In This Issue—March 15, 2012

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JAVMA News

Criminal prosecutions and imminent regulatory changes may deter horse owners from inflicting pain on their animals to produce an exaggerated gait. More than 100 veterinarians in food animal, mixed animal, or public practice will receive government help to reduce their educational debt.

See page 632

Letters to the Editor

See page 659

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See page 663

ECG of the Month

See page 668

Animal Behavior Case of the Month

See page 673

Pathology in Practice

See pages 677, 681

Book Reviews: For Your Library

See page 684

Book Reviews: For Your Client's Library

See page 691

2011 JAVMA Reviewers

See page 694

Evaluation of a single dose of immune plasma for treatment of canine parvovirus infection

Administration of canine parvovirus (CPV)-immune plasma (ie, plasma obtained from dogs that have recovered from CPV infection and have high titers of anti-CPV antibodies) has been recommended for adjunctive treatment of dogs with CPV enteritis. However, results of a new study question whether such treatment is truly efficacious. In the study, 14 dogs with CPV enteritis were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of CPV-immune plasma (12 mL, IV) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution within 18 hours after hospital admission. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to neutrophil or monocyte counts, magnitude of viremia, weight change, number of days of hospitalization, or cost of treatment.

See page 700

A systematic review of the safety of potassium bromide in dogs

Because KBr is commonly used for treatment of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs, obtaining information on the safety of KBr in dogs is critical. In a systematic review of the published literature, 111 references reporting safety information relevant to KBr were identified. Reversible neurologic signs were the most consistently reported toxicoses and were generally associated with adjunctive KBr treatment or high serum bromide concentrations. Overall, results suggested that potassium bromide is not an appropriate choice for treatment of every dog and that practitioners should tailor therapeutic regimens and clinical monitoring to each dog. Abrupt dietary changes or fluid therapy may compromise seizure control or increase the likelihood of adverse events.

See page 705

Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation of intramural ectopic ureters in female dogs

Results of a new study suggest that cystoscopic-guided laser ablation of ectopic ureters (CLA-EU) may provide an effective, safe, and minimally invasive alternative for treatment of intramural ectopic ureters in female dogs. In the study, 30 incontinent female dogs with intramural ectopic ureters (18 bilateral and 12 unilateral) underwent transurethral CLA-EU to relocate the ectopic ureteral orifice cranially into the urinary bladder. At the time of last follow-up, 14 of 30 (47%) dogs had urinary continence. For the remaining 16 dogs, medical management, transurethral bulking-agent injection, or placement of a hydraulic occluder was effective in 3, 2, and 4 dogs, respectively, improving the overall urinary continence rate to 77% (23/30 dogs).

See page 716

Salmonella enterica shedding in hospitalized horses

A retrospective cohort study involving 59 horses that shed Salmonella enterica while hospitalized and 162 horses negative for S enterica shedding was performed to evaluate the potential association between S enterica shedding in hospitalized horses and the risk of diarrhea among stablemates and to characterize gastrointestinal-related illness and death following discharge. The occurrence of diarrhea among stablemates of formerly hospitalized horses was not associated with S enterica shedding during hospitalization but was associated with oral antimicrobial treatment during hospitalization. Salmonella enterica shedding during hospitalization was not associated with risk of death or gastrointestinal-related illness ≤ 6 months after discharge.

See page 726

Clinical signs and endoscopic findings in horses with nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome

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In an effort to help practitioners identify horses with nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome (NCS) and select appropriate treatment, medical records of 239 horses (118 with and 121 without NCS) that had undergone endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway were reviewed. Nasal discharge was associated with acute inflammation of the pharynx and larynx. Exercise intolerance was associated with circumferential pharyngeal lesions. Respiratory noise was associated with chronic scarring of the pharynx, a combination of pharyngeal and laryngeal scarring, and circumferential scarring of the pharynx. Respiratory distress was associated with acute inflammation of all portions of the airway. On the other hand, cough did not have any significant association with NCS.

See page 734

Exostoses on the palmar or plantar aspect of the diaphysis of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone in horses

Medical records of 16 horses with an exostosis on the palmar or plantar cortex of the third metacarpal bone or third metatarsal bone were reviewed. Nine horses (group A) had unilateral lameness of the affected limb that was alleviated with local or perineural analgesia; 7 (group B) had inconsistent lameness of the affected limb. The exostosis was located between the middle and distal third of the bone in all horses. Desmopathy or peritendinous fibrosis (or both) of the suspensory ligament was identified in 6 horses. All horses in group A returned to full function after nonsurgical or surgical treatment. Horses in group B did not receive any treatment or underwent nonsurgical management; lameness did not recur in any of these horses.

See page 740

Hypoaldosteronism without hypoadrenocorticism in an alpaca

Primary hypoaldosteronism without concurrent hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in an 8-year-old female alpaca with an acute onset of weakness progressing to recumbency within 6 hours after onset. Hematologic testing at admission revealed profound hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and acidemia with blood potassium concentration within reference limits. Further diagnostic testing, including an ACTH stimulation test, led to a diagnosis of aldosterone deficiency in conjunction with normal cortisol production. The animal responded well to IV polyionic fluid administration with sodium supplementation and was managed successfully long term with free access to saline (0.9% NaCl) solution in addition to water ad libitum.

See page 748

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