• 1.

    Wegner K, Robertson SA. Dose-related thermal antinociceptive effects of intravenous hydromorphone in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2007;34:132138.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Steagall PVM, Carnicelli P, Taylor PM, et al. Effects of subcutaneous methadone, morphine, buprenorphine or saline on thermal and pressure thresholds in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2006;29:531537.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Steagall PVM, Taylor PM, Brondani JT, et al. Effects of buprenorphine, carprofen and saline on thermal mechanical nociceptive threshold in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2007;34:344350.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Franks JN, Boothe HW, Taylor L, et al. Evaluation of transdermal fentanyl patches for analgesia in cats undergoing onchyectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:10131018.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Johnson JA, Robertson SA, Pypendop BH. Antinociceptive effects of butorphanol, buprenorphine, or both, administered intramuscularly in cats. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:699703.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Stanway GW, Taylor PM, Brodbelt DC. A preliminary investigation comparing pre-operative morphine and buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia and sedation in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2002;29:2935.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Robertson SA, Taylor PM, Lascelles BDX, et al. Changes in thermal threshold response in eight cats after administration of buprenorphine, butorphanol and morphine. Vet Rec 2003;153:462465.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Curcio K, Bidwell LA, Bohart GV, et al. Evaluation of signs of postoperative pain and complications after forelimb onychectomy in cats receiving buprenorphine alone or with bupivicaine administered as a four-point regional nerve block. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:6568.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lascelles BD, Robertson SA. Antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone, butorphanol, or the combination in cats. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:190195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ, Fisher LD. Effect of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:12741279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ, Tripp LD. Effects of morphine, butorphanol, buprenorphine, and U50488H on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:11981202.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Yackey M, Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ, et al. Effect of transdermally administered fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2004;31:183189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Pascoe PJ, Ilkiw JE, Fisher LD. Cardiovascular effects of equipotent isoflurane and alfentanil/isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration multiple in cats. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:12671273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Pypendop BH, Pascoe PJ, Ilkiw JE. Effects of epidural administration of morphine and buprenorphine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:14711475.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pypendop BH, Ilkiw JE. Hemodynamic effects of sevoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:2025.

  • 16.

    Hikasa Y, Ohe N, Takase K, et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane in cats: comparison with isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane. Res Vet Sci 1997;63:205210.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Eggers K, Power I. Tramadol hydrochloride—not just another opioid agonist. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995;39:338339.

  • 18.

    Grond S, Sablotzki A. Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004;43:879923.

  • 19.

    Haeseler G, Foadi N, Ahrens J. Tramadol, fentanyl and sufentanil but not morphine block voltage-operated sodium channels. Pain 2006;126:234244.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mastrocinque S, Fantoni DT. A comparison of preoperative tramadol and morphine for the control of early postoperative pain in canine ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg 2003;30:220228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Steagall PV, Taylor PM, Brondani JT, et al. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol and acepromazine in cats. J Feline Med Surg 2008;10:2431.

  • 22.

    Teppema LJ, Nieuwenhuijs D, Olievier CN, et al. Respiratory depression by tramadol in the cat: involvement of opioid receptors. Anesthesiology 2003;98:420427.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Doi M, Yunoki H, Ikeda K. The minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in cats. J Anesth 1988;2:113114.

  • 24.

    Ko JC, Lange DN, Mandsager RE, et al. Effects of butorphanol and carprofen on the minimal alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:10251028.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kukanich B, Papich MG. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and the metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2004;27:239246.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Lamont LA, Greene SA, Grimm KA, et al. Relationship of bispectral index to minimum alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:9398.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Barter LS, Ilkiw JE, Steffey EP, et al. Animal dependence of inhaled anaesthetic requirements in cats. Br J Anaesth 2004;92:275277.

  • 28.

    Raffa RB, Friderichs E, Reimann W, et al. Opioid and nonopioid components independently contribute to the mechanism of action of tramadol, an ‘atypical’ opioid analgesic. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992;260:275285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Wolff MH, Leather HA, Wouters PF. Effects of tramadol on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rats. Br J Anaesth 1999;83:780783.

  • 30.

    Webb AR, Leong S, Myles PS, et al. The addition of a tramadol infusion to morphine patient-controlled analgesia after abdominal surgery: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Anesth Analg 2002;95:17131718.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Lehmann KA, Horrichs G, Hoeckle W. The significance of tramadol as an intraoperative analgesic. A randomised double-blind study in comparison with placebo [in German]. Anaesthesist 1985;34:1119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Eggers KA, Power I. Tramadol. Br J Anaesth 1995;74:247248.

  • 33.

    Coetzee JF, Maritz JS, du Toi. JC. Effect of tramadol on depth of anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1996;76:415418.

  • 34.

    Vaughan DJ, Shinner G, Thornton C, et al. Effect of tramadol on electroencephalographic and auditory-evoked response variables during light anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2000;85:705707.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Paravicini D, Trauner K, Lawin P. Tramadol infusion anesthesia with the substitution of enflurane and various nitrous oxide concentrations [in German]. Anaesthesist 1985;34:2027.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effect of orally administered tramadol alone or with an intravenously administered opioid on minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in cats

Jeff C. H. Ko DVM, MS, DACVA1, Lisa A. Abbo DVM2, Ann B. Weil MS, DVM, DACVA3, Brenda M. Johnson BS4, Tomohito Inoue DVM5, and Mark E. Payton PhD6
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 6 Department of Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of oral administration of tramadol alone and with IV administration of butorphanol or hydromorphone on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in cats.

Design—Crossover study.

Animals—8 healthy 3-year-old cats.

Procedures—Cats were anesthetized with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. A standard tail clamp method was used to determine the MAC of sevoflurane following administration of tramadol (8.6 to 11.6 mg/kg [3.6 to 5.3 mg/lb], PO, 5 minutes before induction of anesthesia), butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.04 mg/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL/kg [0.023 mL/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), or tramadol with butorphanol or with hydromorphone (same doses and routes of administration). Naloxone (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IV) was used to reverse the effects of treatments, and MACs were redetermined.

Results—Mean ± SEM MACs for sevoflurane after administration of tramadol (1.48 ± 0.20%), butorphanol (1.20 ± 0.16%), hydromorphone (1.76 ± 0.15%), tramadol and butorphanol (1.48 ± 0.20%), and tramadol and hydromorphone (1.85 ± 0.20%) were significantly less than those after administration of saline solution (2.45 ± 0.22%). Naloxone reversed the reductions in MACs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of tramadol, butorphanol, or hydromorphone reduced the MAC of sevoflurane in cats, compared with that in cats treated with saline solution. The reductions detected were likely mediated by effects of the drugs on opioid receptors. An additional reduction in MAC was not detected when tramadol was administered with butorphanol or hydromorphone.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of oral administration of tramadol alone and with IV administration of butorphanol or hydromorphone on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in cats.

Design—Crossover study.

Animals—8 healthy 3-year-old cats.

Procedures—Cats were anesthetized with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. A standard tail clamp method was used to determine the MAC of sevoflurane following administration of tramadol (8.6 to 11.6 mg/kg [3.6 to 5.3 mg/lb], PO, 5 minutes before induction of anesthesia), butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.04 mg/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL/kg [0.023 mL/lb], IV, 30 minutes after induction), or tramadol with butorphanol or with hydromorphone (same doses and routes of administration). Naloxone (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IV) was used to reverse the effects of treatments, and MACs were redetermined.

Results—Mean ± SEM MACs for sevoflurane after administration of tramadol (1.48 ± 0.20%), butorphanol (1.20 ± 0.16%), hydromorphone (1.76 ± 0.15%), tramadol and butorphanol (1.48 ± 0.20%), and tramadol and hydromorphone (1.85 ± 0.20%) were significantly less than those after administration of saline solution (2.45 ± 0.22%). Naloxone reversed the reductions in MACs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of tramadol, butorphanol, or hydromorphone reduced the MAC of sevoflurane in cats, compared with that in cats treated with saline solution. The reductions detected were likely mediated by effects of the drugs on opioid receptors. An additional reduction in MAC was not detected when tramadol was administered with butorphanol or hydromorphone.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University.

Presented in part at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists, New Orleans, September 2007.

The authors thank Constance Nicklin for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ko.