Obstructive urolithiasis is a common condition of male goats that is inevitably fatal without medical or surgical intervention1–5 Affected animals may have urethral obstruction alone or develop secondary complications of ruptured bladder and uroperitoneum or ruptured urethra with subcutaneous urine pooling.5 Laboratory abnormalities associated with obstructive urolithiasis in most nonruminant species include azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis.6–9 Urolithic cattle have similar abnormalities, except that potassium and phosphorus may be either increased or within reference intervals; cattle also may have metabolic alkalosis.10–13 Azotemia is the only well-documented serum biochemical abnormality in urolithic goats.3,4,14,15 Because treatment often includes surgery with general anesthesia, knowledge of expected serum biochemical abnormalities is important in patient care. The purpose of the study reported here was to characterize the serum biochemical abnormalities in urolithic goats to determine whether they are similar to those reported in other species.
University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital
Glomerular filtration rate
Angelos J, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Calif: Personal communication, 2003.
Van Metre DC, Smith BP. Clinical management of urolithiasis in small ruminants, in Proceedings. 9th Annu Am Coll Vet Intern Med Forum 1991;555–557.
Van Metre DC, House JK, Smith BP, et al. Ostructive urolithiasis in ruminants: medical treatment and urethral surgery. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1996;18:317–328.
Van Metre DC, Fecteau G, House JK, et al. Obstructive urolithiasis in ruminants: surgical management and prevention. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1996;18:S275–S289.
Finco DR, Cornelius LM. Characterization and treatment of water, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances of induced urethral obstruction in the cat. Am J Vet Res 1977;38:823–830.
Burrows CF, Bovee KC. Metabolic changes due to experimentally induced rupture of the canine urinary bladder. Am J Vet Res 1974;35:1083–1088.
Donecker J, Bellamy J. Blood chemical abnormalities in cattle with ruptured bladders and ruptured urethras. Can Vet J 1982;23:355–377.
Sockett DC, Knight AP, Fettman MJ, et al. Metabolic changes due to experimentally induced rupture of the bovine urinary bladder. Cornell Vet 1986;76:198–212.
Sockett DC, Knight AP. Metabolic changes associated with obstructive urolithiasis in cattle. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1984;6:S311–S315.
Kumper H. Urolithiasis in male sheep and goats. Clinical picture, therapeutic possibilities and prognostic evaluation. Tierarztl Prax 1994;22:234–241.
Kyles AE, Hardie EM, Wooden BG, et al. Clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi: 163 cases (1984–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:932–936.
Snyder DM, Steffey MA, Mehler SJ, et al. Diagnosis and surgical management of ureteral calculi in dogs: 16 cases (1990–2003). N Z Vet J 2005;53:19–25.
Ehnen SJ, Divers TJ, Gillette D, et al. Obstructive nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis associated with chronic renal failure in horses: eight cases (1981–1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;197:249–253.
Bickhardt K, Ganter M, Steinmann Chavez C. Clinical kidney function studies in sheep. III. Pathologic function changes in nephropathies of sheep and in urolithiasis of rams and billy goats. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1995;102:59–64.
Bravo D, Sauvant D, Bogaert C, et al. II. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption in ruminants. Reprod Nutr Dev 2003;43:271–284.
Bravo D, Sauvant D, Bogaert C, et al. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants. Reprod Nutr Dev 2003;43:285–300.
Hoar DW, Emerick RJ, Embry LB. Ovine phosphatic urolithiasis as related to the phosphorus and calcium contents and acid-base-forming effects of all-concentrate diets. J Anim Sci 1969;29:647–652.
Scott D, Buchan W. The effects of feeding either roughage or concentrate diets on salivary phosphorus secretion, net intestinal phosphorus absorption and urinary phosphorus excretion in the sheep. Q J Exp Physiol 1985;70:365–375.
Sato H. The effect of bilateral ligation of the parotid duct on phosphorus, sodium and potassium metabolism and acid-base balance in the goat. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 1975;37:155–164.
Divers TJ, Crowell WA, Duncan JR, et al. Acute renal disorders in cattle: a retrospective study of 22 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982;181:694–699.
Eschbach JW, Adamson JW, Dennis MB. Physiologic studies in normal and uremic sheep: I. The experimental model. Kidney Int 1980;18:725–731.
Qunibi WY. Consequences of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney Int Suppl 2004;90: S8–S12.
Huber K, Walter C, Schroder B, et al. Phosphate transport in the duodenum and jejunum of goats and its adaptation by dietary phosphate and calcium. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002;283:R296–R302.
Maddux JM, Moore WE, Keeton KS, et al. Dexamethasone-induced serum biochemical changes in goats. Am J Vet Res 1988;49:1937–1940.
Body JJ, Cryer PE, Offord KP, et al. Epinephrine is a hypophosphatemic hormone in man. Physiological effects of circulating epinephrine on plasma calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin. J Clin Invest 1983;71:572–578.
Prie D, Ravery V, Boccon-Gibod L, et al. Frequency of renal phosphate leak among patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int 2001;60:272–276.
Prie D, Beck L, Friedlander G, et al. Sodium-phosphate cotransporters, nephrolithiasis and bone demineralization. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2004;13:675–681.
Aroch I, Klement E, Segev G. Clinical, biochemical, and hematological characteristics, disease prevalence, and prognosis of dogs presenting with neutrophil cytoplasmic toxicity. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:64–73.
Segev G, Klement E, Aroch I. Toxic neutrophils in cats: clinical and clinicopathologic features, and disease prevalence and outcome—a retrospective case control study. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:20–31.
Zivin JR, Gooley T, Zager RA, et al. Hypocalcemia: a pervasive metabolic abnormality in the critically ill. Am J Kidney Dis 2001;37:689–698.