In This Issue—March 15, 2008

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JAVMA News

While global in scope, the one-health approach depends on collaboration of every tier all the way to the local level.

See PAGE 816

Letter to the Editor

See PAGE 834

What Is Your Diagnosis?

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See PAGE 839

Theriogenology Question of the Month

See PAGE 841

Animal Behavior Case of the Month

See PAGE 845

Book Reviews

See PAGE 860

REFERENCE POINT

Zoonotic transmission of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli

Shiga toxin–producing strains of Escherichia coli are emerging zoonotic pathogens that are estimated to be responsible for > 100,000 cases of illness in people in the United States annually. Most infections are foodborne, but numerous outbreaks have been associated with animal contact, and the number of outbreaks associated with animal contact appears to have been increasing in recent years.

See PAGE 848

Levetiracetam as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with epilepsy

In cats with idiopathic epilepsy in which treatment with phenobarbital alone is ineffective or associated with adverse effects, alternative drugs are needed. In an open-label, clinical trial involving 12 cats with idiopathic epilepsy that was poorly controlled with phenobarbital or that had unacceptable adverse effects when treated with phenobarbital, levetiracetam (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) was added to the treatment regimen. Median seizure frequency prior to treatment with levetiracetam (2.1 seizures/mo) was significantly higher than median seizure frequency after initiation of levetiracetam treatment (0.42 seizures/mo), and 7 of 10 cats were classified as having responded to levetiracetam treatment (ie, reduction in seizure frequency of ≥ 50%).

See PAGE 867

Effects of training and strenuous exercise on hematologic values in racing sled dogs

Exercise training and exercise itself are known to cause predictable physiologic changes with corresponding alterations in peripheral blood components in many species. To determine expected ranges for hematologic values in racing sled dogs under conditions specifically associated with exercise training and extended-duration exercise, blood samples were collected from 39 healthy Alaskan racing sled dogs prior to initiation of a 7-month training regimen (n = 39), after completion of the training regimen (19), and after completion of an 1,100-mile race (9). Both training and exercise caused significant decreases in PCV and hemoglobin concentration and significant increases in total WBC count.

See PAGE 873

A multiagent versus a single-agent chemotherapeutic protocol in dogs with lymphoma

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In dogs with malignant lymphoma, treatment with chemotherapeutic protocols consisting of an induction phase and prolonged maintenance phase has resulted in longterm remission and survival times. However, results of various studies have suggested that maintenance chemotherapy may not be necessary to attain long-term remission and survival times in dogs with lymphoma. In a clinical trial involving 114 dogs with lymphoma treated with a chemotherapeutic protocol consisting of L-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and prednisolone (n = 87) or doxorubicin alone (27), we were unable to identify any significant differences in remission or survival times between treatment groups.

See PAGE 879

Arthropathy caused by a lead bullet in a dog

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A dog was examined because of progressive left forelimb lameness that developed 21 months after the dog was shot in the left elbow with a lead bullet. Physical examination findings were consistent with moderate osteoarthrosis of the left elbow joint, and radiography revealed osteoarthritis and multiple metallic fragments in and around the joint space. Arthroscopic removal of a bullet fragment and excess fibrin and synovium from the elbow joint resulted in substantial improvement in the lameness. Findings suggested that removal of intra-articular lead foreign bodies may be indicated even if the material is not believed to be mechanically interfering with joint motion.

See PAGE 886

Tibial plateau angles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture

Controversy exists regarding the importance of tibial plateau angle in relation to cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. To determine whether TPA could be used to predict whether a dog with unilateral CCL rupture would subsequently rupture the contralateral CCL, medical records of 150 dogs with unilateral (n = 58) or bilateral (92) CCL rupture were reviewed. Median TPA was not significantly different between dogs with unilateral versus bilateral CCL rupture, and there was no correlation between TPA and the time between diagnosis of the initial and subsequent CCL rupture in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture. Results suggested that TPA was not a useful predictor of contralateral CCL rupture.

See PAGE 889

Relationship between blood pressure and survival in critically ill cats

Blood pressure is an important measure of cardiovascular function, but little information is available on the relationship between blood pressure and outcome in critically ill cats. A review of medical records of 83 cats admitted to an intensive care unit in which blood pressure had been measured at least twice by means of Doppler ultrasonography revealed that 39 (47%) had hypotension (defined as ≥ 1 blood pressure measurement ≤ 90 mm Hg). Mortality rate was significantly higher for cats in the hypotensive group (25/39 [64%]) than for cats in the normotensive group (14/44 [32%]). For the hypotensive cats, those with an increase in blood pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg while hospitalized were more likely to survive.

See PAGE 893

Multinodular pulmonary fibrosis in five horses

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Five horses examined because of poor appetite, weight loss, fever, tachypnea, and respiratory distress were found to have multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations revealed a severe nodular interstitial pattern, and histologic examination revealed interstitial expansion of the alveolar parenchyma with collagen, intraluminal accumulations of neutrophils and macrophages, and occasional intranuclear inclusion bodies in alveolar macrophages. In all horses, equine herpesvirus 5 was detected by means of a PCR assay in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or both. Two horses survived with supportive treatment, but the other 3 were euthanized because of deterioration of their clinical condition or a failure to improve.

See PAGE 898

Mortality rate and growth performance in pigs vaccinated against porcine circovirus type 2

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In the past year, several commercial porcine circovirus type 2 vaccines have been introduced. However, there is little information on the effectiveness of these vaccines under field conditions. In a randomized controlled trial, pigs vaccinated against PCV2 at 3 and 6 weeks of age (n = 235) had a significantly lower mortality rate during the finishing phase, significantly higher average daily gain during the finishing phase, and significantly lower percentage of lightweight pigs at the time of marketing, compared with control pigs (250). At the time of marketing, vaccinated pigs weighed an average of 8.8 kg (19.4 lb) more than control pigs, without any difference in days to marketing.

See PAGE 906

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