2). Catheters remained in place for a median of 7 days (range, 1 to 28 days). Catheter-associated complications included urine leakage (n = 1) and accidental dislodgement (1).

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Treatment of intestinal pythiosis in a dog

A 1.5-year-old dog was examined because of anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. During exploratory laparotomy, mesenteric lymphadenopathy and thickening of the ileocecalcolic junction and transverse colon were identified, and the ileocecal-colic junction was resected. Results of histologic examination and a serum ELISA were diagnostic for gastrointestinal Pythium insidiosum infection. The dog was treated with itraconazole and terbinafine, but the colonic lesion progressed, and subtotal colectomy was performed. The dog received 3 doses of a pythiosis vaccine, and treatment with itraconazole and terbinafine was continued, along with parenteral and enteral nutrition. Six months after treatment, the dog had a normal serum ELISA titer.

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Total scapulectomy for the treatment of chondrosarcoma in a cat

A 10-year-old cat was admitted for treatment of a mass affecting the right scapula. A firm soft tissue mass was located over the craniolateral aspect of the scapula; the mass extended close to the shoulder joint but did not cause lameness. Examination of a biopsy specimen indicated chondrosarcoma, and total scapulectomy was performed to allow wide excision of the tumor. Weight bearing on the affected limb was tolerated 12 hours after surgery, and limb function was considered excellent 6 months after surgery. In addition, the owner reported that the cat was able to jump and play normally, and no recurrence of the tumor was evident 6 months after surgery. Findings indicated that total scapulectomy can be associated with an excellent outcome in cats.

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Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for management of a functional adrenal tumor in a cat

A 9-year-old cat was examined because of persistent hypertension. Mild hypokalemia, high serum creatine kinase activity, high serum aldosterone concentration, and low plasma renin activity consistent with hyperaldosteronism were identified, along with evidence of hyperparathyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a markedly enlarged left adrenal gland and 2 nodules in the right thyroid and parathyroid glands. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed concurrent with right thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. The hypercalcemia and hypertension resolved after surgery, and the cat survived for 44 months after adrenalectomy with no signs of recurrent hyperaldosteronism or hyperadrenocorticism.

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