In This Issue—October 1, 2007

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JAVMA News

In a letter to the California Supreme Court, AVMA President Gregory S. Hammer asks the body to review an appeal filed by the California VMA on a declawing decision. Writing to the commissioner of the National Football League, Dr. Hammer encourages the NFL to discourage violence toward animals.

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Letter from the new Executive Vice President

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Letters to the Editor

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What Is Your Diagnosis?

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See PAGES 1031, 1033

PUBLIC VETERINARY MEDICINE: PUBLIC HEALTH

Risk behaviors for disease transmission among petting zoo attendees

Contact with animals in public venues such as fairs and petting zoos has important benefits, including education concerning animals and animal husbandry, encouraging compassion for animals, and entertainment. However, contact can also lead to transmission of zoonotic disease. An observational study of 6 petting zoos in Tennessee revealed that highrisk behaviors were common among visitors and that disease prevention guidelines were inconsistently followed.

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REFERENCE POINT

Use of bone morphogenetic proteins for augmentation of bone regeneration

A large body of preclinical and clinical data now documents that recombinant BMPs can be used for skeletal regeneration in humans and animals. Recombinant human BMP-2 and BMP-7 have been approved for use in human patients with long-bone fractures and nonunions and in patients undergoing lumbar fusion or various maxillofacial and dental regenerative procedures. These products have also been made available for veterinary use.

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ORIGINAL STUDY

Cisplatin-piroxicam for treatment of dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder

Administration of cisplatin in combination with piroxicam has been shown to have antitumor activity in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Use of this combination, however, has been limited by frequent and, in some cases, severe renal toxic effects. In a prospective study of 14 dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder, cisplatin was administered in combination with piroxicam, but the dosage of cisplatin (40 to 50 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d) was lower than that used previously. Unfortunately, minimal antitumor activity and frequent renal and gastrointestinal tract toxicoses were identified. The combination of cisplatin and piroxicam is not recommended.

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ORIGINAL STUDY

Onset of heart failure in dogs with mitral valve insufficiency treated with enalapril

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The hypothesis that enalapril, an angioten-sin-converting enzyme inhibitor, would delay the onset of clinical signs of congestive heart failure in dogs with compensated, moderate to severe mitral valve regurgitation was tested in a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Time to onset of CHF for dogs treated with enalapril (n = 59) was not significantly different from that for dogs treated with a placebo (65). However, a significantly higher proportion of dogs in the enalapril treatment group remained free from signs of CHF after 500 and 1,500 days, suggesting that long-term treatment with enalapril yielded a modest delay in onset of CHF.

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RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Distal femoral osteotomy for treatment of distal femoral varus and medial patellar luxation in dogs

Excessive femoral varus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of medial patellar luxation in dogs, although only recently have efforts been made to document and treat femoral varus in dogs with medial patellar luxation. A review of medical records for 12 large-breed dogs with medial patellar luxation and distal femoral varus in which a distal femoral osteotomy was performed in conjunction with other procedures for correction of the medial patellar luxation revealed good longterm results. Medial patellar luxation did not recur in any of the dogs (minimum follow-up time, 18 months), and ownerreported scores for 10 variables related to patient comfort and function were significantly improved, compared with preoperative scores.

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RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Prevalence of and risk factors for appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs

Since the early 1990s, adoption of retired racing Greyhounds has resulted in a substantial increase in the number of Greyhounds in the pet population. Although other sighthound breeds are known to be at risk for OSA, there is no specific information on prevalence and risk factors for OSA in Greyhounds. A review of medical records for 179 dogs with appendicular OSA indicated that breed period prevalence of OSA was highest for Greyhounds, followed by Rottweilers and Great Danes. All 21 Greyhounds with OSA were retired from racing. In all 3 breeds, sex was not identified as a risk factor for OSA, but risk of OSA increased with age.

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RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Diagnostic imaging findings in dogs with PDH with or without neurologic abnormalities

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Tumor size alone cannot be used to predict development of neurologic abnormalities in dogs with pituitarydependent hyperadrenocorticism, and more information is needed on the size of pituitary tumors in dogs with PDH. In a study of 157 dogs with PDH, 60 of the 84 (71%) dogs without neurologic abnormalities and 48 of the 73 (66%) dogs with neurologic abnormalities had a detectable pituitary tumor. However, 17 of the 84 (20%) dogs without neurologic abnormalities had a pituitary macrotumor (ie, a tumor ≥10 mm in height), and 41 of the 73 (56%) dogs with neurologic abnormalities did not have a detectable pituitary tumor or had a pituitary microtumor.

See PAGE 1081

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

In vitro susceptibility patterns of fungi isolated from horses with keratomycosis

Topical antifungal medications are commonly used for treatment of keratomycosis in horses; however, few studies have reported in vitro susceptibility patterns of corneal fungal isolates from horses in defined geographic regions. A review of medical records of 68 horses with keratomycosis in the northeastern United States identified 74 fungal isolates for which antifungal susceptibility had been determined. Organisms of the genera Aspergillus, Candida, and Fusarium were most frequently isolated. On the basis of results of in vitro susceptibility testing, nystatin, natamycin, and clotrimazole were recommended for initial treatment of keratomycosis in horses in the northeastern United States. Miconazole had lower in vitro efficacy.

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ORIGINAL STUDY

Hyperimmunization with an Escherichia coli J5 bacterin in adult lactating dairy cows

Evidence suggests that administration of multiple doses of an Escherichia coli J5 bacterin might improve the host antibody response, but little is known about the effect of hyperimmunization in dairy cattle. In a randomized controlled trial in which Holstein cows in their second lactation or greater were given 3 (control; n = 497) or 6 (hyperimmunization; 515) doses of a J5 bacterin, hyperimmunization was associated with an increase in serum anti-J5 IgG2 concentration and a decrease in the incidence of severe clinical mastitis. The percentage of cows remaining in the herd to the end of lactation was significantly lower for control cows than for cows in the hyperimmunization group.

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RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Fatal gastrointestinal parasitism in goats

Gastrointestinal parasitism has been described as the most important cause of production loss and death among goats in North America. A study of 152 goats undergoing postmortem examination at Oregon State University during a 5.4-year period revealed that 31 (20%) died of gastrointestinal parasitism. Age of affected goats ranged from 1 month to 7 years, and death was attributed to coccidiosis, trichostrongylosis, or dual infection. A sudden onset of weakness or death was a common historical finding, and diarrhea was evident in 15 goats. Analysis of annual variations in weather pattern indicated that fluctuations in weather pattern should be considered when designing anthelmintic programs for goats.

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