In This Issue—May 1, 2009

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JAVMA News
The AVMA budget went under the knife as the Executive Board worked to control costs for 2010.
Revenue has remained flat or declined for equine veterinarians, but practices remain afloat.See PAGE 1100
What Is Your Diagnosis?
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See PAGE 1127
ZOONOSIS UPDATE
Filovirus infections
Among the most deadly emerging zoonotic diseases are viral hemorrhagic fevers, including those caused by filoviruses such as Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Because of extensive global trade and ease of travel, a confined outbreak of filovirus infection in Africa could easily transform into a larger, more widespread occurrence.See PAGE 1130
Effects of adjunct electroacupuncture on severity of postoperative pain in dogs
Studies evaluating the effects of acupuncture on pain in humans and animals have had conflicting results. In a clinical trial involving 15 dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy because of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease that were treated with a combination of conventionalanalgesicsandelectroacupunctureorwithconventional analgesics alone, total dose of fentanyl administered during the first 12 hours after surgery was significantly lower in the treatment than in the control group, but dosages of analgesics administered from 12 through 72 hours after surgery did not differ between groups. Pain score was significantly lower in the treatment than in the control group 36 hours after surgery, but did not differ significantly between groups at any other time.See PAGE 1141
Gastric histopathologic abnormalities in dogs
Gastric disease in dogs is poorly characterized, and the percentage of dogs with gastric disease that also have intestinal involvement is not known. A review of medical records of 67 dogs that underwent gastrotomy, gastroduodenoscopy, or gastroscopy because of signs of gastrointestinal tract disease revealed that lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was the most frequent histopathologic finding (34/67 [50.7%]) and was often of minimal or mild severity. Forty-three of the 60 (71.7%) dogs in which both gastric and intestinal biopsy specimens were collected had concurrent pathologic changes involving the stomach and intestines. Findings support the practice of collecting both gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens whenever gastroduodenoscopy is performed.See PAGE 1147
Effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on wounds of the distal portion of the limbs in horses
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Extracorporeal shock wave therapy decreases healing time of soft tissue injuries, but whether it would have any effect on healing of wounds of the distal portion of the limbs in horses is not known. In 6 healthy adult horses, a 4-cm-diameter wound was created on each metacarpus and two 3-cm-diameter wounds were created on each metatarsus. One randomly selected metacarpal wound and a randomly selected pair of metatarsal wounds were treated once weekly with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Area of epithelialization, percentage of wound contraction, and intensity of staining for growth factors did not differ between treated and untreated wounds; however, healing time for treated wounds (mean, 76 days) was significantly shorter than healing time for untreated wounds (90 days).
See PAGE 1154
Comparison of three treatment regimens for sheep and goats with caseous lymphadenitis
Better options are needed for the treatment of abscesses in small ruminants with caseous lymphadenitis. In a prospective clinical trial, 44 sheep and goats with caseous lymphadenitis were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (opening, draining, and flushing lesions and SC administration of penicillin [n = 15]; closed-system lavage and intralesional administration of tulathromycin [15]; and closed-system lavage and SC administration of tulathromycin [18]). The proportion of animals in which lesions had resolved by 1 month after treatment did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Use of tulathromycin and penicillin constituted extralabel drug use, which required extended withholding times before milk or meat could be sold for human consumption.See PAGE 1162
Use of a plasma-derived colostrum replacer to prevent transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in calves
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Cost-effective, efficacious tools for halting transmission of MAP on dairy farms are needed. In a study involving 12 Holstein dairy farms, 497 heifer calves were randomly assigned to be fed raw bovine maternal colostrum (n = 261) or a commercial plasma-derived colostrum replacer. Calves were monitored to adulthood and tested for infection with MAP. Calves fed the colostrum replacer were significantly less likely (hazard ratio, 0.559) to become infected with MAP, compared with calves fed maternal colostrum. Findings suggested that maternal colostrum may be a source of MAP for calves and that feeding plasma-derived colostrum replacer may be an effective management tool for reducing the prevalence of Johne's disease.
See PAGE 1167
Prognostic indicators for nonambulatory cattle treated with a flotation tank system
Flotation tank systems have been advocated for the management of nonambulatory cattle, but are costly and labor intensive and can be stressful or painful for patients. A review of medical records of 51 nonambulatory cattle that underwent management in a flotation tank revealed that 19 of the 51 cattle survived. Cattle that stood apparently normally during the first flotation treatment, were able to walk out of the tank after the first flotation treatment, and ate during flotation treatment were significantly more likely to survive. Survivors and nonsurvivors did not differ significantly with regard to body weight, age, stage of lactation, duration of recumbency, or serum potassium, ionized calcium, or phosphate concentration or creatine kinase activity.See PAGE 1177

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