Mean arterial blood pressure
Systemic vascular resistance
Cardiac output measured by means of lithium dilution
AV-E anesthesia ventilator, North American DRÄGER, Telford, Pa.
BCI 9100 multigas monitor, BCI International, Waukesha, Wis.
ESCORT II+ model 20101, Medical Data Electronics, Arleta, Calif.
LiDCO cardiac sensor system, LiDCO Ltd, Coppell, Tex.
IRMA blood analysis system, Diametrics Medical Inc, Saint Paul, Minn.
OSMTM3 hemoximeter, Radiometer America Inc, Westlake, Ohio.
Proc Mixed in SAS release 9.1, SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Gaynor JS, Dunlop CI, Wagner AE, et al. Complications and mortality associated with anesthesia in dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1999;35:13–17.
Lee Y-HL, Clarke KW, Alibhai HIK, et al. Effects of dopamine, dobutamine, dopexamine, phenylephrine, and saline solution on intramuscular blood flow and other cardiopulmonary variables in halothane-anesthetized ponies. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1463–1472.
Pypendop BH, Verstegen JP. Hemodynamic effects of medetomidine in the dog: a dose titration study. Vet Surg 1998;27:612–622.
Linton RA, Band D, O'Brien T, et al. Lithium dilution cardiac output measurements: a comparison with thermodilution. Crit Care Med 1997;25:1796–1800.
Linton RA, Young LE, Marlin DJ, et al. Cardiac output measured by lithium dilution, thermodilution, and transesophageal Doppler echocardiography in anesthetized horses. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:731–737.
Mason DJ, O'Grady M, Woods JP, et al. Assessment of lithium dilution cardiac output as a technique for measurement of cardiac output in dogs (Erratum published in Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1611). Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1255–1261.
Mason DJ, O'Grady M, Woods JP, et al. Effect of background serum lithium concentrations on the accuracy of lithium dilution cardiac output determination in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1048–1052.
Miyake Y, Wagner AE, Hellyer PW. Evaluation of hemodynamic measurements, including lithium dilution cardiac output, in anesthetized dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1419–1423.
Wagner AE, Dunlop CI, Chapman PL. Cardiopulmonary measurements in dogs undergoing gastropexy without gastrectomy for correction of gastric dilatation-volvulus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:484–488.
Wagner AE, Dunlop CI, Heath RB, et al. Hemodynamic function during neurectomy in halothane-anesthetized horses with or without constant dose detomidine infusion. Vet Surg 1992;21:248–255.
Wagner AE, Dunlop CI, Wertz EM, et al. Hemodynamic responses of horses to anesthesia and surgery, before and after administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Vet Surg 1995;24:78–85.
Raisis AL, Blissitt KJ, Henley W, et al. The effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function in laterally recumbent horses. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:317–325.
Dyson DH, Sinclair MD. Impact of dopamine or dobutamine infusions on cardiovascular variables after rapid blood loss and volume replacement during isoflurane-induced anesthesia in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:1121–1130.
Joas TA, Stephens WC. Comparison of the arrhythmic doses of epinephrine during Forane, halothane and fluroxene anesthesia in dogs. Anesthesiology 1971;35:48–53.
Hellyer PW, Mama KR, Shafford HL, et al. Effects of diazepam and flumazenil on minimum alveolar concentrations for dogs anesthetized with isoflurane or a combination of isoflurane and fentanyl. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:555–560.
Probst CW, Webb AI. Postural influence on systemic blood pressure, gas exchange, and acid/base status in the term-pregnant bitch during general anesthesia. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:1963–1965.
Bornscheuer A, Mahr K-H, Botel C, et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of lying position in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs. J Exp Anim Sci 1996;38:20–27.
Hellyer PW, Wagner AE, Mama KR, et al. The effects of dobutamine and ephedrine on packed cell volume, total protein, heart rate, and blood pressure in anaesthetized horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1998;21:497–499.
Magrini F. Haemodynamic determinants of the arterial blood pressure rise during growth in conscious puppies. Cardiovasc Res 1978;12:422–428.