In This Issue—September 15, 2010

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JAVMA News

AVMA delegates unanimously passed two resolutions but engaged in extensive debate before defeating two others during a session in late July. And the AVMA president called for members to mend rifts dividing the profession, while the treasurer said that the AVMA is persevering despite difficulties of recent years.

See page 602

Letters to the Editor

See page 624

What Is Your Diagnosis?

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See pages 629, 633

Pathology in Practice

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See page 637

ECG of the Month

See page 641

public veterinary medicine: public health

Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2009

During 2009,49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. One of the human rabies cases represented the first presumptive abortive human rabies case, with the patient recovering after the onset of symptoms without intensive care.

See page 646

Plasma N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide concentration and outcome in cats with cardiomyopathy

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Results of a new study suggest that plasma N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide concentration may be a useful marker for distinguishing healthy cats from cats with cardiomyopathy and may also be useful in distinguishing, among cats with cardiomyopathy, those with congestive heart failure from those without. In the study, plasma NT-proANP concentration was measured in 17 healthy cats and 51 cats with cardiomyopathy (25 with and 26 without congestive heart failure). Plasma NT-proANP concentrations differed significantly among the 3 groups. However, in a multivariate analysis, plasma NT-proANP concentration was not found to be a significant predictor of survival duration.

See page 665

Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on perioperative stress responses in dogs

Perioperative stress responses represent physiologic responses to surgery and associated factors that may be perceived as threatening by an animal. In a randomized, controlled trial involving 46 dogs undergoing elective neutering, intensive care unit cages were sprayed with a synthetic dog appeasing pheromone or a sham treatment and dogs were housed in the treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. The pheromone treatment appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses through modification of lactotropic axis activity. However, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses appeared to be unaffected by the treatment.

See page 673

Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) in working Australian Kelpies

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Globoid cell leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The hallmark of the condition is demyelination, which results in the clinical signs of tremor, ataxia, and paresis. Four Australian Kelpies from working lines were examined because of progressive ataxia, tremors, and paresis. Examination of neurologic tissues obtained at necropsy revealed globoid cells characteristic of GLD and substantial demyelination in the peripheral and central nervous systems that were accompanied by microglial activation, reactive astrocytosis, and axonal spheroid formation. Leukocyte activity of galactosylceramidase, the lysosomal enzyme deficient in GLD, was low in the 2 dogs that were tested.

See page 682

Removal of a foreign body from the trachea of a cat

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A 9-month-old domestic cat admitted for removal of a tracheal foreign body was found on physical examination to have moderate respiratory distress but otherwise appeared healthy. Endoscopic removal of the foreign body was unsuccessful because of its shape and smooth texture, and surgical removal was not considered ideal because of the location of the foreign body near the carina and the risks associated with tracheotomy. Fluoroscopic-guided advancement of an over-the-wire balloon catheter past the foreign body, followed by inflation of the balloon and gradual traction in an orad direction, resulted in successful removal of the foreign body. The foreign body was identified as a piece of landscaping gravel.

See page 689

Immune-mediated pure red cell aplasia in a domestic ferret

An 8-month-old spayed female domestic ferret examined because of lethargy and severe anemia was found to have a PCV of 8%. Physical examination revealed severe pallor of the mucous membranes, nasal planum, and skin. Pure red cell aplasia was diagnosed following cytologic evaluation of a bone marrow biopsy specimen. Treatment included blood transfusions, IM administration of iron dextran, oral administration of antimicrobials and gastrointestinal tract protectants, and SC administration of erythropoietin. After the diagnosis of PRCA was made, prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine were administered. Immunosuppressive treatment was discontinued after 14 months, and the ferret appeared to be healthy 36 months after initial examination.

See page 695

Characteristics of clinical trials assessing antimicrobial treatment of bovine respiratory disease

A systematic review of clinical trials assessing antimicrobial treatment of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlots found that many studies did not report key study design features that would assist critical evaluation by readers. Twelve of 29 (41%) manuscripts did not disclose a funding source, and although 36 of 41 (88%) studies reported a random method of treatment allocation, only 9 (22%) described the method of allocation. Only 20 (49%) studies reported that investigators were blinded to treatment, and only 3 (7%) included a study size justification. In many instances, it was not clear whether the studies failed to use the investigated design features or simply failed to report them.

See page 701

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