In This Issue—November 15, 2011

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JAVMA News

A court ruling favored a compounding pharmacy and denied regulators' request for an injunction against the company's use of bulk pharmaceutical ingredients when compounding animal drugs. And at press time, updates to the AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, which provide standards for procedures and agents across many species, were in their final stages of editing.

See page 1266

Letters to the Editor

See page 1288

What Is Your Diagnosis?

See page 1291

Theriogenology Question of the Month

See page 1295

Animal Behavior Case of the Month

See page 1300

Pathology in Practice

See page 1305

special report

Executive summary of phase 2 of the Bayer veterinary care usage study

The second phase of the Bayer veterinary care usage study consisted of a national study of companion animal practice owners. It was designed to measure visit trends and their impact at the practice level, measure current use or interest in use by veterinarians of certain service concepts, identify factors common to practices that had had an increase in pet visits, and identify opportunities for building patient traffic.

See page 1311

Epidemiology of struvite uroliths in ferrets

Results of a study of 408 ferrets with uroliths (including 272 with struvite uroliths) suggested that struvite is the predominant mineral found in uroliths in ferrets. Male ferrets were 3.6 times as likely to develop struvite uroliths as were female ferrets, and neutered ferrets were 2.3 times as likely to develop struvite uroliths as were sexually intact ferrets. Ferrets between 2 and 4 years old were 8.8 times as likely and ferrets between 4 and 7 years old were 6.7 times as likely to develop struvite uroliths as were ferrets between 6 months and 2 years old. Ferrets living in the Northeast were 9.4 times as likely to develop struvite uroliths as were ferrets living in the West. However, a seasonal distribution was not identified.

See page 1319

Mass-to-splenic volume ratio and splenic weight as a percentage of body weight in dogs with splenic masses

Currently, there is no definitive method to differentiate splenic hemangiosarcoma from benign splenic masses at the time of surgery. Thus, owners are potentially faced with deciding whether to proceed with surgery without prognostic information. Results of a review of medical records for 65 dogs that underwent splenectomy because of a splenic mass suggested that two measures may be useful in differentiating between hemangiosarcoma and benign lesions in dogs with splenic masses. Thirty of the dogs had hemangiosarcoma, 10 had other types of malignant masses, and 25 had benign masses. Dogs with benign masses had higher mean mass-to-splenic volume ratio and higher mean splenic weight as a percentage of body weight than did dogs with hemangiosarcoma.

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Use of intravenous lipid emulsion to treat ivermectin toxicosis in a Border Collie

A 2-year-old dog was treated with IV lipid emulsion after ingesting an equine ivermectin-containing anthelmintic paste (6 mg/kg [2.73 mg/lb]). Neurologic evaluation revealed that the dog was ataxic and had mydriasis with bilaterally absent menace responses and pupillary light reflexes. In addition to supportive care, the dog was treated with ILE on the basis of previous evidence supporting its use for treatment of toxicoses associated with lipid-soluble agents. The dog was discharged from the hospital 48 hours after admission and was clinically normal within 4 days after ivermectin ingestion. Results of serial measurement of serum ivermectin concentration supported a previously proposed lipid sink mechanism of action.

See page 1328

Tissue diffusion following administration of a low palmar nerve block in horses

Results of a new study suggest that injection sites should be aseptically prepared prior to administration of low palmar nerve blocks in horses, because of the risk of inadvertent intrasynovial injection. In 9 horses (18 limbs), a 50:50 dilution of mepivacaine hydrochloride and iohexol was administered bilaterally to affect the medial and lateral palmar and palmar metacarpal nerves (4 sites), and lateral radiographic views were obtained. Mean extents of proximal and total contrast medium diffusion were 4.0 and 6.6 cm, respectively, for the palmar metacarpal nerves and 4.3 and 7.1 cm, respectively, for the palmar nerves. Contrast medium was detected in the metacarpophalangeal joint or within the digital flexor tendon sheath in 8 and 7 limbs, respectively.

See page 1334

Agreement between Petco2 and Paco2 and between Spo2 and Sao2 in conscious foals

Arterial blood gas analysis remains the gold standard for evaluating blood oxygenation and patient ventilation, but obtaining an arterial blood sample from foals can be difficult. In a study involving 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals, agreement between indirect measurements (ie, end-tidal partial pressure of exhaled carbon dioxide [Petco2] and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin measured by pulse oximetry [Spo2]) and direct measurements (ie, arterial partial pressure of CO2 [Paco2] and calculated oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood [Sao2]) of these variables was assessed. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between Paco2 and Petco2 and a moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between Sao2 and Spo2.

See page 1341

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