• 1.

    Hansen, BD, Hardie, EM, Carroll, GS. Physiological measurements after ovariohysterectomy in dogs: what's normal? Appl Anim Behav Sci 1997; 51:101109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Hardie, EM, Hansen, BD, Carrol, GS. Behavior after ovariohys-terectomy in the dog: what's normal? Appl Anim Behav Sci 1997; 51:111128.

  • 3.

    Mellor, DJ, Cook, CJ, Stafford, KJ. Quantifying some responses to pain as a stressor. In: Moberg, GP, Mench, JA, eds. The biology of animal stress. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England: CABI Publishing, 2000;171198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Moberg, GP. Biological response to stress: implications for animal welfare. In: Moberg, GP, Mench, JA, eds. The biology of animal stress. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England: CABI Publishing, 2000;122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Väisänen, MN, Raekallio, M, Kuusela, E, et al. Evaluation of the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomi-dine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic medication. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:969975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Siracusa, C, Manteca, X, Cerón, J, et al. Perioperative stress response in dogs undergoing elective surgery: variations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase responses. Anim Welf 2008; 17:259273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Pageat, P, Gaultier, E. Current research in canine and feline pher-omones. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003; 33:187211.

  • 8.

    Sheppard, G, Mills, D. Evaluation of dog-appeasing pheromone as a potential treatment for dogs fearful of fireworks. Vet Rec 2003; 152:432436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Gaultier, E, Bonnafous, L, Bougrat, L, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of a synthetic dog-appeasing pheromone with clomip-ramine for the treatment of separation-related disorders in dogs. Vet Rec 2005; 156:533538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Tod, E, Brander, D, Waran, N. Efficacy of dog appeasing pher-omone in reducing stress and fear related behavior in shelter dogs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2005; 93:295308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Levine, ED, Ramos, D, Mills, DS. A prospective study of 2 self-help CD based desensitization and counter-conditioning programmes with the use of Dog Appeasing Pheromone for the treatment of firework fears in dogs (Canis familiaris). Appl Anim Behav Sci 2006; 105:311329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Mills, DS, Ramos, D, Gandia Estelles, M, et al. A triple blind placebo-controlled investigation into the assessment of the effect of Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) on anxiety related behavior of problem dogs in the veterinary clinic. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2006; 98:114126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Taylor, K, Mills, DS. A placebo-controlled study to investigate the effect of Dog Appeasing Pheromone and other environmental and management factors on the reports of disturbance and house soiling during the night in recently adopted puppies (Ca-nis familiaris). Appl Anim Behav Sci 2006; 105:358368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Gaultier, E, Bannafous, L, Vienet-Legué, D, et al. Efficacy of dog-appeasing pheromone in reducing stress associated with social isolation in newly adopted puppies. Vet Rec 2008; 163:7380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Servei Metereologic de Catalunya. Dades d'estacions metere-ológoques automatiques (EMA) dels anys 20062007. Available at: www.meteocat.com/marcs/marc_dades.html. Accessed Jun 15, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Beerda, B, Schilder, MB, van Hooff, JA, et al. Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. I. Behavioral response. Physiol Behav 1999; 66:233242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Martin, P, Bateson, P. Measuring behavior: an introductory guide. 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993;84100.

  • 18.

    Holton, L, Reid, J, Scott, EM, et al. Development of a behavior-based scale to measure acute pain in dogs. Vet Rec 2001; 148:525531.

  • 19.

    Morton, CM, Reid, J, Scott, EM, et al. Application of a scaling model to establish and validate an interval level pain scale for assessment of acute pain in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:21542166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mandel, I. The diagnostic use of saliva. J Oral Pathol 1990; 19:119125.

  • 21.

    Beerda, B, Schilder, MB, van, Hooff JARAM, et al. Manifestation of chronic and acute stress in dogs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1997; 52:307319.

  • 22.

    Kobelt, AJ, Hemsworth, PH, Barnett, JL, et al. Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs. Res Vet Sci 2003; 75:157161.

  • 23.

    Cerón, JJ, Eckersall, DP, Martinez-Subiela, S. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Vet Clin Pathol 2005; 34:8599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Matteri, RL, Carroll, JA, Dyer, CJ. Neuroendocrine response to stress. In: Moberg, GP, Mench, JA, eds. The biology of animal stress. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England: CABI Publishing, 2000;4376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Wyatt, TD. Perception and action of pheromones: from receptor molecules to brains and behavior. In: Wyatt, TD, ed. Pheromones and animal behavior. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003;164205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Odendaal, JS, Meintjes, RA. Neurophysiological correlates of affiliative behavior between humans and dogs. Vet J 2003; 165:296301.

  • 27.

    Pageat, P. Assessing prolactinemia in anxious dogs (Canis famil-iaris): interest in diagnostic value and use in the selection of the most appropriate psychotropic drug. In: Mills, D, Levine, E, Landsberg, G, et al, eds. Current issues and research in veterinary behavioral medicine. Papers presented at the 5th International Behavior Meeting. West Lafayette, Ind: Purdue University Press, 2005;155160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Pageat, P, Lafont, C, Falewée, C, et al. An evaluation of serum pro-lactin in anxious dogs and response to treatment with selegiline or fluoxetine. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2007; 105:342350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Marrocco-Trischitta, MM, Tiezzi, A, Svampa, MG, et al. Perioperative stress response to carotid endarterectomy: the impact of anesthetic modality. J Vasc Surg 2004; 39:12951304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Grattan, DR. Behavioral significance of prolactin signaling in the central nervous system during pregnancy and lactation. Repro-auction 2002; 123:497506.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Neumann, ID, Torner, L, Wigger, A. Brain oxytocin: differential inhibition of neuroendocrine stress responses and anxiety-related behavior in virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Neuroscience 2000; 95:567575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Murata, H, Shimada, H, Yoshioka, M. Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Vet J 2004; 168:2840.

  • 33.

    Yardeni, IZ, Shavit, Y, Bessler, H, et al. Comparison of postoperative pain management techniques on endocrine response to surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Surg 2007; 5:52395243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Blecha, F. Immune system response to stress. In: Moberg, GP, Mench, JA, eds. The biology of animal stress. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England: CABI Publishing, 2000;111122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Shin, AC, Robertson, S, Isaza, N, et al. Comparison between analgesic effects of buprenorphine, caprofen, and buprenorphine with caprofen for canine ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35:6979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Roughan, JV, Flecknell, PA. Buprenorphine: a reappraisal of its antinociceptive effects and therapeutic use in alleviating postoperative pain in animals. Lab Anim 2002; 36:322343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Hubrecht, RC, Serpell, JA, Poole, T. Correlates of pen size and housing conditions in the behavior of kennelled dogs. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1992; 34:365383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Cuadra, G, Zurita, A, Lacerra, C, et al. Chronic stress sensitizes frontal cortex dopamine release in response to a subsequent novel stressor: reversal by naloxone. Brain Res Bull 1999; 48:303308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Stephen, JM, Ledger, RA. A longitudinal evaluation of urinary Cortisol in kennelled dogs, Canis familiaris. Physiol Behav 2006; 87:911916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Hennessy, MB, Davis, HN, Williams, MT, et al. Plasma Cortisol levels of dogs at a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav 1997; 62:485490.

  • 41.

    Gilson, SD. Cesarean section. In: Slatter, D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003;15171520.

  • 42.

    Forsberg, CL. Abnormalities in canine pregnancy, parturition and periparturient period. In: Ettinger, SJ, Feldman, EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine: diseases of the dog and the cat. 7th ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2010;18901901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs

Carlo Siracusa DVM, PhD1, Xavier Manteca DVM, PhD2, Rafaela Cuenca DVM, PhD3, Maria del Mar Alcalá DVM, PhD4, Aurora Alba DVM, PhD5, Santiago Lavín DVM, PhD6, and Josep Pastor DVM, PhD7
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
  • | 2 Department of Cellular Biology, Physiology and Immunology (Manteca), School of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
  • | 3 Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
  • | 4 Centre d'Atenció d'Animals Domestics de Companyia del Maresme, Can Carmany, 08310 Argentona, Spain.
  • | 5 Centre d'Atenció d'Animals Domestics de Companyia del Maresme, Can Carmany, 08310 Argentona, Spain.
  • | 6 Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
  • | 7 Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Abstract

Objective—To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy.

Procedures—Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed.

Results—Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:673-681)

Contributor Notes

Dr. Siracusa's present address is the Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Supported by the Agència de Gestio d'Ajuts Universitarisde Recerca, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, and the European Social Fund.

The authors thank Dr. Patrick Pageat, Pherosynthese Laboratories, St Saturnin les Apt, France, for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Siracusa (siracusa@vet.upenn.edu).