In This Issue—December 15, 2011

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JAVMA News

Business and personal considerations have led many veterinarians away from solo practice toward multiple-veterinarian clinics, particularly in companion animal–exclusive practice. A mystery illness causing lesions, hair loss, and death in ringed seals along Alaskan shores may be spreading among other Arctic marine wildlife.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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Pathology in Practice

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Book Reviews: For Your Library

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Effect of a heat and moisture exchanger on heat loss in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs

Various active and passive methods for maintaining core body temperature in dogs undergoing anesthesia have been developed. Results of a new study, however, suggest that use of a passive heat and moisture exchanger in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for elective orthopedic surgery does not facilitate maintenance of body temperature during the procedure. The study involved 60 privately owned dogs weighing at least 15 kg (33 lb), and the HME device that was evaluated consisted of a hygroscopic filter placed between the endotracheal tube and the Y piece of the anesthesia circuit. As body weight increased, the change in esophageal temperature decreased and the temperature nadir increased. However, no other significant relationships were identified.

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Risk factors for acquisition of oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs

Results of a new study highlight the importance of speciating all Staphylococcus isolates obtained from dogs and selecting antimicrobial treatments on the basis of results of susceptibility testing. For the study, medical records of 225 dogs with S schleiferi infection were reviewed. Allergic dermatitis was the most common underlying disease (111/225 dogs), and ears (102 [45%]) and skin (95 [42%]) were the most common sources of isolates. Of the 225 isolates, 129 (57%) were oxacillin resistant. Coagulase-negative isolates were more likely to be oxacillin resistant than were coagulase-positive isolates. Recent (ie, within the preceding 30 days) patient treatments with penicillin or cephalosporin were risk factors for oxacillin resistance.

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Lift laparoscopy in dogs and cats

With conventional laparoscopic surgery, positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum is induced to allow visualization of the abdominal contents. Recent findings, however, suggest that lift laparoscopy, which involves manually lifting the abdominal wall to allow visualization during the laparoscopic procedure, may be a viable alternative in instances when creation of positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum is not desirable. In a study involving 7 dogs and 5 cats undergoing abdominal laparoscopy, lift laparoscopy was successfully performed in 10 of the 12 patients, and no adverse effects were noted with the use of this technique. However, in 1 dog and 1 cat, conversion to open laparotomy was necessary because of poor visualization.

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Complications from residual adnexal structures following enucleation in three dogs

A 3-year-old neutered male Lhasa Apso was evaluated because of chronic swelling at an 8-month-old enucleation site, a 10-year-old spayed female Japanese Chin was evaluated because of chronic swelling at a 6-year-old enucleation site and chronic discharge from a 1-year-old enucleation site, and a 7-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier was evaluated because of chronic discharge from a 3-month-old enucleation site. In all 3 dogs, surgical exploration revealed substantial retention of adnexal remnants within the original enucleation sites, highlighting the need for complete removal of the ocular adnexa to minimize the risk of long-term complications following enucleation.

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Severe enteric disease associated with Eimeria furonis infection in ferrets

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Three unrelated, densely populated, dynamic ferret populations were examined because of severe outbreaks of enteric coccidiosis. During each outbreak, the morbidity rate was high, there were an appreciable number of deaths, and ferrets of all ages were affected. Affected individuals had acute diarrhea; other clinical signs included dehydration, weakness, lethargy, and weight loss. Fecal examination revealed sporadic and inconsistent shedding of coccidial oocysts. Necropsy revealed moderate to marked atrophic enteritis associated with numerous coccidial life stages. Sporulated oocysts isolated from feces were consistent with Eimeria furonis. Supportive care and treatment with sulfadimethoxine was palliative, but failed to completely eradicate the infection.

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Effects of high incubation temperatures on results of protozoal culture and real-time PCR testing for Tritrichomonas foetus

Results of an in vitro study suggest that for samples collected into a self-contained culture media system for Tritrichomonas foetus testing, high storage and transport temperatures may adversely affect culture results but may not alter results of PCR testing. In the study, 2 strains of T foetus were inoculated into dual-chamber media pouches that were then incubated at 37.0°C (98.6°F), 46.1°C (115.0°F), or 54.4°C (130.0°F) for 1, 3, 6, or 24 hours. Tritrichomonas foetus was detectable microscopically in pouches incubated at 37.0°C regardless of exposure time, but was detectable after only 1 and 3 hours of incubation at 46.1°C and after only 1 hour of incubation at 54.4°C. Testing with a real-time PCR assay yielded positive results for all samples.

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Effect of a nutritional reconditioning program for thin dairy cattle

Feeding market dairy cows improves body condition and carcass quality, according to results of a new study, but lame cows and cows seropositive for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus that have signs of lymphoma might be poor candidates for reconditioning. In the study, 31 adult Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to a control (immediate slaughter) group or a 28-day or 56-day feeding group. Body condition score and adjusted preliminary yield grade were significantly increased in both feeding groups, and body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and ribeye area were significantly increased after 56 days, but not after 28 days. Net loss was $71.32/cow and $112.80/cow for the 28-day and 56-day feeding groups, respectively.

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