In February 2004, an HPAI virus was confirmed to have infected a flock of broiler chickens in Gonzales County, Texas. Subsequent epidemiologic investigation identified infected birds in 2 live-bird markets in the area of Houston, Tex; these markets had received birds from the index flock or birds that had been transported by the index flock manager. All infected premises were depopulated, cleaned, and disinfected. Disease surveillance standards were established to assess the potential for spread of this virus from the index flock. Surveillance testing in commercial and noncommercial poultry operations revealed no area spread of virus from the index flock. We believe that the effective control of this outbreak that limited the disease to the index premises and 2 live-bird markets was attributable to the preexisting plan for surveillance and control developed for use by the TPF in the event of identification of a notifiable AI virus outbreak; the rapid response of the TAHC to implement control procedures following identification of the index flock; the establishment and subsequent efforts of a joint USDA-TAHC task force in Gonzales, Tex; the ability of the TVMDL to rapidly and accurately test samples collected as part of the ongoing surveillance program; and the cooperation of commercial and noncommercial poultry operation managers and owners in surveillance testing of flocks. All quarantines and hold orders established during this outbreak were released by March 31, 2004. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the AI outbreak in Texas in 2004.
High pathogenicity AI
Texas Poultry Federation
Texas Animal Health Commission
Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratories
Low pathogenicity AI
Agar gel immunodiffusion
Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR
National Veterinary Services Diagnostic Laboratory
Smith W, USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Riverdale, Md: Personal communication, 2004.
Senne D, USDA, National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, Iowa: Personal communication, 2004.
Halvorson DA, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minn: Personal communication, 2004.
Directigen EZ Flu A+B lateral flow test kit, Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ.
Argentina, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, European Union, French Polynesia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan.
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