In This Issue—December 1, 2012

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JAVMA News

Experts with a national wildlife program investigate animal deaths, conduct disease surveillance, and improve our understanding of species native to North America. An impasse between federal authorities and border inspectors continues over whether it's safe enough to conduct inspections at a facility in Mexico.

See page 1392

Letters to the Editor

See page 1426

What Is Your Diagnosis?

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See pages 1429, 1433

What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis?

See page 1437

Anesthesia Case of the Month

See page 1441

Animal Behavior Case of the Month

See page 1445

Pathology in Practice

See page 1449

timely topics in nutrition

Commercial diets and recipes for home-prepared diets recommended for dogs with cancer

Owners of dogs with cancer will often opt to prepare food for their dogs. Importantly, currently available recipes for home-prepared diets intended for dogs with cancer are invariably nutritionally inadequate.

See page 1453

Use of and satisfaction with a clinical behavior service in a companion animal specialty referral practice

The availability of veterinary behavior services may result in recruitment of clients to a specialty referral center and clients' experience with a veterinary behavior service may increase their likelihood of visiting other specialty practices within the same hospital, according to results of a new study. In the study, owners of dogs and cats visiting the Behavior Medicine Clinic at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for the first time were surveyed. Overall, 68% had never visited the Veterinary Medical Center for any other specialty service, and 87% reported they would likely bring their pet to another specialty service on the basis of their experience with the Behavior Medicine Clinic.

See page 1463

Prevalence of seizures in cats after head trauma

Posttraumatic seizures can develop after head trauma as a result of traumatic brain injury. Results of a new study suggest that the likelihood of posttraumatic seizures developing in cats with mild or moderate head trauma is low; however, the authors recommend that veterinarians monitor all cats with a history of head trauma for development of secondary epilepsy. In the study, 52 cats with a history of mild (n = 43) or moderate (9) head trauma were followed up for at least 2 years. None of the cats developed seizures during the follow-up period, but the calculated 95% confidence interval for prevalence of seizures in cats after head injury was 0% to 5.6%.

See page 1467

Long-term outcome of cats and dogs with acute kidney injury treated with intermittent hemodialysis

Intermittent hemodialysis has been used to treat dogs and cats with acute kidney injury, but because of the high costs associated with IHD, more information is needed on long-term outcome. In a review of medical records for 42 cats and 93 dogs with acute kidney injury treated with IHD, survival rates were similar to rates reported for human patients. Importantly, although there was a high mortality rate prior to hospital discharge, those patients that survived to discharge had a high probability of surviving > 1 year. The survival rate at the time of hospital discharge was 50% (21/42) for cats and 53% (49/93) for dogs. The 365-day survival rate was 38% (16/42) for cats and 33% (31/93) for dogs.

See page 1471

Seizures following head trauma in dogs

Authors of a review of medical records for 259 dogs evaluated because of head trauma at The Ohio State University between 1999 and 2009 have concluded that dogs with head trauma may develop seizures at a greater rate than dogs in the general population. In the study, 3.5% of dogs with head trauma developed seizures while hospitalized and 6.8% of dogs with head trauma for which follow-up information was available developed seizures after hospital discharge. By comparison, the epilepsy rate for all dogs examined at the hospital was 1.4%. Dogs that developed in-hospital seizures were significantly more likely to have been hit by a car or suffered acceleration-deceleration injury.

See page 1479

Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in client-owned ferrets

Cardiac disease reportedly is commonly diagnosed in ferrets, but information is lacking on the most common cardiac abnormalities in this species. A review of medical records for 95 ferrets that underwent echocardiography with or without electrocardiography found that valvular regurgitation was the most common echocardiographic abnormality and was diagnosed in 49 of 95 ferrets. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 17 of the 95 ferrets, which included all 4 ferrets that had dilated cardiomyopathy. Of the 65 ferrets that underwent electrocardiography, 26 had atrioventricular block, of which 7 had third-degree atrioventricular block and 6 had congestive heart failure, syncope, or weakness.

See page 1484

Insulin glargine treatment of a ferret with diabetes mellitus

A 7.5-year-old spayed female ferret was evaluated because of weight loss despite a good appetite. On physical examination, the ferret was thin and bruised easily, and serum biochemical analysis revealed hyperglycemia. A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was made, and the ferret was treated with insulin glargine (0.5 U) SC. Blood glucose concentration was monitored every 2 hours for 24 hours, at which time the concentration was nearly within reference limits. The owner continued insulin glargine administration at the same dose every 12 hours, and after 77 days of treatment, the ferret's weight was considered normal and blood glucose concentration was within reference limits.

See page 1490

Bilateral lumbar hernias in a domestic shorthair cat

A 4-month-old female domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of bilateral, subcutaneous, lumbar masses that were presumed to be the kidneys. Physical examination revealed 2 mobile, 3 × 3-cm, bilaterally symmetric masses in the dorsolateral lumbar region. Abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, and CT confirmed that the cat had bilateral body wall defects with renal herniation. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and the kidneys were repositioned, the body wall defects were repaired, and bilateral nephropexy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. There were no perioperative complications.

See page 1495

Effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance on purchase price of Thoroughbreds at 2-year-old in-training sales

In a study of 51 Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale and trained at a single training center in Florida prior to resale at a 2-year-old in-training sale, the 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price, distance galloped within 60 days prior to the sale, and speed recorded at the sale. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before the sale, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price. This suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.

See page 1499

Effects of various presale radiographic findings for yearling Thoroughbreds on 2-year-old racing performance

Results of a new study indicate that for yearling Thoroughbreds, presale radiographic detection of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes or hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments are associated with failure to start a race during the 2-year-old racing year. The study involved 397 Thoroughbred yearlings offered for sale at a sales facility in Kentucky. Of the 397 horses, 192 (48%) started in at least 1 race during the 2-year-old racing year. The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 1.78 times as great for horses with forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes, compared with the odds for horses without this finding.

See page 1505

Effect of nutritional plane on health and performance of dairy calves after experimental infection with Cryptosporidium parvum

Calves fed a higher plane of nutrition are better able to maintain hydration, have faster resolution of diarrhea, grow faster, and convert feed with greater efficiency following infection with Cryptosporidium parvum, compared with calves fed a conventional diet, according to results of a new study. In the study, 20 Holstein bull calves were assigned to a higher plane of nutrition (0.30 Mcal intake energy per kilogram of metabolic body weight) or conventional nutrition (0.13 Mcal intake energy per kilogram of metabolic body weight) and were inoculated with C parvum oocysts at 3 days old. Oocyst shedding was not different between groups.

See page 1514

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