Partial or complete luxation of the SHJ is an infrequent cause of lameness in large animal species1 (eg, cattle, goats, Himalayan tahr, horses, potbellied pigs, reindeer, sheep, and white-tailed deer) that can be associated with concomitant fracture of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Diagnosis of SHJL is typically based on findings during physical examination and evaluation of radiographic images of the SHJ. Numerous treatments have been described for the treatment of SHJL in large animals, including conservative treatment,1 closed reduction,1–10 and open reduction and stabilization.11–18 Surgical techniques reported include transposition of the biceps brachii tendon,11,12 extracapsular stabilization by use of a lateral extracapsular tension band suture technique,13,14 and arthrodesis of the SHJ.15–18
To our knowledge, there are 3 reports12,14,17 of SHJL in 5 South American camelids; all of those camelids were alpacas, and all were successfully treated by open reduction and stabilization of the SHJ. Extracapsular stabilization was achieved by use of an extracapsular tension band suture technique applied to the lateral aspect of the SHJ (3 alpacas), 14 transposition of the biceps brachii tendon (1 alpaca),12 and arthrodesis of the SHJ by use of a dynamic compression plate (1 alpaca).17 We are not aware of any published information regarding the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in a greater number of alpacas with SHJL. Furthermore, outcome of the closed reduction technique for correction of SHJL in alpacas has not been reported.
The purpose of the study reported here was to describe the clinical findings, treatments, complications, and outcome in alpacas treated for SHJL. We hypothesized that male alpacas would be more often treated for SHJL, compared with female alpacas. We also hypothesized that, in contrast to findings in large animal species (excluding horses), an acute simple SHJL could be successfully treated by use of a closed reduction technique.
Scapulohumeral joint luxation
GraphPad QuickCalcs, GraphPad Software Inc, La Jolla, Calif.
Ethibond, Ethicon Inc, Somerville, NJ.
IMEX suture anchors, IMEX Veterinary Inc, Longview, Tex.
Consil Orthopedic Bioglass, Nutramax Laboratories Inc, Edge-wood, Md.
Niehaus AJ, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio: Personal communication, 2004.
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