Veterinary involvement with fish continues to advance because of needs for high-quality individual animal care, population-based aquarium medicine, commercial aquaculture, and research.1,2 The growing number of valuable display fish being kept by private individuals has resulted in many practitioners becoming interested in fish medicine. Presently, fish medicine relies heavily on evaluation of water quality, external diagnostic tests (skin, gill, and fin sampling), and necropsy examinations for disease diagnosis.2 Although internal-imaging procedures, including radiography and ultrasonography, are routinely used and can be used to facilitate fine-needle aspiration for cytologic examination, they do not permit the collection of tissue biopsy specimens, which are generally preferred for the histologic diagnosis of internal disease.1–3 Although elective necropsy is undoubtedly preferred for disease diagnosis in group situations, it is unacceptable when dealing with valuable display fish. Consequently, the antemortem collection of internal tissue biopsy specimens is preferred, and 2 options are coeliotomy and coelioscopy.
Ventral midline coeliotomy has been advocated for many species of fish for exploration of the body cavity, corrective surgery, and tissue sampling.3–5 However, such techniques require substantial incisions to permit viewing and manipulation of tissue and are complicated by post-operative wound dehiscence, infection, and evisceration, especially when intensive postoperative care and antimicrobial treatment cannot be adequately provided. Laparoscopy has major benefits over traditional laparotomy in humans and other animals.5–15 Rigid endoscopy has been used for diagnostic purposes in fish for many years and more recently for performing endosurgery.3–5 Human laparoscopy has been credited with more rapid and accurate diagnosis, reduced need for extensive laparotomy, reduced surgical stress, reduced pain and discomfort, improved postoperative pulmonary function, reduced hypoxemia, reduced surgery times, and faster recoveries.7–11 However, there have been no controlled studies to assess the benefits, if any, of coelioscopy over coeliotomy in any piscine species. Therefore, the aim of the study reported here was to evaluate endoscopic and surgical visceral examination and biopsy by use of liver biopsy of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) as a laboratory model.
Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp, Gardena, Calif.
FountainPro WA90 submersible pump, Jeantech Inc, Ellsworth, Wis.
Model 811-B, Parks Medical Electronics Inc, Aloha, Ore.
Vet/Ox 4404, Heska Inc, Loveland, Colo.
Boehringer Mannheim Corp, Indianapolis, Ind.
Diagnostics Chemical Ltd (USA), Oxford, Conn.
Hitachi 912 analyzer, Boehringer Mannheim Corp, Indianapolis, Ind.
CIDEX, Advanced Sterilization Products, Irvine, Calif.
64018BSA, autoclavable Hopkins rigid telescope, 2.7-mm × 18-cm working length, 30°, Karl Storz Veterinary Endoscopy America Inc, Goleta, Calif.
67065C, operating sheath for 64018BSA telescope, 14.5-F outer diameter, Karl Storz Veterinary Endoscopy America Inc, Goleta, Calif.
69235106, veterinary video camera II, 9219-B Sony medical grade monitor, 201320-20 xenon light source, Karl Storz Veterinary Endoscopy America Inc, Goleta, Calif.
67161Z, flexible biopsy forceps, 5 F × 34 cm, Karl Storz Veterinary Endoscopy America Inc, Goleta, Calif.
Metacam (meloxicam), Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc, St Joseph, Mo.
SAS, version 9.1, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.
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