The USDA considers game bird species to include grouse, guineafowl, partridges, pigeons (squabs), quail, pheasants, ducks, geese, and wild turkey. According to USDA regulations, although these game bird species may not be hunted in the wild for the purpose of being sold for human consumption, they may be sold for food when raised in captivity.1
In the United States, over 8 billion chickens and 220 million domestic turkeys are sold for human food consumption on an annual basis.2 In comparison, 37 million quail, 4 million chukars, 10 million pheasants, and 1 million mallard ducks are reportedly sold for food.1 Veterinarians who treat game birds need access to therapeutic drugs and need to be able to provide appropriate WDIs to ensure that drug residues will not enter the food chain. The purpose of this digest is to familiarize veterinarians with the few drugs that are approved for use in game birds and to provide information on the status of ELDU in these species.
Extralabel drug use
Compliance Policy Guidance
Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank
Extrapolated withdrawal-period estimator
Yong CW. Salinomycin toxicity in turkeys (abstr). Can Vet J 1990;31:220.
USDA Web site. Fact sheets. Meat preparation. Food safety of farm-raised game. Available at: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Farm_Raised_Game/index.asp. Accessed Feb 1, 2007.
USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, Poultry Programs, Market News Branch. Available at: www.ams.usda.gov/poultry/mncs/WeeklyPoultrySlaughter/2006Reports/PY20051230WPoultrySlaughter.pdf. Accessed Feb 1, 2007.
New animal drug applications. Title 21 CFR Chapter 1, part 514, section 1 (d) (1) (ii). Available at: frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi?YEAR=current&TITLE=21&PART=514&SE CTION=1&SUBPART=&TYPE=TEXT. Accessed Apr 1, 2007.
Extralabel drug use in animals. Title 21 CFR Chapter 1, part 530. Available at: www.fda.gov/cvm/Documents/530.txt. Accessed Apr 1, 2007.
Extra-label use of medicated feeds for minor species. Compliance policy guide. Office of Regulatory Affairs, United States FDA Web site. Available at: www.fda.gov/ora/compliance_ref/cpg/cpgvet/cpg615-115.html. Accessed Apr 1, 2007.
Cortright KA, Craigmill AL. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of midazolam in hepatic microsomes from chickens, turkeys, pheasant and bobwhite quail. Vet Pharmacol Ther 2006;29:469–476.
Gozalo AS, Schwiebert RS, Lawson GW. Mortality associated with fenbendazole administration in pigeons (Columba livia). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2006;45:63–66.
Martin-Jimenez T, Baynes RE & Craigmill A, et al. Extrapolated withdrawal-interval estimator (EWE) algorithm: a quantitative approach to establishing extralabel withdrawal times. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2002;36:131–137.
Donoghue DJ. Modeling risks from antibiotic and other residues in poultry and eggs. In: Mead GC, ed. Food safety control in the poultry industry. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, 2005;83–100.
Iovine NM, Blaser MJ. Antibiotics in animal feed and spread of resistant Campylobacter from poultry to humans. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:1158–1159.
Humphrey TJ, Jorgensen F & Frost JA, et al. Prevalence and subtypes of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter spp. in commercial poultry flocks before, during, and after treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005;49:690–698.
Clark L, Hall J. Avian influenza in wild birds: status as reservoirs, and risks to humans and agriculture. Ornithological monographs 2006;60:3–29.