Representations of the veterinary profession in nonfiction children's books

Sandra F. Amass Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and Veterinary Administration, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Sandra F. Amass in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD, DABVP

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate how the veterinary profession is represented in nonfiction children's books and determine whether representations reflect the current veterinary profession or the demographics of the United States.

Design—Survey.

Sample—Covers of 46 nonfiction children's books and contents of 45 nonfiction children's books.

Procedures—Book covers and book contents (images and text) were evaluated for representations of veterinarians and to identify settings, clients, technology and equipment, and animals portrayed. Book contents were additionally evaluated to identify specialties and career opportunities specifically mentioned in the text.

Results—Book covers predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. Book contents predominantly portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals. Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were mentioned in the text of 29 of 45 (64.4%) books.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonfiction children's book covers that focused on the veterinary profession portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than in the current or predicted US population. With the exception of Asians, books collectively represented lower or similar percentages of underrepresented minorities, compared with the US population. Veterinarians are encouraged to select books for individual children that portray veterinarians with whom the children can identify.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate how the veterinary profession is represented in nonfiction children's books and determine whether representations reflect the current veterinary profession or the demographics of the United States.

Design—Survey.

Sample—Covers of 46 nonfiction children's books and contents of 45 nonfiction children's books.

Procedures—Book covers and book contents (images and text) were evaluated for representations of veterinarians and to identify settings, clients, technology and equipment, and animals portrayed. Book contents were additionally evaluated to identify specialties and career opportunities specifically mentioned in the text.

Results—Book covers predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. Book contents predominantly portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals. Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were mentioned in the text of 29 of 45 (64.4%) books.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonfiction children's book covers that focused on the veterinary profession portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than in the current or predicted US population. With the exception of Asians, books collectively represented lower or similar percentages of underrepresented minorities, compared with the US population. Veterinarians are encouraged to select books for individual children that portray veterinarians with whom the children can identify.

The veterinary profession faces a shortage of healthcare professionals, especially in the areas of rural veterinary medicine and veterinary public health.1–3 Moreover, the profession lacks racial-ethnic diversity and is moving towards gender imbalance.4–12 In 2009, 50.9% of US veterinarians were female.4 In contrast, in 2010, 76.23% of applicants to schools and colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States were female.12 To succeed, the veterinary profession must improve efforts to market the breadth of career opportunities across the profession to a diverse population of future veterinarians.13–17

Representations of the veterinary profession in children's literature are important because children's books are 1 tool that the veterinary profession can use to communicate the breadth of opportunities in the veterinary profession and to encourage children from groups underrepresented in the profession to pursue careers in veterinary medicine. People represented in books become role models for children,18,19 and children tend to experience various professions vicariously through reading.20 Books also influence the attitudes that children form regarding occupational roles of men and women.18,a Book covers are especially important because children make decisions about which books to read, in part, on the basis of the cover illustrations showing people with whom they can identify.21,a

The present study was designed to evaluate how the veterinary profession is currently represented in nonfiction children's literature. Specifically, the purposes of the study reported here were to determine whether representations of the veterinary profession in currently available nonfiction children's books reflect the current state of the profession and whether veterinarians portrayed in these books reflect the current or future demographics of the United States. The hypotheses were that nonfiction children's books do not accurately reflect the current veterinary profession and that veterinarians portrayed in such books do not reflect the current or predicted future demographics of the United States.

Materials and Methods

The Amazon.com website was searched to identify currently available nonfiction books appropriate for children between 4 and 12 years old. The search was conducted on April 21, 2010, with the website's search engine and the search term “juvenile nonfiction and veterinarian.” Books were eliminated from the study population if they were not available for purchase, were duplicates, were in any language other than English, or did not appear to be relevant (ie, the book topic was not veterinary medicine).

Books identified as appropriate for the study were purchased, unless cost prohibited the purchase, and the book cover and contents (ie, text and pictures) were evaluated to identify depictions of veterinarians. For each veterinarian identified, gender (male vs female), race-ethnicity, and attire of the veterinarian (ie, examination coat, surgical scrubs or gown, coveralls, or street clothes) was recorded, along with whether the veterinarian was portrayed as working alone or as part of a team, the setting where the veterinarian was working (ie, inside a veterinary clinic or hospital, at a farm or outdoors, outside a veterinary clinic or hospital, at a zoo, or in a laboratory), whether a client was pictured or described in the text (yes vs no), whether specific veterinary-related technology or equipment (including, but not limited to, stethoscopes, radiographs or radiographic equipment, scales, thermometers, otoscopes, ophthalmoscopes, microscopes, ultrasound machines, endoscopes, and electrocardiographs) was pictured or described, and whether an animal was pictured or described. In addition, book contents, but not book covers, were evaluated to determine whether veterinary specialties or career opportunities in the veterinary profession were specifically mentioned in the text. Race-ethnicity was categorized as Caucasian-White, URM, or other on the basis of appearance of the veterinarian in photographs and illustrations on the cover or in the contents of the book. The URM category was further divided as African American–Black, Asian, and Latino-Hispanic. Veterinarian depictions for which race-ethnicity could not be determined on the basis of visual cues were classified as other. Books were evaluated as a single group initially. Books were then divided into those published on or before December 31, 2000, and those published on or after January 1, 2001.

Statistical analysis—Descriptive statistics were calculated. To determine whether representations of veterinarians in nonfiction children's books had changed in the past decade, the Fisher exact χ2 test was used to compare results for the 2 subgroups of books. All analyses were performed with standard software.b Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant.

Results

The initial search identified 56 books. However, 10 books were eliminated from the study because they were not available for purchase (n = 4), were duplicates (2), were written in a language other than English (3), or did not appear to be relevant (1). The remaining 46 books22–67 were included in the study. However, 1 book34 was cost-prohibitive at the time books were purchased for the study. Because an image of the cover was available, this book was included in the analysis of book covers, but it was excluded from the analysis of book contents.

Representations of veterinarians on book covers—A veterinarian was depicted on the cover of 36 of the 46 (78.3%) books. Book covers that did not depict a veterinarian showed animals, children, clients, or some combination of these.

Of the 36 book covers that depicted 1 or more veterinarians, 22 (61.1%) pictured only a female veterinarian, 11 (30.6%) pictured only a male veterinarian, and 3 (8.3%) pictured veterinarians of both genders. Overall, significantly (P = 0.017) more book covers pictured a female veterinarian (25/36 [69.4%]) than a male veterinarian (14/36 [38.9%]). Collectively, of the 42 veterinarians pictured on book covers, 16 (38%) were male and 26 (62%) were female.

Of the 36 book covers that depicted 1 or more veterinarians, 27 (75%) depicted a Caucasian-White veterinarian, 5 (13.9%) depicted an African American–Black veterinarian, and 3 (8.3%) depicted an Asian veterinarian, but none depicted a Latino-Hispanic veterinarian (for 3 [8.3%] book covers, race-ethnicity of the veterinarian was classified as other). Overall, significantly (P < 0.001) more book covers depicted Caucasian-White veterinarians than URM veterinarians (8/36 [22.2%]). Percentages of book covers that depicted African American–Black, Asian, and Latino-Hispanic veterinarians did not differ significantly. Significantly (P < 0.001) more book covers from books published by the end of 2000 pictured Caucasian-White veterinarians (14/15 [93.3%]) than URM veterinarians (1/15 [6.6%]). Collectively, of the 42 veterinarians pictured on book covers, 31 (74%) were Caucasian-White, 5 (12%) were African American-Black, 3 (7%) were Asian, 0 were Latino-Hispanic, and 3 (7%) were other.

Overall, significantly (P < 0.009) more book covers depicted veterinarians wearing examination coats (22/36 [61.1%]) than surgical scrubs or gowns (10/36 [27.8%]), coveralls (2/36 [5.6%]), or street clothes (5/36 [13.9%]), and significantly (P = 0.024) more book covers depicted veterinarians wearing surgical scrubs or gowns than coveralls or street clothes. For books published by the end of 2000, significantly (P = 0.035) more book covers depicted veterinarians dressed in examination coats (7/15 [46.7%]) than coveralls (1/15 [6.7%]), but no other significant differences were detected. For books published after 2000, significantly (P < 0.029) more covers depicted veterinarians dressed in examination coats (15/21 [71.4%]) than in any other attire, and significantly (P = 0.045) more covers depicted veterinarians dressed in surgical scrubs or gowns (7/21 [33.3%]) than in coveralls (1/21 [4.8%]) or street clothes (1/21 [4.8%]).

Overall, significantly (P < 0.001) more book covers depicted a veterinarian working alone (34/36 [94.4%]) than working as part of a team (2/36 [5.6%]). Similar results were found for books published by the end of 2000 and books published after 2000.

Of the 46 book covers, significantly (P < 0001) more depicted a setting inside a veterinary clinic or hospital (24/46 [52.2%]) than a farm or outdoor setting (9/46 [19.6%]), a setting outside a veterinary clinic (1/46 [2.2%]), or a zoo setting (1/46 [2.2%]), and significantly (P = 0.015) more depicted a farm or outdoor setting than a setting outside a veterinary clinic or a zoo setting. For books published by the end of 2000, significantly (P = 0.003) more covers had a hospital setting (10/19 [52.6%]) than a setting outside a clinic (0/19 [0%]) or a zoo setting (1/19 [5.3%]). For books published after 2000, significantly (P < 0.008) more covers depicted a setting inside a veterinary clinic or hospital (14/27 [51.9%]) than a farm or outdoor setting (4/27 [14.8%]), a setting outside a clinic (1/27 [3.7%]), or a zoo setting (0/27 [0%]).

Overall, significantly (P < 0.001) more book covers did not picture a client (38/46 [82.6%]) than pictured a client (8/46 [17.4%]).

Technology or equipment was represented on 50% (23/46) of the book covers. Technologies and equipment that were represented included stethoscopes (18/46 [39.1%]), otoscopes (2/46 [4.3%]), ophthalmoscopes (2/46 [4.3%]), and a microscope (1/46 [2.2%]). Technologies and equipment represented on covers of the 19 books published by the end of 2000 included stethoscopes (7 [36.8%]), otoscopes (2 [10.5%]), ophthalmoscopes (2 [10.5%]), and a microscope (1 [5.3%]). Technologies and equipment represented on covers of the 27 books published after 2000 was limited to stethoscopes (11 [40.7%]).

One or more animals were represented on the cover of all 46 books. Animals represented were dogs (28/46 [60.9%]), cats (7/46 [15.2%]), horses (3/46 [6.5%]), cows (2/46 [4.3%]), a sheep (1/46 [2.2%]), a potbellied pig (1/46 [2.2%]), and a goat (1/46 [2.2%]). Ten of the 46 (21.7%) book covers pictured an exotic, wild, or zoo animal. Overall and in the group of books published after 2000, dogs were shown on book covers significantly (P < 0.002) more often than was any other species. In books published by the end of 2000, dogs were shown on book covers significantly (P < 0.038) more often than were all other species, except for exotic, wild, and zoo animals.

Representations of veterinarians in book contents—A veterinarian was depicted in the contents (text and illustrations) of all 45 books evaluated. Ten of the 45 (22.2%) books pictured or mentioned only female veterinarians in their contents, 6 (13.3%) pictured or mentioned only male veterinarians in their contents, and 29 (64.4%) pictured or mentioned both male and female veterinarians in their contents. Overall, 86.7% (39/45) of the books pictured or mentioned a female veterinarian in their contents, and 77.8% (35/45) pictured or mentioned a male veterinarian. Collectively, of the 315 veterinarians pictured or mentioned in book contents, 167 (53%) were male and 148 (47%) were female.

Significantly (P < 0.001) more books overall pictured or mentioned Caucasian-White veterinarians (40/45 [88.9%]) in their contents than pictured or mentioned URM veterinarians (21/45 [46.7%]). Overall, African American–Black veterinarians (14/45 [31.1%]) were represented in book contents significantly (P < 0.0370) more often than were Latino-Hispanic veterinarians (5/45 [11.1%]), but not significantly more often than were Asian veterinarians (11/45 [24.4%]). For books published after 2000, significantly (P = 0.0385) more depicted African American-Black veterinarians (9/26 [34.6%]) than Latino-Hispanic veterinarians (2/26 [7.7%]) in their contents. Collectively, of the 258 veterinarians depicted in book contents, 205 (79.5%) were Caucasian-White, 21 (8.1%) were African American–Black, 15 (5.8%) were Asian, 6 (2.3%) were Latino-Hispanic, and 11 (4.3%) were other.

Overall, contents of significantly (P < 0.01) more books depicted veterinarians dressed in examination coats (38/45 [84.4%]) than in surgical scrubs or gowns (24/45 [53.3%]), coveralls (12/45 [26.7%]), or street clothes (26/45 [57.8%]), and contents of significantly (P < 0.017) more books depicted veterinarians dressed in surgical scrubs or gowns or street clothes than in coveralls. In the books published by the end of 2000, significantly (P = 0.007) more books depicted veterinarians dressed in examination coats (16/19 [84.2%]) than in coveralls (7/19 [36.8%]). In books published after 2000, significantly (P < 0.034) more books depicted veterinarians dressed in examination coats (22/26 [84.6%]) than surgical scrubs or gowns (14/26 [53.8%]), coveralls (5/26 [19.2%]), or street clothes (13/26 [50%]), and significantly (P < 0.04) more books depicted veterinarians dressed in surgical scrubs or gowns or in street clothes than in coveralls.

Overall, significantly (P < 0.001) more books depicted veterinarians working as part of a team (33/45 [73.3%]) than working alone (12/45 [26.7%]). Similar results were detected for books published by the end of 2000 (P = 0.009) and for books published after 2000 (P = 0.002).

Overall, significantly (P < 0.037) more books represented settings inside a veterinary clinic or hospital (40/45 [88.9%]) than a farm or outdoor setting (31/45 [68.9%]), zoo setting (21/45 [46.7%]), or laboratory setting (13/45 [28.9%]), and significantly (P < 0.001) more depicted settings on a farm, outdoors, or at a zoo than a laboratory setting. In books published by the end of 2000, significantly (P < 0.005) more represented a setting in a veterinary clinic or hospital (17/19 [89.5%]) than a zoo setting (8/19 [42.1%]) or laboratory setting (5/19 [26.3%]), and significantly (P < 0.045) more represented a farm or outdoor setting (15/19 [78.9%]) than a laboratory or zoo setting. In books published after 2000, significantly (P < 0.005) more represented a setting in a veterinary clinic or hospital (23/26 [88.5%]) than a farm or outdoor setting (16/26 [61.5%]), zoo setting (13/26 [50%]), or laboratory setting (8/26 [30.8%]). Other settings represented in the text or illustrations of the 45 books included aquariums (3 [6.7%]), circuses (2 [4.4%]), an animal shelter (1 [2.2%]), a client's home (1 [2.2%]), and a packing plant (1 [2.2%]).

In books published by the end of 2000 and in books published after 2000, significantly (P < 0.001) more represented a client in the text or illustrations than did not represent a client. Overall, 38 of the 45 (84.4%) books represented a client.

Technology and equipment were represented in the contents of all 45 books. Technologies and equipment that were represented included stethoscopes (42 [93.3%]), radiographs (27 [60%]), scales (18 [40%]), thermometers (14 [31.1%]), otoscopes (13 [28.9%]), ophthalmoscopes (11 [24.4%]), microscopes (11 [24.4%]), ultrasound machines (8 [17.8%]), endoscopes (5 [11.1%]), computerized tomography equipment (3 [6.7%]), electrocardiographs (3 [6.7%]), and ventilators (2 [4.4%]). Other technologies and equipment represented in 1 (2.2%) book each were dialysis machine, defibrillator, magnetic resonance imaging equipment, laser equipment, treadmill, biomechanics laboratory, incubator, pulse oximeter, microchip identification, centrifuge, and ultrasonic scaler. Technologies and equipment represented in contents of the 19 books published by the end of 2000 included stethoscopes (17 [89.5%]), radiographs (14 [73.7%]), microscopes (8 [42.1%]), scales (7 [36.8%]), ultrasound machines (5 [26.3%]), otoscopes (4 [21.1%]), ophthalmoscopes (4 [21.1%]), thermometers (3 [15.8%]), electrocardiographs (2 [10.5%]), endoscopes (2 [10.5%]), and computerized tomography equipment (2 [10.5%]). Other technologies and equipment represented in 1 (5.3%) book each published by the end of 2000 were an incubator and ultrasonic scaler. Technologies and equipment represented in contents of the 26 books published after 2000 included stethoscopes (25 [96.2%]), radiographs (13 [50%]), scales (11 [42.3%]), thermometers (11 [42.3%]), microscopes (3 [11.5%]), ultrasound machines (3 [11.5%]), otoscopes (9 [34.6%]), ophthalmoscopes (7 [26.9%]), and endoscopes (3 [11.5%]). Other technologies and equipment represented in 1 (3.8%) book each published after 2000 were electrocardiographs, computerized tomography equipment, dialysis machine, defibrillator, magnetic resonance imaging equipment, lasers, treadmill, biomechanics laboratory, pulse oximeter, microchip identification, and centrifuge. Significantly (P = 0.033) more contents of books published by the end of 2000 represented microscopes, compared with contents of books published after 2000.

Animals were represented in the contents of all 45 books, with dogs (41/45 [91.1%]), cats (40/45 [88.9%]), and exotic, zoo, and wild animals (43/45 [95.6%]) being represented significantly (P < 0.002) more often than were other species. Similar results were detected for books published after 2000 (P < 0.009). For books published by the end of 2000, no single type of animal or category of animals was represented significantly more often than were others. Other species of animals represented in the 45 books included horses and donkeys (26 [57.8%]), cows (20 [44.4%]), sheep and goats (19 [42.2%]), pigs (18 [40%]), poultry (4 [8.9%]), aquatic animals (3 [6.7%]), laboratory animals (2 [4.4%]), and sporting animals (1 [2.2%]).

Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were specifically mentioned in the contents of 29 of the 45 (64.4%) books. The specialties and career opportunities mentioned most commonly were wildlife, conservation, zoo, exotic, and circus; food, livestock, and farm animal; companion animal and pets; large animal; and surgery (Table 1). No single specialty or career opportunity was mentioned significantly more commonly than the others.

Table 1

Specialties and career opportunities mentioned in the content (text) of currently available children's nonfiction books (n = 45) that depicted the veterinary profession.

Specialty or career opportunityNo. (%) of books
Academia5 (11.1)
Anesthesiology2 (4.4)
Aquarium or marine medicine7 (15.6)
Cardiology6 (13.3)
Companion animals or pets10 (22.2)
Dairy1 (2.2)
Dentistry3 (6.7)
Dermatology5 (11.1)
Emergency or critical care3 (6.7)
Equine8 (17.8)
Feline2 (4.4)
Food animal, livestock, or farm animal17 (37.8)
Government5 (11.1)
Holistic medicine1 (2.2)
Internal medicine2 (4.4)
Laboratory animal2 (4.4)
Large animal10 (22.2)
Military or Peace Corps4 (8.9)
Mixed animal practice3 (6.7)
Neurology3 (6.7)
Nutrition1 (2.2)
Oncology6 (13.3)
Ophthalmology7 (15.6)
Pathology3 (6.7)
Private industry, pharmaceutical, pharmacy, or biotechnology8 (17.8)
Private practice3 (6.7)
Poultry1 (2.2)
Public health or epidemiology2 (4.4)
Radiology6 (13.3)
Research or biomedical research8 (17.8)
Shelter medicine3 (6.7)
Small animal medicine5 (11.1)
Sports medicine3 (6.7)
Surgery9 (20.0)
Swine1 (2.2)
Wildlife, conservation, zoo, exotic animal, or circus25 (55.6)

Overall, 29 of the 45 (64.4%) books mentioned a specialty or career opportunity.

Discussion

Images on the covers of children's books evaluated in the present study predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. In contrast, the book contents portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals.

The first aim of the present study was to determine whether currently available children's nonfiction books accurately represented the current state of the veterinary profession. In general, the book covers depicted veterinarians working alone and without clients, which does not necessarily represent the profession, whereas the book contents more often represented veterinarians as working as part of a team and interacting with clients. The most common attire, setting, and patient portrayed on the book covers were an examination coat, the inside of a veterinary clinic or hospital, and a dog, and the technologies and equipment depicted were generally those used in a small animal practice setting. In contrast, the book contents generally offered a slightly more balanced view, but the most common setting was still the inside of a veterinary clinic or hospital, and veterinarians were predominantly portrayed as wearing examination coats. Dogs, cats, and exotic animals were most often represented, and technologies and equipment were again most often mentioned or pictured in a small animal setting. Twenty-nine of the 45 (64.4%) books mentioned specialties or described career opportunities in the veterinary profession in their text. In terms of career opportunities, this representation was consistent with 2009 market research statistics from the AVMA,4 which show that most veterinarians are employed in companion animal exclusive practices. However, this representation is not sufficient if the veterinary profession wants to encourage children to pursue careers in shortage areas. Results of the present study suggested that overall, children's books fall short of accurately representing the veterinary profession.

The second aim of the present study was to determine whether veterinarians portrayed in currently available nonfiction children's books reflect the current or future demographics of the United States. According to the 2008 US Census Report,68 50.7% of the US population was female, 65.6% was Caucasian-Non-Hispanic, 12.8% was African American-Black, 1.0% was American Indian-Alaska Native, 4.5% was Asian, 0.2% was Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and 15.4% was Hispanic-Latino. By 2050, Day69 predicts the population of the United States will be 53% Caucasian–Non-Hispanic, 15% African American–Black, 1.0% American Indian–Alaska Native, 9% Asian, and 25% Hispanic-Latino. By comparison, the covers of the children's books evaluated in the present study collectively reflected a population that was 62% female and 38% male and that was 74% Caucasian-White, 12% African American-Black, 7% Asian, 0% Hispanic-Latino, and 7% other. Book contents reflected a population that was 47% female and 53% male and that was 79.5% Caucasian-White, 8.1% African American-Black, 5.8% Asian, 2.3% Latino-Hispanic, and 4.3% other. The gender imbalance reflected by the children's book covers does not accurately represent the US veterinary profession, in that during 2009, 50.9% of US veterinarians were female.4 However, the gender imbalance does reflect the applicant pool to veterinary schools, in that 76.23% of applicants in 2010 were female.12 Book contents more closely represented the gender balance of the profession. In comparison with 2008 US census data for race-ethnicity,68 book covers collectively represented higher percentages of Caucasians and Asians, a similar percentage of African Americans, and a lower percentage of Hispanic-Latinos. In comparison with 2008 US census data,68 book contents collectively represented higher percentages of Caucasians and Asians and a lower percentage of African Americans and Hispanic-Latinos. In comparison with Day's69 predictions, book covers collectively represented a higher percentage of Caucasians and a lower percentage of African Americans, Asians, and Hispanic-Latinos. In comparison with Day's69 predictions, book contents collectively represented a higher percentage of Caucasians and lower percentages of African Americans, Asians, and Hispanic-Latinos. Of all races and ethnicities, Caucasian veterinarians were represented most often in the books evaluated in the present study. Statistics were not available on the race-ethnicity demographics of veterinarians, but the lack of diversity in veterinary medicine is well documented.5–11 With the exception of Asians, book covers and contents collectively represented lower or similar percentages of URMs in comparison with 2008 US demographics.68 For all URMs, book covers and contents presented a lower percentage of URMs in comparison with predicted 2050 US demographics.69

Representation of the veterinary profession in children's books poses a dilemma. Accurate representation of the breadth of career opportunities, importance of teamwork, and the importance of the veterinarian-client-patient relationship is important. However, accurate representation of the current state of the veterinary workforce in terms of race and ethnicity would severely limit the usefulness of children's literature as a tool to encourage individuals who are underrepresented in the profession to pursue careers in veterinary medicine.

Children's books provide an opportunity for attracting and informing the future workforce about the veterinary profession. Children have a basic psychological need to identify with the animals and heroes portrayed in books, who become their models for vicarious experiences through reading.20 Books give children role models and teach them acceptable behavior and expectations.18 However, if books are to be used to widen children's perspectives, they need to represent the experiences of diverse groups of people.70

A meta-analysis71 of 22 studies found a mean correlation of 0.27 (P < 0.01) between a student's personal interest in a book and learning from that book. This correlation held true among books of various lengths, students of various ages and abilities, and books of various types.71 Although many studies show that girls like reading about animals,21 other studies have demonstrated that first- through fourth-grade children, regardless of gender, prefer reading books about animals and nature. Beginning in fifth grade, interest in animal stories decreases.20 First and second graders tend to enjoy fairytales, whereas third and fourth graders are more interested in daily life experiences.20 Thus, fourth grade might be the best age to target when developing children's books about veterinary medicine. Fourth-grade students might be the most likely age group to identify with the veterinarians portrayed and to use the veterinarians in the books as role models.

Books must attract the target readership to be effective workforce development tools, and book covers and illustrations influence children's attitudes towards books.21 Children's books should provide characters with whom children of both genders and of various ethnic minorities can identify.21,a This is important because children view book characters as role models on which to build a positive self-image.19 Bishop70 states that “Readers seek their reflections in books. For people who find themselves marginalized because of race, religion, ethnicity, class, gender, or age, the book as a mirror reaffirms their existence, and confirms the legitimacy of their attempts to be ‘decent people’ in their own society,” and that books “affect the way people see themselves as well as the ways they are seen by others.” Moreover, children will designate books as boring if they cannot find a character with whom to identify or if the characters they identify with are portrayed as powerless or inferior.21

Children's literature can influence gender attitudes72 and, therefore, provides an opportunity to attract male children to the veterinary profession. Books provide role models for how children define feminine and masculine behavior and build gender stereotypes.18,a Trepanier-Street and Romatowski72 examined the attitudes of preschoolers and first graders towards occupational roles of men and women. They also reported that students associated occupations with gender according to stereotypes. However, after reading books that did not portray stereotypical occupations for men and women, more children responded that an occupation was appropriate for both genders.72 The present study found that most covers of nonfiction children's books about veterinary medicine portrayed women as veterinarians. Depicting more male veterinarians on book covers might attract more male readers.

The impact of race-ethnicity of characters in children's books on readers is uncertain, with some studies suggesting that children select books illustrated with characters of their own race and others indicating that children are ambivalent about the race-ethnicity of book characters.20 Investigators of more recent studies emphasize the importance of representing people in children's books who are the same race-ethnicity as the readers. Benefits for children of URMs include a sense of belonging and a positive self-concept.70 Equal representation can also help children from dominant groups understand others who are like them but different and lessen the sense of superiority they might feel when they predominantly see images of people like themselves.70 Additionally, Cianciolo19 emphasized the need for individuals of various races and ethnicities to be portrayed as expressing their individualism in a variety of realistic situations to prevent stereotyping, stressing that images in books should reflect the “many and diverse cultural, ethnic, and racial groups making up our society.” Book illustrations provide an opportunity for readers to learn facts, attitudes, and values of people with similar or different backgrounds from the reader.19 Depiction of veterinarians of many races and ethnicities on book cover images might attract more readers from URMs.

Book covers evaluated in the present study portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession or in today's society. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than is reflected in 2008 US census data or predicted for the 2050 US population. With the exception of Asians, book covers and contents collectively represented a lower or similar percentage of URMs in comparison with 2008 US demographics and a lower percentage of all URMs in comparison with predicted 2050 US demographics.

Ideally, nonfiction children's books would show more diversity to encourage growth of the veterinary profession through successful recruitment in an increasingly multicultural society. Similarly, although 64.4% of the books mentioned specialties or career opportunities in veterinary medicine, communicating the breadth of the profession could be improved.

Portrayal of veterinarians and the veterinary profession in children's books provides an opportunity to educate and attract a diverse future workforce to the veterinary profession. Veterinarians were cited as consultants, advisors, or contributors for 26 of the 45 (57.8%) books for which content was evaluated in the present study, suggesting that veterinarians frequently have an opportunity to influence the portrayal of the profession in these books. In addition, veterinarians and others can select books that would best resonate with individual children when using nonfiction children's books as a workforce development tool. For example, although most book covers depicted Caucasians and women as veterinarians, books were available that depicted URMs and men as veterinarians. Veterinarians, educators, librarians, and others are encouraged to select books that portray veterinarians with whom individual children can identify when using books to demonstrate career pathways.

ABBREVIATION

URM

Underrepresented minority

a.

Narahara MM. Gender stereotypes in children's picture books. Exit Project EDEL 570, California State University, Long Beach, Calif, 1998. Available at: www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED419248.pdf. Accessed Jan 24, 2011.

b.

GraphPad QuickCalcs, GraphPad Software Inc, San Diego, Calif.

References

  • 1.

    US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational outlook handbook 2010–2011 edition. Available at: www.bls.gov/oco/ocos076.htm. Accessed May 27, 2010.

  • 2.

    US Government Accountability Office. Veterinarian workforce: actions are needed to ensure sufficient capacity for protecting public and animal health. GAIO-09-178. Washington DC: US Government Accountability Office, 2009;87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The veterinary medicine loan repayment program. Available at: www.csrees.usda.gov/nea/animals/in_focus/an_health_if_vmlrp.html. Accessed May 19, 2010.

  • 4.

    AVMA. Market research statistics. U.S. veterinarians—2009. Available at: www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/usvets.asp. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 5.

    Elmore RG. The lack of racial diversity in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:2426.

  • 6.

    Cannedy AL. Veterinary medical colleges' diversity awareness. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31:417420.

  • 7.

    Kendall T. Diversity and changing demographics: how they will affect veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31:406408.

  • 8.

    Nelson P. Diversity: a professional imperative. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31:403405.

  • 9.

    Greenhill LM. Introducing DVM: DiVersity Matters (An Association of American Veterinary Colleges Initiative). J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34:4346.

  • 10.

    Strayhorn TL. The absence of African-American men in higher education and veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36:351358.

  • 11.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. AAVMC student enrollment data regarding gender 2009–2010 comparative report. Available at: www.aavmc.org/DVM/documents/GenderStudents10.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 12.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. VMCAS statistics >2010. Available at: www.aavmc.org/students_admissions/VMCASStatistics2010.htm. Accessed Aug 25, 2010.

  • 13.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges National Recruitment Promotion Plan. Available at: www.aavmc.org/committees_activities/documents/Official2007AAVMCNationalRecruitment-PromotionPlanADDs-official-2007-12-20_2_.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Chubin DEMohamed S. Increasing minorities in veterinary medicine: national trends in science degrees, local programs, and strategies. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36:363369.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Lowrie PM. Tying art and science to reality for recruiting minorities to veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36:382387.

  • 16.

    Ilgen DRLloyd JWMorgeson FP, et al. Personal characteristics, knowledge of the veterinary profession, and influences on career choice among students in the veterinary applicant pool. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223:15871594.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Asare A. The attitudes of minority junior high and high school students toward veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34:4750.

  • 18.

    Turner-Bowker DM. Gender stereotyped descriptors in children's picture books: does “Curious Jane” exist in the literature? Sex Roles 1996; 35:461488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Cianciolo PJ. Picture books for children. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1990;231.

  • 20.

    Purves ACBeach R. Literature and the reader: research in response to literature, reading interests, and the teaching of literature. Final report to The National Endowment for the Humanities. Project Number H69-0-129. Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English, 1972;208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pinsent P. Children's literature and the politics of equality. New York: Teachers College Press, 1997;188.

  • 22.

    Adamson H. A day in the life of a veterinarian. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 2003;24.

  • 23.

    Ames M. Veterinarians in our community. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010;24.

  • 24.

    Burgan M. Veterinarian. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 2000;48.

  • 25.

    Bryant J. Jane Sayler: veterinarian. Frederick, Md: Twenty-First Century Books, 1991;40.

  • 26.

    Carson J. Visiting the vet: learning the V sound. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2002;24.

  • 27.

    Clemson WClemson DSayers G. Using math to be a zoo vet. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2005;32.

  • 28.

    Dewey KO. Wildlife rescue: the work of Dr. Kathleen Ramsay. Honesdale, Pa: Boyds Mills Press, 1999;64.

  • 29.

    Ermitage K. Veterinarian. Austin, Tex: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 2000;32.

  • 30.

    Evento S. Vet emergencies 24/7. Des Moines, Iowa: Meredith Books, 2008;48.

  • 31.

    Maze SGrace C. I want to be … a veterinarian. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co, 1999;48.

  • 32.

    Greene C. Veterinarians help animals. Chanhassen, Minn: The Child's World, 1997;32.

  • 33.

    Horenstein H. My mom's a vet. Cambridge: Candlewick Press, 1994;64.

  • 34.

    Hughes M. Little Nippers: a day in the life of … Zoe the vet. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2002;24.

  • 35.

    Hunter R. People who help us: vet. London: Cherry Tree Books, 2008;24.

  • 36.

    Hutchings A. What happens at a vet's office? Pleasantville, NY: Weekly Reader Publishing, 2009;24.

  • 37.

    Jackson DM. ER vets: life in an animal emergency room. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2005;88.

  • 38.

    Kalman B. Veterinarians help keep animals healthy. New York: Crabtree Publishing Co, 2005;32.

  • 39.

    Kunhardt E. I'm going to be a vet. New York: Scholastic, 1996;32.

  • 40.

    Lauber P. The tiger has a toothache: helping animals at the zoo. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1999;32.

  • 41.

    Leake D. People in the community: vets. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2008;24.

  • 42.

    Lee MP. Ms. Veterinarian. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976;139.

  • 43.

    Leonard M. The pet vet. Minneapolis: Mill Brook Press, 2006;32.

  • 44.

    Levin A. The vet. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2004;16.

  • 45.

    Liebman D. I want to be a vet. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2000;24.

  • 46.

    Litchfield JBrooks F. Vicky the vet. London: Usborne Publishing, 2004;24.

  • 47.

    Lowenstein F. What does a veterinarian do? Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Elementary Publishers Inc, 2006;24.

  • 48.

    Macken JEAndersen G. People in my community/la gente de mi comunidad: veterinarian/el veterinario. Pleasantville, NY: Weekly Reader Publishing, 2003;24.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Marino B. Emergency vets. New York: Dutton Children's Books, 2001;153.

  • 50.

    Murrow LKSchwarz M. Lolly Cochran, veterinarian. Brattleboro, Vt: Teachers Laboratory, 1989;58.

  • 51.

    Flanigan AKOsinski C. Dr. Friedman helps animals. New York: Children's Press, 1999;32.

  • 52.

    Owen A. Caring for your pets: a book about veterinarians. Minneapolis: Picture Window Books, 2004;24.

  • 53.

    Paige D. A day in the life of a zoo veterinarian. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985;32.

  • 54.

    Parks PJ. Exploring careers: veterinarian. Farmington Hills, Mich: KidHaven Press, 2004;48.

  • 55.

    Patrick JLS. Cows, cats, and kids: a veterinarian's family at work. Honesdale, Pa: Bords Mills Press, 2003;48.

  • 56.

    Raatma L. Veterinarians: community workers. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2002;32.

  • 57.

    Rau DM. Veterinarian. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp, 2008;24.

  • 58.

    Ready D. Community helpers: veterinarians. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 1997;24.

  • 59.

    Riddle JSimons R. Veterinarian. Broomall, Pa: Mason Crest Publishers, 2003;90.

  • 60.

    Schaefer LM. We need veterinarians. Mankato, Minn: Pebble Books, 2000;24.

  • 61.

    Schomp V. If you were a … veterinarian. Tarrytown, NY: Benchmark Books, 1998;32.

  • 62.

    Simon C. Veterinarians: a level three reader. Chanhassen, Minn: The Child's World, 2003;32.

  • 63.

    Somervil BA. Veterinarian. Ann Arbor, Mich: Cherry Lake Publishing, 2008;32.

  • 64.

    Stamper JB. What's it like to be a … veterinarian. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1990;30.

  • 65.

    Sweeney A. Pets at the vet. New York: Children's Press, 2007;24.

  • 66.

    Turner PS. Gorilla doctors: saving endangered Great Apes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2005;64.

  • 67.

    Walker-Hodge J. Animal hospital. New York: DK Publishing, 1999;32.

  • 68.

    US Census Bureau. State & county QuickFacts. Available at: quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html. Accessed May 25, 2010.

  • 69.

    Day JC. Population projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1995 to 2050. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, P 251130. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1996.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Bishop RS. Children's books in a multicultural world: a view from the USA. In: Evans E, ed. Reading against racism. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1992;1938.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Schiefele U. Interest and learning from text. Sci Stud Read 1999; 3:257279.

  • 72.

    Trepanier-Street MLRomatowski JA. The influence of children's literature on gender role perceptions: a reexamination. Early Child Educ J 1999; 26:155159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1.

    US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational outlook handbook 2010–2011 edition. Available at: www.bls.gov/oco/ocos076.htm. Accessed May 27, 2010.

  • 2.

    US Government Accountability Office. Veterinarian workforce: actions are needed to ensure sufficient capacity for protecting public and animal health. GAIO-09-178. Washington DC: US Government Accountability Office, 2009;87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The veterinary medicine loan repayment program. Available at: www.csrees.usda.gov/nea/animals/in_focus/an_health_if_vmlrp.html. Accessed May 19, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    AVMA. Market research statistics. U.S. veterinarians—2009. Available at: www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/usvets.asp. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Elmore RG. The lack of racial diversity in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:2426.

  • 6.

    Cannedy AL. Veterinary medical colleges' diversity awareness. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31:417420.

  • 7.

    Kendall T. Diversity and changing demographics: how they will affect veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31:406408.

  • 8.

    Nelson P. Diversity: a professional imperative. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31:403405.

  • 9.

    Greenhill LM. Introducing DVM: DiVersity Matters (An Association of American Veterinary Colleges Initiative). J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34:4346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Strayhorn TL. The absence of African-American men in higher education and veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36:351358.

  • 11.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. AAVMC student enrollment data regarding gender 2009–2010 comparative report. Available at: www.aavmc.org/DVM/documents/GenderStudents10.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. VMCAS statistics >2010. Available at: www.aavmc.org/students_admissions/VMCASStatistics2010.htm. Accessed Aug 25, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges National Recruitment Promotion Plan. Available at: www.aavmc.org/committees_activities/documents/Official2007AAVMCNationalRecruitment-PromotionPlanADDs-official-2007-12-20_2_.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Chubin DEMohamed S. Increasing minorities in veterinary medicine: national trends in science degrees, local programs, and strategies. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36:363369.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Lowrie PM. Tying art and science to reality for recruiting minorities to veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36:382387.

  • 16.

    Ilgen DRLloyd JWMorgeson FP, et al. Personal characteristics, knowledge of the veterinary profession, and influences on career choice among students in the veterinary applicant pool. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223:15871594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Asare A. The attitudes of minority junior high and high school students toward veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34:4750.

  • 18.

    Turner-Bowker DM. Gender stereotyped descriptors in children's picture books: does “Curious Jane” exist in the literature? Sex Roles 1996; 35:461488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Cianciolo PJ. Picture books for children. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1990;231.

  • 20.

    Purves ACBeach R. Literature and the reader: research in response to literature, reading interests, and the teaching of literature. Final report to The National Endowment for the Humanities. Project Number H69-0-129. Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English, 1972;208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pinsent P. Children's literature and the politics of equality. New York: Teachers College Press, 1997;188.

  • 22.

    Adamson H. A day in the life of a veterinarian. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 2003;24.

  • 23.

    Ames M. Veterinarians in our community. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010;24.

  • 24.

    Burgan M. Veterinarian. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 2000;48.

  • 25.

    Bryant J. Jane Sayler: veterinarian. Frederick, Md: Twenty-First Century Books, 1991;40.

  • 26.

    Carson J. Visiting the vet: learning the V sound. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2002;24.

  • 27.

    Clemson WClemson DSayers G. Using math to be a zoo vet. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2005;32.

  • 28.

    Dewey KO. Wildlife rescue: the work of Dr. Kathleen Ramsay. Honesdale, Pa: Boyds Mills Press, 1999;64.

  • 29.

    Ermitage K. Veterinarian. Austin, Tex: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 2000;32.

  • 30.

    Evento S. Vet emergencies 24/7. Des Moines, Iowa: Meredith Books, 2008;48.

  • 31.

    Maze SGrace C. I want to be … a veterinarian. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co, 1999;48.

  • 32.

    Greene C. Veterinarians help animals. Chanhassen, Minn: The Child's World, 1997;32.

  • 33.

    Horenstein H. My mom's a vet. Cambridge: Candlewick Press, 1994;64.

  • 34.

    Hughes M. Little Nippers: a day in the life of … Zoe the vet. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2002;24.

  • 35.

    Hunter R. People who help us: vet. London: Cherry Tree Books, 2008;24.

  • 36.

    Hutchings A. What happens at a vet's office? Pleasantville, NY: Weekly Reader Publishing, 2009;24.

  • 37.

    Jackson DM. ER vets: life in an animal emergency room. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2005;88.

  • 38.

    Kalman B. Veterinarians help keep animals healthy. New York: Crabtree Publishing Co, 2005;32.

  • 39.

    Kunhardt E. I'm going to be a vet. New York: Scholastic, 1996;32.

  • 40.

    Lauber P. The tiger has a toothache: helping animals at the zoo. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1999;32.

  • 41.

    Leake D. People in the community: vets. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2008;24.

  • 42.

    Lee MP. Ms. Veterinarian. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976;139.

  • 43.

    Leonard M. The pet vet. Minneapolis: Mill Brook Press, 2006;32.

  • 44.

    Levin A. The vet. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2004;16.

  • 45.

    Liebman D. I want to be a vet. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2000;24.

  • 46.

    Litchfield JBrooks F. Vicky the vet. London: Usborne Publishing, 2004;24.

  • 47.

    Lowenstein F. What does a veterinarian do? Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Elementary Publishers Inc, 2006;24.

  • 48.

    Macken JEAndersen G. People in my community/la gente de mi comunidad: veterinarian/el veterinario. Pleasantville, NY: Weekly Reader Publishing, 2003;24.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Marino B. Emergency vets. New York: Dutton Children's Books, 2001;153.

  • 50.

    Murrow LKSchwarz M. Lolly Cochran, veterinarian. Brattleboro, Vt: Teachers Laboratory, 1989;58.

  • 51.

    Flanigan AKOsinski C. Dr. Friedman helps animals. New York: Children's Press, 1999;32.

  • 52.

    Owen A. Caring for your pets: a book about veterinarians. Minneapolis: Picture Window Books, 2004;24.

  • 53.

    Paige D. A day in the life of a zoo veterinarian. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985;32.

  • 54.

    Parks PJ. Exploring careers: veterinarian. Farmington Hills, Mich: KidHaven Press, 2004;48.

  • 55.

    Patrick JLS. Cows, cats, and kids: a veterinarian's family at work. Honesdale, Pa: Bords Mills Press, 2003;48.

  • 56.

    Raatma L. Veterinarians: community workers. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2002;32.

  • 57.

    Rau DM. Veterinarian. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp, 2008;24.

  • 58.

    Ready D. Community helpers: veterinarians. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 1997;24.

  • 59.

    Riddle JSimons R. Veterinarian. Broomall, Pa: Mason Crest Publishers, 2003;90.

  • 60.

    Schaefer LM. We need veterinarians. Mankato, Minn: Pebble Books, 2000;24.

  • 61.

    Schomp V. If you were a … veterinarian. Tarrytown, NY: Benchmark Books, 1998;32.

  • 62.

    Simon C. Veterinarians: a level three reader. Chanhassen, Minn: The Child's World, 2003;32.

  • 63.

    Somervil BA. Veterinarian. Ann Arbor, Mich: Cherry Lake Publishing, 2008;32.

  • 64.

    Stamper JB. What's it like to be a … veterinarian. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1990;30.

  • 65.

    Sweeney A. Pets at the vet. New York: Children's Press, 2007;24.

  • 66.

    Turner PS. Gorilla doctors: saving endangered Great Apes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2005;64.

  • 67.

    Walker-Hodge J. Animal hospital. New York: DK Publishing, 1999;32.

  • 68.

    US Census Bureau. State & county QuickFacts. Available at: quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html. Accessed May 25, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Day JC. Population projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1995 to 2050. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, P 251130. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Bishop RS. Children's books in a multicultural world: a view from the USA. In: Evans E, ed. Reading against racism. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1992;1938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Schiefele U. Interest and learning from text. Sci Stud Read 1999; 3:257279.

  • 72.

    Trepanier-Street MLRomatowski JA. The influence of children's literature on gender role perceptions: a reexamination. Early Child Educ J 1999; 26:155159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement