In This Issue—February 15, 2012

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JAVMA News

Crops, livestock, wildlife, and global trade carry microbial risks to humans, and global health professionals are trying to identify patterns and reduce harm. And federal officials have halted grants for new studies involving chimpanzees since a review found little need for the animals as a research model.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

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Pathology in Practice

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DISATER MEDICINE

Injuries and illnesses among urban search-and-rescue dogs deployed to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake

Many of the urban search-and-rescue dogs that deployed to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake developed acute injuries and illnesses; however, most of these injuries and illnesses were minor and all had resolved within 14 days.

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Use of dexmedetomidine as a preanesthetic prior to general anesthesia in cats

Results of a new randomized, controlled trial suggest that dexmedetomidine may be an effective preanesthetic in cats requiring general anesthesia. In the study, 184 cats were given dexmedetomidine or a placebo prior to anesthetic induction with ketamine or propofol. Administration of dexmedetomidine significantly increased the intubation success rate following anesthetic induction with ketamine, significantly reduced the median dose of propofol needed for anesthetic induction, and significantly reduced the isoflurane concentration required for anesthesia maintenance. Postoperatively, fewer cats receiving dexmedetomidine required rescue analgesia, and cats had lower pain scores for at least 2 hours after surgery.

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Dietary energy intake and physical activity in dogs undergoing a weight-loss program

Results of a new study indicate that in obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight-loss program, increased physical activity is associated with higher energy intake. However, dogs in the study that were more active were still able to maintain their weight-loss goals, despite the higher energy intake. The study involved 35 client-owned dogs fed a therapeutic diet to maintain weight loss of approximately 2% each week. Number of steps taken daily, as recorded by collar-mounted pedometers, was used as a measure of activity. Mean ± SD daily energy intake per unit of metabolic body weight (kg0.75) was significantly greater for active dogs (53.6 ± 15.2 kcal/kg0.75) than for inactive dogs (42.2 ± 9.7 kcal/kg0.75).

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Pneumoesophagography in dogs with spirocercosis

Pneumoesophagography shows promise as a cost-effective and safe initial diagnostic procedure for further evaluation and characterization of suspected caudal esophageal lesions, according to results of a new study. In the study, 30 dogs with spirocercosis underwent thoracic radiography and endoscopy. The esophagus was then inflated with air, and additional radiographs were obtained. Right lateral recumbent pneumoesophagrams allowed for evaluation of the stomach for pathological changes, and pneumoesophagography allowed the mural position and surface characteristics of Spirocerca nodules to be determined. Six of 9 dogs with confirmed malignant disease had an irregular nodule surface suggestive of neoplastic transformation.

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Effect of veterinarian-client-patient interactions on client adherence to dentistry and surgery recommendations

Research on determinants of client adherence to veterinarian recommendations is limited. However, results of a new study suggest that veterinarian use of a relationship-centered care approach, characterized as a collaborative partnership between the veterinarian and client with provision of clear recommendations and effective communication of the rationale for the recommendations, has positive implications for client adherence. For the study, videotaped veterinarian-client-patient interactions containing a dentistry recommendation, surgery recommendation, or both were reviewed. The odds for adherence were 7 times as great for clients who received a clear recommendation, compared with clients who received an ambiguous recommendation.

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Surveillance of bacterial contamination in small animal veterinary hospitals

Results of a surveillance study of bacterial contamination on the surfaces of 4 pieces of standard equipment (a cage door, stethoscope, rectal thermometer, and mouth gag) in 10 small animal veterinary hospitals reveal that contamination of surfaces in small animal veterinary hospitals with multidrug-resistant enterococci is a potential concern. Swab samples collected from each hospital during 3 visits at 4-month intervals were plated onto media for culture of enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae. Contamination with Enterobacteriaceae was rare, but enterococci (primarily Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus hirae) were isolated from cage doors in 7 hospitals, from stethoscopes in 7, from thermometers in 6, and from a mouth gag in 1.

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Transitional cell carcinoma involving the ductus deferens in a dog

A 12-year-old male dog with a 1-year history of recurring urinary tract infections was examined. Previous treatment with antimicrobials selected on the basis of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing resulted in clinical improvement, but clinical signs recurred within days after treatment was discontinued. Ultrasound examination revealed a tubular, fluid-filled structure dorsal to the bladder, which extended from the mid-level of the bladder to the cranial pole of the prostate. Dilation of the right ductus deferens was observed during exploratory laparotomy, and histologic examination revealed transitional cell carcinoma involving the right ductus deferens and prostate. The dog survived for 9 months after surgery.

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Unusual perianesthetic malignant hyperthermia in a dog

A 7-month-old dog with lower motor neuron tetraparesis developed moderate hypercarbia and mild hyperthermia when anesthetized with isoflurane and developed severe malignant hyperthermia when anesthetized with injectable anesthetic agents. Genetic testing did not reveal a mutation of the RYR1 gene, the gene that mediates calcium-release channels in skeletal muscle. Given the clinical features and the fact that other neuromuscular disorders were ruled out, a genetic channelopathy involving the skeletal muscle ion channels was suspected. Findings emphasize that dogs with genetic muscle disorders should be considered at risk for perianesthetic malignant hyperthermia, even in the absence of an RYR1 gene mutation.

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Acute compartment syndrome in a cow following biopsy of a skeletal muscle-associated hemangiosarcoma

Multiple attempts to obtain a biopsy specimen from a 6-year-old Holstein cow examined because of chronic lameness and swelling near the left stifle joint resulted in acute compartment syndrome of the femoral compartment (tensor fasciae latae and biceps femoris muscles) and lateral tibial compartment (cranial tibial and peroneus tertius muscles) with associated sciatic nerve paralysis. Surgical decompression via tensor fasciae latae and biceps femoris incision resolved the sciatic nerve paralysis. Following surgery, the cow developed signs of increased respiratory effort and was subsequently euthanized. Metastatic hemangiosarcoma was confirmed at necropsy; the primary tumor was the mass within the biceps femoris muscle.

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