The AVMA Executive Board tackled wild animals, research funding, acclimation certificates, and other tough topics during its spring meeting.
Letters to the Editor
Veterinary Medicine Today
What Is Your Diagnosis?
A young cat evaluated because of lethargy and stertorous breathing of 3 days' duration
A 6-year-old dog referred for surgical evaluation after being hit by an automobile earlier the same day
ECG of the Month
A 7-year-old cat evaluated because of a sudden onset of recumbency, unresponsiveness, ptyalism, and shallow breathing
Theriogenology Question of the Month
A 15-year-old pregnant mare examined to determine the cause of frank, hemorrhagic vaginal discharge
Nutrient-gene interactions and their role in complex diseases in dogs
By combining canine sequence data, genomic technologies, and bioinformatics into research initiatives already in place, researchers in the fields of nutritional genomics and proteomics will soon change the paradigm by which veterinarians and nutritionists understand and apply companion animal biology.
Salmonella enterica infection at a Greyhound breeding facility that fed raw meat
During 2001, an investigation was initiated because of an outbreak of diarrheal disease and death involving young puppies at a Greyhound breeding facility that fed dogs a diet containing raw meat. Salmonella enterica was recovered from 66% of all fecal, food, and environmental samples and 93% of all fecal samples. Genetic analysis of isolates indicated that multiple strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport were circulating at the premises, but that many of the isolates likely had a common source. Findings link Salmonella enterica infection and clinical salmonellosis to the feeding of a raw meat diet.
Risk factors associated with lingual lesions in dogs
Little is known regarding the frequency of tongue lesions of dogs and host factors associated with their occurrence. A review of 1,196 tongue biopsy specimens indicated that tongue lesions in dogs predominately consist of neoplasia (54%) and glossitis (33%). Most lingual neoplasms were malignant, with the most common neoplasms being melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, granular cell tumor, hemangiosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. Lingual masses in large-breed or aged dogs were more likely to be malignant than benign or inflammatory.
Predispositions and risk factors for pasture-associated laminitis in ponies
Pasture-associated laminitis in ponies has been compared with metabolic syndromes in humans, but no data have been collected to support this conclusion. Comparison of 54 ponies with and 106 ponies without a history of laminitis revealed that it was possible to develop a set of specific metabolic and physical criteria that can be used to identify ponies predisposed to laminitis. In addition, pedigree analysis suggested a genetic link to a predisposition for laminitis, with pasture and nutrition playing important roles in the development of the condition.
Surgical treatment for signs of acute abdominal pain in draft horses
Clinical signs of acute abdominal pain are frequently detected in horses. Several retrospective studies have evaluated short- and long-term outcomes for horses treated surgically to resolve signs of acute abdominal pain, but these studies most often reported outcomes for non-draft horse breeds, which typically weigh < 500 kg (1,100 lb). A review of medical records of 72 draft horses that underwent surgery because of signs of acute abdominal pain revealed that compared with light draft horses, heavy draft horses (≥ 680 kg [≥ 1,500 lb]) had a longer duration of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and lower survival rate.
Palmar carpal osteochondral fragments in racehorses
Carpal osteochondral fragments are a common cause of lameness in racehorses; however, little information is available about fragments in the palmar aspect of the carpal joint. Findings for 31 racehorses with palmar carpal osteochondral fragments suggested that these fragments can be used as an indicator of the severity of pathologic changes in the joint and as a prognostic indicator. Horses with multiple small fragments were less likely to successfully return to racing than horses with only dorsally located fragments; therefore, removal of palmar carpal fragments should be considered.
Effects of BVDV vaccines in heifers challenged with type 2 BVDV during gestation
Increasingly, bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccines are being used to prevent fetal BVDV infection and birth of persistently infected calves. A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of modified-live virus vaccines containing either type 1 BVDV or types 1 and 2 BVDV in protecting heifers and their offspring against infection with heterologous noncytopathic type 2 BVDV during gestation. The incidence of persistent BVDV infection in calves was lower when dams were inoculated with 1 dose of a type 1–type 2 BVDV vaccine than when dams were inoculated with 1 or 2 doses of a type 1 BVDV vaccine.
Use of an internal teat sealer to prevent new intramammary infections in dairy cattle
An ITS that functions as an inert physical barrier, preventing penetration of bacteria from the environment into the udder, has recently been introduced to the market. However, little is known about the effect, if any, use of an ITS will have on incidence of new intramammary infections during the nonlactating period in dairy cattle. Results of a controlled clinical trial involving 939 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from 16 herds suggest that for dairy cattle with an IMI late in the lactation period, intramammary administration of cloxacillin at the end of lactation followed by insertion of an ITS enhanced protection against development of new IMIs, compared with use of cloxacillin alone.