Impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons for pursuing a career in veterinary medicine and career aspirations

Sandra F. Amass Department of Veterinary Administration, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Sandra F. Amass in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD, DABVP
,
Kauline S. Davis Department of Veterinary Administration, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
Department of Comparative Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Kauline S. Davis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
S. Kathleen Salisbury Department of Veterinary Administration, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by S. Kathleen Salisbury in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVs
, and
James L. Weisman Department of Veterinary Administration, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by James L. Weisman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Abstract

Objective—To determine the impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine decided to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and their career aspirations.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Sample—Personal statements from 694 veterinary medical school applications submitted in 2008.

Procedures—Personal statements were read by investigators to identify the turning point for each applicant's decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and each applicant's intended career path.

Results—Veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were the most frequently stated reasons for pursuing a veterinary career; differences were not identified between males and females. More Caucasian applicants than underrepresented minority (URM) applicants stated veterinary practice experience and more URM applicants than Caucasian applicants cited animal ownership as a reason for pursuing a veterinary career. Many applicants did not cite a specific career path within veterinary medicine; applicants who indicated a career path most often cited veterinary practice. More females than males stated an interest in equine medicine, and more Caucasian applicants than URM applicants indicated an interest in mixed animal practice. More URM applicants than Caucasian applicants indicated a desire to pursue specialty training.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were important factors influencing applicants' decision to pursue a veterinary career, but many applicants had not selected a specific career path. Opportunities exist to influence the decisions of individuals to become veterinarians and the selection of specific career paths within the veterinary profession.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine decided to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and their career aspirations.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Sample—Personal statements from 694 veterinary medical school applications submitted in 2008.

Procedures—Personal statements were read by investigators to identify the turning point for each applicant's decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and each applicant's intended career path.

Results—Veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were the most frequently stated reasons for pursuing a veterinary career; differences were not identified between males and females. More Caucasian applicants than underrepresented minority (URM) applicants stated veterinary practice experience and more URM applicants than Caucasian applicants cited animal ownership as a reason for pursuing a veterinary career. Many applicants did not cite a specific career path within veterinary medicine; applicants who indicated a career path most often cited veterinary practice. More females than males stated an interest in equine medicine, and more Caucasian applicants than URM applicants indicated an interest in mixed animal practice. More URM applicants than Caucasian applicants indicated a desire to pursue specialty training.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were important factors influencing applicants' decision to pursue a veterinary career, but many applicants had not selected a specific career path. Opportunities exist to influence the decisions of individuals to become veterinarians and the selection of specific career paths within the veterinary profession.

The lack of racial diversity1–8 and the gender imbalance7,9,10 in the veterinary medical profession have been well documented. The authors of the AAVMC's 2006 Foresight Project11 emphasized the need for increased diversity in the veterinary profession as the United States becomes more diverse, and the AAVMC National Recruitment Promotion Plan12 recognizes the importance of leadership by the AAVMC in “recruiting a veterinary medicine college applicant pool that reflects the face of society.” The strategic plan of the AAVMC includes this goal,13 and in 2005, the AAVMC launched Diversity Matters, an initiative devoted to creating and supporting efforts to increase racial and ethnic diversity in academic veterinary medicine.5 The AVMA has recognized the need for diversity in its own strategic plan by incorporating inclusiveness as a value and fostering “increased veterinary workforce diversity pertaining to professional areas of service and to cultural, ethnic, gender, and racial representations” as 1 objective under the workforce strategic goal.14 One step in developing a veterinary workforce that will reflect the demographics of the United States in terms of gender and race-ethnicity balance is to recruit a diverse pool of applicants to the profession.

A 2003 study15 of students with high scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, VMCAS applicants, and veterinarians reported that the strongest influences on selecting a career in veterinary medicine were experiences with veterinarians and with animals, particularly pet ownership. In that study, female VMCAS applicants were more likely than male applicants to report an attraction to veterinary medicine as a result of pet or horse ownership, and male VMCAS applicants were more likely than female applicants to report that career status and educational rigor were more influential in their decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine. However, the published report did not distinguish among answers from the 3 study populations or report results of statistical analyses to support these conclusions.

The Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine values diversity and inclusion and views recruitment and retention of students from URM groups as important goals. In the past 8 years, enrollment of students from historically URM groups in the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine has increased substantially, from 2 URM students in an entering class of 68 in 1999 to 10 URM students in an entering class of 70 in 2009. Mean retention rate for URM students over the past 10 years has been 90%, compared with a mean retention rate of 91.3% for all students during the same period. However, given the present and projected racial-ethnic diversity of the United States, more must be done to recruit URM students if the veterinary profession is to reflect the US population.

The present study was undertaken to better understand factors that stimulated applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and to identify the career aspirations of those applicants. In addition, we wanted to determine whether factors varied by gender or race-ethnicity group, such that recruitment strategies to achieve the long-term goal of diversifying the workforce could be developed. The authors hypothesized that reasons for pursuing a career in veterinary medicine and specific career aspirations within the field of veterinary medicine would vary among applicants of different gender and race-ethnicity groups.

Materials and Methods

The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Purdue University Human Research Protection Plan, and the study was performed in compliance with institutional guidelines for research on humans.

For the study, the personal statement sections of 695 VMCAS applications submitted to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine in 2008 were reviewed. The VMCAS application instructed applicants to include in their personal statements “the development of your interest in veterinary medicine” and “career goals and objectives.” To mask the identity of the applicants, the personal statements were numbered with a random sequence generator16 and labeled with the gender and race-ethnicity of the applicant, but all other identifiers were removed. Personal statements were divided among investigators who each reviewed a portion of the applications. One investigator reviewed all statements to verify standardization of the evaluation process. For each personal statement, the single stimulus or turning point for the applicant's decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and the applicant's intended career path within the veterinary profession, if stated, were recorded. If an applicant did not list a single event or experience that prompted the choice of a career in veterinary medicine, the reason was listed as not stated.

Reasons for deciding to pursue a career in veterinary medicine were divided into 6 categories: veterinary practice experience (eg, working, volunteering, or shadowing at a veterinary practice or with a veterinarian), animal ownership experience (eg, owning a pet, livestock, or horse; caring for owned sick animals; death of an owned animal; taking an animal to a veterinarian; or having a veterinarian visit the family farm), other animal experience (eg, horseback riding lessons, working with other people's animals, working at a zoo, volunteering at animal shelters, attending events at a veterinary school, caring for stray animals or injured wildlife, or participating in 4-H or FFA programs), school-related experience (eg, exposure to a professor or teacher, course or class activity, or research), exposure to a relative in the veterinary profession, and other miscellaneous experiences (eg, death in the family, received a doctor's kit as a toy, or heard a speaker).

Applicants' statements regarding career goals were categorized as follows: listed 1 or more focused career aspirations, listed potential careers but did not state a specific career path, or did not list any specific careers in the field of veterinary medicine in the personal statement. Specific career aspirations listed in the personal statement were recorded.

A Fisher exact testa was used to compare results between male and female applicants and between Caucasian applicants and applicants of other race-ethnicity groups (African American-Black, American Indian-Native American, Asian American-Pacific Islander, Alaskan Native, Latino or Hispanic, or multicultural). A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

Personal statements from 694 of the 695 applications were analyzed in the study; 1 application did not contain a personal statement. One hundred forty of the 694 (20.2%) applicants self-reported as being male, and 535 (77.1%) self-reported as being female; the remaining 19 (2.7%) applicants did not indicate gender. Five hundred seventeen (74.5%) applicants self-reported as being Caucasian, and 81 (11.7%) self-reported as representing a URM; the remaining 96 (13.8%) applicants did not report race-ethnicity.

Stimulus for deciding to pursue a career in veterinary medicine—Most applicants (411/694 [59.2%]) did not indicate a specific stimulus or turning point in their decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine. Of the 283 (40.8%) applicants who reported a single stimulus or turning point, 108 (38.2%) reported veterinary practice experience, 66 (23.3%) reported animal ownership experience, 53 (18.7%) reported other animal experience, 31 (11%) reported school-related experience, 8 (2.8%) reported exposure to a relative in the veterinary profession, and 17 (6%) reported other miscellaneous experiences as the stimulus for deciding to pursue a career in veterinary medicine (Table 1). Reasons for deciding to pursue a career as a veterinarian were not significantly different between males and females. A significantly (P = 0.012) higher percentage of Caucasian applicants (87/209 [41.6%]), compared with URM applicants (5/35 [14.3%]), cited veterinary practice experience as the stimulus for pursuing a veterinary career. A significantly (P = 0.013) higher percentage of URM applicants (14/35 [40%]), compared with Caucasian applicants (42/209 [20.1%]), cited animal ownership as the stimulus for pursuing a veterinary career. No other significant differences were observed among race-ethnicity groups.

Table 1—

Factors that stimulated applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine to pursue a career in veterinary medicine.

  Gender groupRace-ethnicity group
FactorAll applicantsMaleFemalePvalueCaucasianURMP value
Veterinary practice experience108 (38.2)20 (35.1)86 (39.6)NS87 (41.6)5 (14.3)0.002
Animal ownership experience66 (23.3)17 (29.8)46 (21.2)NS42 (20.1)14 (40.0)0.016
Other animal experience53(18.7)8 (14.0)44 (20.3)NS40 (19.1)9 (25.7)NS
School-related experience31(11)8 (14.0)20 (9.2)NS24 (11.5)1 (2.9)NS
Relative in the veterinary profession8 (2.8)3 (5.3)5 (2.3)NS5 (2.4)2 (5.7)NS
Other miscellaneous17(6)1 (1.8)16 (7.4)NS11(5.3)4 (11.4)NS

Data are given as number (%). Factors were identified by reviewing the personal statement sections of 694 VMCAS applications submitted to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine in 2008; 411 applicants did not indicate a specific stimulus or turning point in their decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine. Nineteen applicants did not indicate gender and 96 applicants did not indicate race-ethnicity on their application.

NS = Not significant (P > 0.05).

Intended career path—Two hundred sixty-six of the 694 (38.3%) applicants did not include specific career objectives in their personal statement, although some indicated general goals such as being the best veterinarian they could be or helping animals through their role as a veterinarian. Of the 428 (61.7%) applicants who discussed a possible career path, 343 (80.1%) indicated a specific career path and 85 (19.9%) reported being undecided on a specific career path but listed potential careers. Significant differences were not detected between male and female applicants or between Caucasian and URM applicants.

Career selection—Career objectives listed by the 428 applicants who discussed a possible career path included large animal practice (53 [12.4%]); small animal practice (48 [11.2%]); zoo, wildlife, or exotic animal practice (48 [11.2%]); mixed animal practice (44 [10.3%]); clinical practice of no specified type (41 [9.6%]); equine practice (24 [5.6%]); research (22 [5.1%]); food animal practice or production medicine (21 [4.9%]); laboratory animal practice (16 [3.7%]); shelter or sanctuary practice (14 [3.3%]); governmental work (9 [2.1%]); academia (9 [2.1%]); and companion animal practice (5 [1.2%]; Table 2). Significant differences in responses were not identified between male and female applicants or between Caucasian and URM applicants, with 3 exceptions. The percentage of female applicants who indicated a desire to pursue equine practice (24/328 [7.3%]) was significantly (P = 0.007) higher than the percentage of male applicants who did (0/82 [0%]). A significantly (P = 0.042) higher percent-age of Caucasian applicants (40/323 [12.4%]), compared with URM applicants (1/46 [2.2%]), listed mixed animal practice as their career goal. A significantly (P = 0.029) higher percentage of URM applicants (9/46 [19.6%]), compared with Caucasian applicants (27/323 [8.4%]), listed clinical practice of no specific type as their career goal.

Table 2—

Potential career paths indicated by applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine.

  Gender groupRace-ethnicity group
Career pathAll applicantsMaleFemaleP valueCaucasianURMP value
Small animal practice48 (11.2)8 (9.8)38 (11.6)NS35 (10.8)7 (15.2)NS
Companion animal practice5 (1.2)0 (0)5 (1.5)NS5 (1.5)0 (0)NS
Large animal practice53 (12.4)11 (13.4)40 (12.2)NS42 (13)4 (8.7)NS
Food animal practice or production medicine21 (4.9)6 (7.3)14 (4.3)NS20 (6.2)1 (2.2)NS
Mixed animal practice44 (10.3)12 (14.6)31 (9.5)NS40 (12.4)1 (2.2)0.042
Shelter or sanctuary practice14 (3.3)0 (0)14 (4.3)NS12 (3.7)1 (2.2)NS
Zoo, wildlife, or exotic animal practice48 (11.2)7 (8.5)39 (11.9)NS35 (10.8)5 (10.9)NS
Equine practice24 (5.6)0 (0)24 (7.3)0.00720 (6.2)2 (4.3)NS
Clinical practice (no specified type)41 (9.6)8 (9.8)30 (9.1)NS27 (8.4)9 (19.6)0.029
Laboratory animal practice16 (3.7)1 (1.2)14 (4.3)NS10 (3.1)0 (0)NS
Governmental work9 (2.1)2 (2.4)7 (2.1)NS7 (2.2)1 (2.2)NS
Research22 (5.1)4 (4.9)16 (4.9)NS17 (5.3)2 (4.3)NS
Academia9 (2.1)3 (3.7)6 (1.8)NS8 (2.5)0 (0)NS
Own a practice55 (12.9)13 (15.9)40 (12.2)NS38 (11.8)10 (21.7)NS
Graduate degree or specialty training64 (15.0)14 (17.1)50 (15.2)NS41 (12.7)15 (32.6)0.001

Data are given as number (%). Career paths were identified by reviewing the personal statement sections of 694 VMCAS applications submitted to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine in 2008; 266 applicants did not indicate a specific career path, and 39 listed multiple potential career paths. Nineteen applicants did not indicate gender and 96 applicants did not indicate race-ethnicity on their application.

NS = Not significant (P > 0.05).

Practice ownership—Fifty-five of the 428 (12.9%) applicants who indicated a possible career path also indicated a career goal of practice ownership. Differences in percentages of applicants indicating this goal by gender or race-ethnicity group were not detected.

Graduate degree or specialty—Sixty-four of 428 (15.0%) applicants stated a desire to pursue a graduate degree or specialty training, and 6 of these applicants stated multiple, related specialty areas. Although differences were not detected by gender group, a significantly (P = 0.001) higher percentage of URM applicants (15/46 [32.6%]), compared with Caucasian applicants (41/323 [12.7%]), indicated a desire to pursue specialty training. Specialties mentioned were cardiology, critical care, epidemiology, internal medicine, neurology, nutrition, oncology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pathology, public health, radiology, surgery, and theriogenology, Significant differences were not detected by gender or race-ethnicity group with respect to specialty. Four of the 428 (0.9%) applicants indicated a goal of earning a PhD degree.

Discussion

Results of the present study indicated that veterinary practice experience and animal ownership experience were important influences on the decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine, with the importance of these factors differing between race-ethnicity (ie, Caucasian vs URM), but not gender, groups. Applicants who indicated a career path within veterinary medicine most often cited veterinary practice, with few differences between gender and race-ethnicity groups. The present study also provided evidence that many applicants have not decided on a specific career path at the time they apply for admission to veterinary school. Taken together, the results suggest that opportunities exist to influence the decisions of individuals to become veterinarians and the selection of specific career paths within the veterinary profession. Importantly, the present study was limited to applicants to a single veterinary school during a single year, and additional research is needed to determine whether the findings are representative.

In the present study, 517 of the 694 (74.5%) applicants who provided a personal statement self-identified as Caucasian and 81 (11.7%) self-identified as representing a URM. These values were similar to percentages of 20 to 29 year olds reported to be Caucasian (78.3%) or URMs (15.2% African American–Black, 1.2% American Indian, and 5.3% Asian–Pacific Islander) in the 2010 US census.17 In contrast, 535 of the 694 (77.1%) applicants who provided a personal statement indicated that they were female and 140 (20.1%) indicated they were male, which does not reflect the gender balance for 20- to 29-year-old residents of the United States from 2006 to 2008 (51% male and 49% female).18

Although the decision to apply to veterinary school is likely multifactorial, the present study focused on identifying the single turning point that appeared to have the most influence on the applicants' decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine. Our rationale was that if such turning points could be identified, then the veterinary profession could strategically invest resources in these areas. In addition, we wanted to avoid errors that could have arisen as a result of attempting to identify and prioritize all factors mentioned in the applicants' personal statements, not just those identified by the applicants as the major influence on their career choice. More than half the applicants (411/694 [59.2%]) did not provide a single turning point for their decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine in their personal statement. These applicants either did not address the most important reason for their desire to pursue veterinary medicine as a career, listed multiple experiences, or listed nonspecific reasons in their personal statement. The VMCAS application did not specifically ask for the single turning point or stimulus that led applicants to choose a career in veterinary medicine, so some applicants may not have stated their decision in this way. Many applicants may not have experienced a single stimulus because their decision was multifactorial. In the present study, veterinary practice experience (108/283 [38.2%]) and animal ownership experience (66/283 [23.3%]) were the 2 factors most often cited by applicants who indicated a turning point. These results are consistent with the findings of others.15,19 For example, Ilgen et al15 concluded that working with a veterinarian was an important influence on career selection and that pet ownership or animal experience might be a useful indicator of interest in veterinary medicine. Lenarduzzi et al,19 in a survey of current students and recent graduates of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine, found that 71% to 75% of respondents indicated that veterinary practitioners were “very important” or “important” in their decision to pursue a career in large or mixed animal practice. Tomlin et al,20 in a survey of veterinary students at various stages of their education at the Royal Veterinary College, reported that 40.5% of respondents listed “visited a vet with a sick animal/influenced by veterinary role models” as the reason they wanted to become a veterinarian. The AAVMC National Recruitment Promotion Plan12 reported that knowing a veterinarian increased the probability of a student becoming a veterinarian from 40% to 60% and recommended national career shadowing days as a fundamental recruiting tactic. Sprecher21 reviewed application essays for eighth-grade students who attended Michigan State University's Veterinary Camp and stated that 12.1% of campers reported a history of limited shadowing and 10.5% reported a history of extensive shadowing or volunteer work at a veterinary clinic, whereas 22.9% reported an inability to gain experience in a veterinary clinic.

In the present study, a higher percentage of Caucasian applicants (87/209 [41.6%]) than URM applicants (5/35 [14.3%]) cited veterinary practice experience as the stimulus for pursuing a veterinary career. However, in the present study, we were not able to determine whether Caucasian and URM applicants had had similar opportunities to volunteer or work in a veterinary practice, whether applicants who had had such opportunities had had a positive or negative experience, or whether the variety of experiences applicants had had while volunteering or working at a veterinary practice affected their career decision. Future studies should strive to fill these knowledge gaps.

Also in the present study, a higher percentage of URM applicants (14/35 [40%]) than Caucasian applicants (42/209 [20.1%]) cited animal ownership experience as the stimulus for pursuing a veterinary career. In previous studies22–24 of animal ownership among various race-ethnicity groups, Native Americans and Caucasians were more likely to own pets, but URMs viewed animals in a positive light. Risley-Curtiss et al24 reported that pets were described as a source of “emotional support, unconditional love, and companionship” across racial and ethnic groups in a phone survey of 587 participants, and results of a survey25 of 419 pet owners and clients of private veterinary clinics did not demonstrate an association between race-ethnicity of an animal owner and strength of the human-animal bond. Tomlin et al20 reported that “working with animals” and “owning animals” were listed by veterinary students as positive influences on their decision to become veterinarians, but unlike the present study, which did not detect differences between males and females, Tomlin et al20 reported that significantly more female than male students indicated animal ownership as a positive influence on career selection.

Despite instructions to include career goals and objectives in the personal statement, many applicants in the present study (266/694 [38.3%]) did not describe specific career goals. Neither gender nor race-ethnicity appeared to be a factor as to whether an applicant stated specific career goals. Possible reasons for the high percentage of applicants who did not indicate a specific career goal include failure to read and follow instructions, differing interpretations of the instructions, and a lack of specific career goals in the veterinary profession. The last explanation indicates opportunities both for improvement in recruiting strategies targeted toward specific career opportunities and for influencing career objectives during veterinary school. We expect that developing recruiting materials and presentations that include the breadth of career opportunities in veterinary medicine would increase awareness of these opportunities and increase the probability of attracting individuals who are not aware of everything the profession has to offer. The need for more detailed information on career opportunities in veterinary medicine has been emphasized by others.7,8,12,15,22 Minority junior high and high school students surveyed by Asare22 reported that there was “little information about veterinary medicine” in their schools.

Previous authors have suggested that experiences during veterinary school can alter students' career aspirations. Andrus et al,26 in a survey involving 759 veterinary students from 32 colleges and schools of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada, found that 20% of fourth-year students had reportedly changed their career area since admission to veterinary school. Students reported the primary reason for the change in their career interests was “development of a new interest as a result of course work” in veterinary school. Chigerwe et al27 reported that 27.4% of students in a single graduating class at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine had changed their track selection after finishing the second year of veterinary school. Twenty-five percent of the students who responded to the survey selected “I learned or was exposed to an area that interested me” as the reason for the change.

Applicants in the present study who listed career goals most commonly reported careers in clinical practice, such as large animal practice; small animal practice; zoo, wildlife, and exotic animal practice; and mixed animal practice. Interestingly, large animal practice was listed most frequently among applicants stating specific career aspirations. Additional information, such as animal and veterinary experience, is required to fully interpret these results. Possible reasons for citing large animal practice as a career goal include a desire to practice large animal medicine and hoping to increase the chances of admission by focusing on the reported shortage of large animal veterinarians. Importantly, some applicants (85/694 [12.2%]) remained undecided on their future career path, offering an opportunity for recruitment to fill shortage areas.

In the present study, few applicants who stated specific career goals (55/428 [12.9%]) indicated a goal of practice ownership, and differences between males and females or between Caucasians and URMs were not detected. Potential career paths did not differ between males and females, except that a significantly higher percentage of females (24/328 [7.3%]) than males (0/82 [0%]) indicated an interest in equine practice. Similarly, significant differences were not found between Caucasians and URMs, with 3 exceptions. A higher percentage of Caucasian applicants (40/323 [12.4%]) than URM applicants (1/46 [2.2%]) declared mixed animal practice as their career goal. A higher percentage of URM applicants (9/46 [19.6%]) than Caucasian applicants (27/323 [8.4%]) declared practice as their career goal but did not specify practice type. A higher percentage of URM applicants (15/46 [32.6%]) than Caucasian applicants (41/323 [12.7%]) indicated a desire to pursue a graduate degree or specialty training, although significant differences were not detected among gender or race-ethnicity groups with respect to the particular specialty.

ABBREVIATIONS

AAVMC

Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges

URM

Underrepresented minority

VMCAS

Veterinary Medical College Application Service

a.

GraphPad QuickCalcs, GraphPad Software Inc, San Diego, Calif.

References

  • 1.

    Elmore RG. The lack of racial diversity in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222: 2426.

  • 2.

    Cannedy AL. Veterinary medical colleges' diversity awareness. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 417420.

  • 3.

    Kendall T. Diversity and changing demographics: how they will affect veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 406408.

  • 4.

    Nelson P. Diversity: a professional imperative. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 403405.

  • 5.

    Greenhill LM. Introducing DVM: Diversity Matters (An Association of American Veterinary Colleges Initiative). J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34: 4346.

  • 6.

    Strayhom TL. The absence of African-American men in higher education and veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 351358.

  • 7.

    Chubin DEMohamed S. Increasing minorities in veterinary medicine: national trends in science degrees, local programs, and strategies. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 363369.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Lowrie PM. Tying art and science to reality for recruiting minorities to veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 382387.

  • 9.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. AAVMC student enrollment data regarding gender 2009–2010 comparative report. Available at: www.aavmc.org/DVM/documents/GenderStudents10.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 10.

    AVMA. Market research statistics—U.S. veterinarians 2009. Available at: www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/usvets.asp. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 11.

    Willis NGMonroe FAPotworoski JA, et al. Envisioning the future of veterinary medical education: The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Foresight Project, Final Report. J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34: 142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges National Recruitment Promotion Plan. Available at: www.aavmc.org/committees_activities/documents/Official2007AAVMCNationalRecruitmentPromotionPlanADDs-official-2007–12–20_2_.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 13.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Strategic Plan FY2010–2014. Available at: www.aavmc.org/documents/AAVMC-StrategicPlan.pdf. Accessed Jun 10, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    AVMA. American Veterinary Medical Association Strategic Plan. Adopted April 12, 2008; revised April 10, 2010. Available at: www.avma.org/about_avma/governance/strategicplanning/current_strategic_plan.pdf. Accessed Sep 21, 2010.

  • 15.

    Ilgen DRLloyd JWMorgeson FP, et al. Personal characteristics, knowledge of the veterinary profession, and influences on career choice among students in the veterinary applicant pool. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223: 15871594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Random sequence generator, Random.org, Dublin. Available at: www.random.org/sequences/. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    US Census Bureau. US Census 2000 on www.AllCountries.org. Resident population, by race and age. Available at: www.allcountries.org/uscensus/17_resident_population_by_race_and_age.html. Accessed Sep 21, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    US Census Bureau. United States S0101. Age and sex. 2008. Available at: factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_S0101&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_. Accessed Sep 21, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lenarduzzi RSheppard GASlater MR. Factors influencing the choice of a career in food-animal practice among recent graduates and current students of Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 715.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tomlin JLBrodbelt DCMay SA. Influences on the decision to study veterinary medicine: variation with sex and background. Vet Rec 2010; 166: 744748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Sprecher DJ. Insights into the future generation of veterinarians: perspectives gained from the 13- and 14-year-olds who attended Michigan State University's Veterinary Camp, and conclusions about our obligations. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 199202.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Asare A. The attitudes of minority junior high and high school students toward veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34: 4750.

  • 23.

    AVMA. U.S. pet ownership & demographics sourcebook. Schaumburg, Ill: AVMA, 2007; 159.

  • 24.

    Risley-Curtiss CHolley LCWolf S. The animal-human bond and ethnic diversity. Soc Work 2006; 51: 257268.

  • 25.

    Schoenfeld-Tacher RKogan LRWright ML. Comparison of strength of the human-animal bond between Hispanic and non-Hispanic owners of pet dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 236: 529534.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Andrus DMGwinner KPPrince JB. Job satisfaction, changes in occupational area, and commitment to a career in food supply veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 18841893.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Chigerwe MBoudreaux KAIlkiw JE. Factors affecting track selection by veterinary professional students admitted to the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis. J Vet Med Educ 2010; 37: 154158.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1.

    Elmore RG. The lack of racial diversity in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222: 2426.

  • 2.

    Cannedy AL. Veterinary medical colleges' diversity awareness. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 417420.

  • 3.

    Kendall T. Diversity and changing demographics: how they will affect veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 406408.

  • 4.

    Nelson P. Diversity: a professional imperative. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 403405.

  • 5.

    Greenhill LM. Introducing DVM: Diversity Matters (An Association of American Veterinary Colleges Initiative). J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34: 4346.

  • 6.

    Strayhom TL. The absence of African-American men in higher education and veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 351358.

  • 7.

    Chubin DEMohamed S. Increasing minorities in veterinary medicine: national trends in science degrees, local programs, and strategies. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 363369.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Lowrie PM. Tying art and science to reality for recruiting minorities to veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 382387.

  • 9.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. AAVMC student enrollment data regarding gender 2009–2010 comparative report. Available at: www.aavmc.org/DVM/documents/GenderStudents10.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 10.

    AVMA. Market research statistics—U.S. veterinarians 2009. Available at: www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/usvets.asp. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Willis NGMonroe FAPotworoski JA, et al. Envisioning the future of veterinary medical education: The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Foresight Project, Final Report. J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34: 142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges National Recruitment Promotion Plan. Available at: www.aavmc.org/committees_activities/documents/Official2007AAVMCNationalRecruitmentPromotionPlanADDs-official-2007–12–20_2_.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2010.

  • 13.

    Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Strategic Plan FY2010–2014. Available at: www.aavmc.org/documents/AAVMC-StrategicPlan.pdf. Accessed Jun 10, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    AVMA. American Veterinary Medical Association Strategic Plan. Adopted April 12, 2008; revised April 10, 2010. Available at: www.avma.org/about_avma/governance/strategicplanning/current_strategic_plan.pdf. Accessed Sep 21, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Ilgen DRLloyd JWMorgeson FP, et al. Personal characteristics, knowledge of the veterinary profession, and influences on career choice among students in the veterinary applicant pool. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223: 15871594.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Random sequence generator, Random.org, Dublin. Available at: www.random.org/sequences/. Accessed May 11, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    US Census Bureau. US Census 2000 on www.AllCountries.org. Resident population, by race and age. Available at: www.allcountries.org/uscensus/17_resident_population_by_race_and_age.html. Accessed Sep 21, 2010.

  • 18.

    US Census Bureau. United States S0101. Age and sex. 2008. Available at: factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_S0101&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_. Accessed Sep 21, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lenarduzzi RSheppard GASlater MR. Factors influencing the choice of a career in food-animal practice among recent graduates and current students of Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2009; 36: 715.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tomlin JLBrodbelt DCMay SA. Influences on the decision to study veterinary medicine: variation with sex and background. Vet Rec 2010; 166: 744748.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Sprecher DJ. Insights into the future generation of veterinarians: perspectives gained from the 13- and 14-year-olds who attended Michigan State University's Veterinary Camp, and conclusions about our obligations. J Vet Med Educ 2004; 31: 199202.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Asare A. The attitudes of minority junior high and high school students toward veterinary medicine. J Vet Med Educ 2007; 34: 4750.

  • 23.

    AVMA. U.S. pet ownership & demographics sourcebook. Schaumburg, Ill: AVMA, 2007; 159.

  • 24.

    Risley-Curtiss CHolley LCWolf S. The animal-human bond and ethnic diversity. Soc Work 2006; 51: 257268.

  • 25.

    Schoenfeld-Tacher RKogan LRWright ML. Comparison of strength of the human-animal bond between Hispanic and non-Hispanic owners of pet dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 236: 529534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Andrus DMGwinner KPPrince JB. Job satisfaction, changes in occupational area, and commitment to a career in food supply veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 18841893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Chigerwe MBoudreaux KAIlkiw JE. Factors affecting track selection by veterinary professional students admitted to the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis. J Vet Med Educ 2010; 37: 154158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement