In This Issue—March 15, 2006

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JAVMA News

825

American veterinarians leave the comforts of home to lend a hand in the rebuilding of Afghanistan's veterinary infrastructure.

Veterinary Medicine Today

What Is Your Diagnosis?

A 12-year-old horse examined because of right fore-limb lameness

845

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A 1-year-old horse evaluated because of signs of abdominal pain

847

Anesthesia Case of the Month

Altered respiratory function during anesthesia of a cat for removal of a lung lobe abscess

850

Theriogenology Question of the Month

Infertility in an otherwise healthy 11-month-old dog

855

Public Veterinary Medicine: Public Health

Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2006

858

Annual review of recommendations for animal rabies prevention and control programs in the United States.

Scientific Reports

SMALL ANIMALS

Outcome of cataract surgery in dogs

870

Although veterinary ophthalmologists can evaluate ocular disease and assess vision in the examination room, owner assessments of their dogs' vision and quality of life based on longer periods of observation of the dogs performing in their normal environment and in visually challenging circumstances are valuable. A survey of owners of 108 dogs that underwent phacoemulsification revealed that owner perception of outcome was highly favorable. However, adequate explanation of surgical risks and the importance of postoperative examinations, particularly in dogs undergoing visual deterioration, is essential.

Adverse effects of carprofen in dogs

876

Carprofen is generally considered to be well tolerated by dogs, but most previous studies involved short-term administration. In a randomized clinical trial, dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip or elbow joint received carprofen PO (n = 13) or a placebo (9) for 2 months. No clinically important differences in clinical signs or serum biochemical values were identified between groups, and carprofen appeared to be well tolerated by the dogs, even with prolonged administration.

Coil placement for embolization of patent ductus arteriosis in dogs

881

Unintentional coil embolization of the pulmonary artery system can occur during attempted transarterial transcatheter closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in dogs if the tip of the delivery catheter is in the pulmonary artery as the coil is released. After initial positioning of the coil via fluoroscopic guidance, transthoracic echocardiography appears to be a useful and easy method of ensuring that only a single loop of the coil is positioned in the main pulmonary artery before coil detachment.

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Prevalence of nematode parasitism in pet cats

885

Previous surveys have documented prevalences of roundworm infection among cats in the United States ranging from 2.8% to 33% and prevalences of hook-worm infection ranging from 0.9% to 10.2%. Such surveys, however, have typically been limited to specific regions of the country or selected populations of cats. A survey of 80,278 fecal samples from 66,819 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals in the United States during 2003 found that prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively.

Dysmyelopoiesis in cats

893

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Dysmyelopoiesis is a general term for dysplastic conditions of hematopoietic cells. A review of medical records for 34 cats with dysmyelopoiesis revealed that cats could be subcategorized as having myelodysplastic syndrome with excessive numbers of blast cells (n = 13), myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory cytopenias (8), a variant form of myelodysplastic syndrome (1), or secondary dysmyelopoiesis (12). Differentiating between myelodysplastic syndrome with excessive numbers of blast cells and myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory cytopenias was useful in predicting outcome.

Strontium 90 irradiation of cutaneous mast cell tumors in cats

898

In cats, cutaneous mast cell tumors are usually restricted to the dermis or subcutis and rarely metastasize, making them different in those respects from cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs. Irradiation with strontium 90 resulted in local tumor control for 53 of 54 cutaneous mast cell tumors in 35 cats. Adverse effects of treatment were infrequent and mild, indicating that irradiation with strontium 90 should be considered an effective alternative to surgical resection in management of these tumors in cats.

MRI in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease

902

Intervertebral disk disease in dogs has been classified on the basis of clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Recently, however, MRI has come into wider use as a diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine, but no classification system for thoracolumbar IVDD or cartilage endplate degeneration in dogs has been published. Review of records for 69 dogs with IVDD revealed that 4 types of IVDD (disk degeneration, bulging of the intervertebral disk, disk protrusion, and disk extrusion) could be identified on the basis of MRI findings.

EQUINE

Arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint in a horse

909

Various methods for arthrodesis of the DIP joint have been described; however, horses all remained lame at a walk or sustained complications. In a horse with severe osteoarthritis of the DIP joint, arthrodesis was performed with minimal soft tissue trauma by means of arthroscopic removal of articular cartilage and placement of transarticular cortical screws through holes drilled in the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall. Eight months after surgery, fusion of the DIP joint was evident radiographically and the horse was pasture sound.

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RUMINANTS

Neonatal serum IgG1 concentration and health and performance of beef calves

914

Little has been done to quantify the association between neonatal serum IgG1 concentration and subsequent health and performance in beef calves. In a study of 1,568 crossbred beef calves, those with serum IgG1 concentration < 2,400 mg/dL were 1.6 times as likely to become ill before weaning and 2.7 times as likely to die before weaning as were calves with higher serum IgG1 concentrations. Calves with serum IgG1 concentration of at least 2,700 mg/dL weighed an estimated 3.35 kg (7.38 lb) more at 205 days of age than did calves with lower serum IgG1 concentration.

AQUATIC ANIMALS

Surgical approach to the coelomic cavity in sea turtles

922

Ingestion of fishhooks and fishing lines by loggerhead sea turtles can cause obstruction or perforation of the stomach and intestines. A surgical approach to the cranial portion of the coelomic cavity through the axillary region can be used to remove gastroduodenal foreign bodies and appears to be a feasible alternative to plastron osteotomy. Moreover, in sea turtles, an inguinal approach to the coelomic cavity allows exteriorization of the intestinal tract from jejunum to colon, which facilitates removal of long linear foreign bodies.

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