In This Issue—March 1, 2010

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JAVMA News

The AVMA will form a long-term planning commission, discourage use of ballot initiatives for animal welfare-related legislation, and support legislation expected to benefit small businesses. New research indicates there may be a link between ovary retention and longevity in Rottweilers.

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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Pathology in Practice

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TIMELY TOPICS IN NUTRITION

Modification of dietary omega-3 fatty acids for birds with atherosclerosis

Many avian species naturally develop or are easily induced to develop atherosclerosis. Various studies have explored the effect of providing supplemental unsaturated fatty acids in an attempt to reduce atherosclerosis, with omega-3 fatty acids providing the most promising results.

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EXPLORING THE BOND

Strength of the human-animal bond in Hispanic and non-Hispanic owners of dogs and cats

In a survey of 419 pet owners, Hispanics were more likely to own sexually intact dogs and cats as pets than were individuals of other race-ethnicity groups. However, differences in percentages of neutered animals between Hispanic and non-Hispanic owners could not be attributed to differences in how pets were viewed or strength of the human-animal bond.

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Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis

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Previous studies have suggested that feeding a diet containing 3.4% to 3.5% omega-3 fatty acids improved some clinical outcomes and weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis, but these studies did not include dogs concurrently being treated with NSAIDs. In a study involving 131 dogs with chronic OA, the dosage of carprofen was standardized to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), and dogs were randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content. Carprofen dosage, adjusted on the basis of investigator and owner assessments of clinical signs, decreased significantly faster in dogs fed the supplemented diet than in dogs fed the control diet.

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Feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac disease

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Transcoelomic echocardiography in birds is limited by the number of views and the resolution of the images that can be obtained. In contrast, transesophageal echocardiography offers unimpeded ultrasonographic visualization of the heart. Eighteen birds of various taxa were used to validate the feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography and describe the imaging planes obtained. Three positions (caudal, middle, and cranial) of the probe consistently provided 5 imaging planes of the heart. Transesophageal echocardiography was validated as a feasible technique in birds and provided views of the heart that could not be obtained by means of transcoelomic echocardiography.

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Ovarian remnant syndrome in dogs and cats

Ovarian remnant syndrome refers to clinical signs related to functional residual ovarian tissue in an animal that has undergone ovariohysterectomy. Suggested causes include surgical error, failure to remove ectopic ovarian tissue, and autotransplantation. A review of medical records of 19 dogs and 2 cats with ORS revealed that the most common clinical signs were those associated with proestrus and estrus. Median time between OHE and diagnosis of ORS was 17 months (range, 1 to 120 months). In all of the animals, residual ovarian tissue was found in the region of the ovarian pedicles, suggesting that surgical error was the underlying cause of ORS. In dogs, the right ovary was affected significantly more often than the left ovary.

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Electrical cardioversion of sustained ventricular tachycardia in three Boxers

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Three adult Boxers were evaluated because of sustained ventricular tachycardia. In all 3 dogs, pharmacologic cardioversion, including administration of procainamide and lidocaine, was unsuccessful. Therefore, electrical cardioversion was attempted. Electrical cardioversion, performed with a biphasic defibrillator synchronized to conduct 30 J of energy during the peak of the QRS complex, was successful in all 3 dogs. However, electrical cardioversion had to be performed twice (5-day interval between procedures) in one of the dogs because of relapse of ventricular tachycardia. No adverse effects associated with use of electrical cardioversion were identified.

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Successful treatment of a Vietnamese potbellied pig with an ovarian leiomyoma

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In an adult sexually intact female Vietnamese potbellied pig with abdominal distention of 5 months' duration, a freely movable abdominal mass was detected during palpation and ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen. Abdominal radiography revealed ill-defined mineralized opacities in the region of the mass and craniodorsal displacement of the gastrointestinal tract. During surgical exploration of the abdomen, the mass was identified as the right ovary and was removed. The mass accounted for approximately a third of the pig's body weight and was identified histologically as an ovarian leiomyoma.

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A constant rate infusion of insulin for treatment of hyperglycemic, hypernatremic, hyperosmolar syndrome in an alpaca cria

Physical examination of a 3-day-old female alpaca cria with a history of lethargy and anorexia revealed hyperthermia, muscle fasciculations, and tremors of the head. Hyperosmolar syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and high plasma osmolarity. A constant rate infusion of regular insulin was administered with hypo-osmolar fluids, and blood glucose and sodium concentrations were successfully lowered. Neurologic deficits resolved with treatment, and the cria was discharged 11 days after admission.

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