• 1.

    Forbes Lent SE, Hawkins EC. Evaluation of rhinoscopy and rhinoscopy-assisted mucosal biopsy in diagnosis of nasal disease in dogs: 119 cases (1985–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;201:14251429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Tasker S, Knottenbelt CM, Munro EAC, et al. Aetiology and diagnosis of persistent nasal disease in the dog: a retrospective study of 42 cases. J Small Anim Pract 1999;40:473478.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Burgener DC, Slocombe RF, Zerbe CA. Lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in five dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1987;23:565568.

  • 4.

    Windsor RC, Johnson LR, Herrgesell EJ, et al. Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs: 37 cases (1997–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:19521957.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Breitschwerdt EB, Kordick DL. Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000;13:428438.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Henn JB, Liu CH, Kasten RW, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Bartonella species and evaluation of risk factors and clinical signs associated with seropositivity in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:688694.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Breitschwerdt EB, Kordick DL, Malarkey DE, et al. Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:154160.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Pappalardo BL, Brown T, Gookin JL, et al. Granulomatous disease associated with Bartonella infection in two dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2000;14:3742.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Mexas AM, Hancock SI, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella elizabethae as potential canine pathogens. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:46704674.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Windsor RC, Johnson LR, Sykes JE, et al. Molecular detection of microbes in nasal tissue of dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:250256.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kordick SK, Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, et al. Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker hound kennel in North Carolina. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:26312638.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Duncan AW, Marr HS, Birkenheuer AJ, et al. Bartonella DNA in the blood and lymph nodes of Golden Retrievers with lymphoma and in healthy controls. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:8995.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Birkenheuer AJ, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB. Development and evaluation of a seminested PCR for detection and differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) and B canis DNA in canine blood samples. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:41724177.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Honadel TE, Chomel BB, Yamamoto K, et al. Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii exposure among healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:480484.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pappalardo BL, Correa MT, York CC, et al. Epidemiologic evaluation of the risk factors associated with exposure and seroreactivity to Bartonella vinsonii in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1997;58: 467471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Breitschwerdt EB, Blann KR, Stebbins ME, et al. Clinicopathological abnormalities and treatment response in 24 dogs seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) antigens. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2004;40:92101.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Maggi R, et al. Bartonella species as a potential cause of epistaxis in dogs. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:25292533.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Strasser JL, Hawkins EC. Clinical features of epistaxis in dogs: a retrospective study of 35 cases (1999–2002). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2005;41:179184.

  • 19.

    Duncan AW, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB. A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: pre-enrichment liquid culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates. J Microbiol Methods 2007;69:273281.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Duncan AW, et al. Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13:938940.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Diniz PP, Maggi RG, Schwartz DS, et al. Canine bartonellosis: serological and molecular prevalence in Brazil and evidence of co-infection with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Vet Res 2007;38:697710.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Failure to identify an association between serologic or molecular evidence of Bartonella infection and idiopathic rhinitis in dogs

Eleanor C. Hawkins DVM, DACVIM1, Lynelle R. Johnson DVM, PhD, DACVIM2, Lynn Guptill DVM, DACVIM3, Henry S. Marr BS4, Edward B. Breitschwerdt DVM, DACVIM5, and Adam J. Birkenheuer DVM, PhD, DACVIM6
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.

Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.

Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.

Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.

Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.

Contributor Notes

Supported by grants from the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation and the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Competitive Research Grants Program.

The authors thank Julie M. Bradley and Barbara C. Hegarty for technical assistance.

The following veterinarians contributed specimens for the study: Jeff D. Bay, Latham, NY; Peter J. Bondy Jr, Cooper City, Fla; Pam Boutilier, Downers Grove, Ill; Leah A. Cohn, Columbia, Mo; Wick Culp, Amarillo, Tex; James Delker, Soldotna, Alaska; Jeff Dennis, Overland Park, Kan; Melissa Dudley, Northboro, Mass; Marnin A. Forman, Worthington, Ohio; Erika H. Pickens, Dallas; Michele King, Portland, Ore; Ned F. Kuehn, Southfield, Mich; Kenneth K. Sadanaga, Malvern, Pa; Kimberly A. Sheaffer, Charlotte, NC; Claudia Sims, Greensboro, NC; Eric Weigand, Claremont, Calif; and Polina Vishkautsan, Mesa, Ariz.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hawkins.